I'm writing a graphic novel with a segment in 1930's and 40's Japan. I've looked around but haven't been able to find any specific answers.
How would teenage schoolgirls have dressed at that time?
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As always, the uniform would differ from one school to another school. But in the Showa period (1920s-1985) school uniforms is highly characterized by a strong influence from the military - especially the navy.
Japan had been in rigorous military transformation since the start of Meiji period (1868), and it is reflected in the education system it produced - on creating youth with a strong character.
While for the girls, the standard uniform is the nowadays popular sailor fuku (seifuku). It's a tad different from the contemporary imagery of seifuku though. It still has a clear navy influence.
It should be noted that from the 1920s to 1930s the girls school uniform is undergoing a transition from traditional Japanese clothing to a more European style. Some schools might still sport hakamas for girls in the 1930s.
You could see the transition here: http://archives.cf.ocha.ac.jp/en/exhibition/da/da0024-5.html And if interested, you may read a section from this book to read the social context: http://books.google.co.id/books?id=Nx-xX57pCicC&lpg=PA95&hl=id&pg=PA90#v=onepage&q&f=false