In Charles Stross' (urban fantasy-ish) novel "The Atrocity Archives", it is claimed that the Iraqi Intelligence Service Mukhabrat was modelled on the Nazi-German Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA).

The Wikipedia article about the Mukhabarat does not go into it's history that deeply. The german wiki article states that the first Iraqi Intelligence service was modelled on British examples, and was later reformed with the help of the KGB - both facts would make the claim that the RSHA was a signifcant model for the Mukhabarat dubious. Lacking an article going into the history of the Mukhabarat, I can't know.

  • You might ask at www.antipope.org (Mr. Stross' site).
    – MCW
    Aug 29, 2016 at 14:12
  • Keep in mind that Stross does play with historical figures, but he has no claim at historical accuracy.
    – o.m.
    Jan 28, 2017 at 11:54

1 Answer 1


I don't know about the Iraqi Mukhabarat, but the Egyptian one certainly was reorganized in the early 1950s with the help of former Nazi advisers. Notorious war criminals such as Otto Skorzeny and Alois Brunner were prominent in this effort. Others whose participation is not conclusively proven were Leopold Gleim and Oskar Dirlewanger.

Rather perversely, these men were acting as sort of freelancers but they were selected and recommended by the West-German military intelligence service under Gehlen with the connivance of the CIA. Yes, back then the CIA was Nasser's best friend.

Source: Owen L. Sirrs, The Egyptian Intelligence Service: A History of the Mukhabarat, 1910-2009, see Google Books.

P.S. Dirlewanger's case is rather odd. He was officially proclaimed to have died in Allied custody in 1945 but there were many reports that he actually escaped. The wiki article on him has this to say:

[T]he department of public prosecution in Ravensburg arranged the exhumation of Dirlewanger's corpse to confirm his identity in November 1960. The place of his burial was confirmed, although it was liquidated later.

  • Doesnt answer the question but still interesting, relevant and new to me.
    – mart
    Jan 28, 2017 at 19:41

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