Questions tagged [15th-century]

The 15th century began on January 1, 1401, and ended on December 31, 1500.

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251 views

How effective are rope helmets as protection?

I accidentally found this in some 15th century painting in "The Arrest of Christ" in the "Karlsruher Passion" from Master of the Karlsruhe Passion (Hans Hirtz?) "The Disrobing of Christ" and after ...
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383 views

Why did the negotiations between Henry V of England and France fail?

Before Henry V of England resumed the Hundred Years War against France, he and the French government acting for Charles VI who was mentally ill were negotiating for a peace treaty where Henry V would ...
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When were differing hemispheric seasons first understood?

When did people - scientists or philosophers - first realise/discover/understand that the seasons in the southern hemisphere were the opposite to those in the northern hemisphere? Additionally, when ...
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126 views

Question about the Wars of the Roses [closed]

This question concerns the history of England in the 15th century. In Political Ideals (1917), Bertrand Russell wrote The stage we have reached in the affairs of Europe corresponds to the stage ...
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Teaching of Mathematics in Italy and in Germany in the fifteenth century

In is book Beyond numeracy, John Allen Paulos tells this story: “A German merchant of the fifteenth century asked an eminent professor where he should send his son for a good business education. ...
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What was the Hundred Years' War called at the time?

Similar to this question — What was the Seven Years War called at first? — but for yet a different war. According to Wikipedia, the Hundred Years' War is divided by historians into three smaller "...
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Does any copy exist of the Papal bull which authorized the Spanish Inquisition?

I have been trying, without success, to find an exemplification or any lesser copy of the Papal bull (issued by Pope Sixtus IV on November 1, 1478) known as Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus (...
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Why was the standoff on the Ugra river the end of the Tatar-Mongol yoke in Russia?

This is a very layman question, since my only source of knowledge is Wikipedia. I'm sure there are works that cover this subject in more details, please mentioned them in your answer. Wikipedia says: ...
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Where is or was the place called Apapis?

I've been trying to find out more about the origins of my rare surname Apap (from Gozo in Malta) and have been reading about its origin through military men with the surname De Apapis. The first ...
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Before it was “the Balkans”

I'm working on a project set in the 15th century as the Ottoman Turks made forays into the West. I'm looking for an appropriate term for the region bordered by Anatolia, Romania and Bulgaria to the ...
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How long did the battle of Bosworth last?

How long the battle of Bosworth actually last?
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Was Johannes Gutenberg left-handed?

This may sound an absurd question, but I have a reason for asking. Leonardo Da Vinci wrote and drew with his left hand, and hence was adept at writing in reverse. Movable type is set backwards, and ...
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Were there ever any libraries in medieval villages?

I know that in towns and cities there might be libraries built, but is it possible or likely that peasants can have access to it as well? I've heard that every village has an least a monastery or ...
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Did the fortunes in the Hundred Years' War depend largely on the weather?

In the Hundred Years' War, the French had more numerous and heavily armed troops, while the English had fewer, more lightly armed (with longbows and less armor) troops that had the advantage of being ...
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Pre-columbus, what tools did Native Americans use to shave their heads and faces?

I have read that before Columbus, the Native Americans only had stone axes to cut down trees. The Europeans traded them metal axes in exchange for beaver furs. The metal axes cut down trees much ...
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Why did Columbus cross the mid-Atlantic instead of exploring from Greenland?

Greenland was known to Europe since long before 1492. In fact, Lief Erikson reached modern Canadian lands around the year 1000, coming from Greenland. That journey was forgotten, but he chose a ...
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Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents favor the Old World?

Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents (Americas and Europe) favor the Old World (Europe)? Is there any irony in this? I ...
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History about Triplex Plate Armour?

An example of triplex plate armour was discovered and dated to the War of the Roses at the Royal Armoury of Leeds. They even had a reproduction made by A Plaisance Armouries for a crossbow and musket ...
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How much of a symbiotic relationship was there between the Renaissance and the Printing Press?

Both the Renaissance and the Printing Press are dated to be around the 14th century. While the first Printing Press was in 1436 (Johannes Gutenberg), the Renaissance is also supposed to start around a ...
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What's the story behind the making of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible?

The Complutensian Polyglot Bible was the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible and was, from what I can gather, a pretty complex scholarly effort in which many different scholars had to come ...
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Are there any sources which talk about the experience of attending a 15th/16th century fencing school?

I'm interested to know of any material which describes the experience of being a student at a medieval period fencing school e.g. once which may have been run by a Master teaching in the Lichtenauer ...
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Did the Muslims of Granada expect their Christian conquerors to keep their promised terms?

The Treaty of Granada which surrendered Granada, the last Muslim-controlled area in medieval Spain, to King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile seemed to be quite generous, magnanimous ...
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Was The Prince by Machiavelli intended as satire?

Researching Machiavelli's other works, I found online that there is a disagreement on whether The Prince was actually meant to be read as political satire. http://www2.idehist.uu.se/distans/ilmh/...
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What exactly happened with beer and Leeuwarden in 1487?

On the history page for the day July 24th at Wikipedia, one of the events listed as happening that day is: 1487 – Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against a ban on foreign beer. This ...
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What was the reason behind the Reinheitsgebot (beer purity law)? [closed]

Was it some health concern, a matter of tradition being enforced via law? It doesn't make a lot of sense in today's world, but I imagine in context there had to be a reason.
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Why did the Ming Dynasty Treasure Fleet Voyages end?

Have we come to know more reasons, on why the Treasure Fleet Voyages of the Ming Dynasty ceased, other than eunuch-to-civil power shift? Wikipedia says However, in 1433, the voyages ceased and ...
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What was the prevalence of ethnic minorities in 15th century Bohemia?

What was the prevalence of what we in contemporary western culture would consider "ethnic minorities" (Africans, East Asians, South Asians, Latinos, etc) in the population of early 15th century ...
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276 views

After the fall of Constantinople was there a re-evaluation of the basis of Russia's religion?

According to the Primary Chronicle, Vladimir the Great rejected Judaism in 987 with the rationale that they lost Jerusalem. When Constantinople was conquered in 1453 by the Ottomans, was there any ...
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559 views

Why did Sir William Stanley support Perkin Warbeck?

It seems odd that the Brother of Lord Thomas Stanley would swap sides so soon after the beginning of Henry VII's reign. I want to ascertain the political, social or economic motivations that could ...
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1answer
661 views

Could Margaret Beaufort have been responsible for killing of the Princes in the Tower? [closed]

According to Philippa Gregory, Margaret Beaufort had the best motive, because with their deaths her son Henry became 2 steps closer to the throne, and also she hated Elizabeth Woodville.
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Which bank was the oldest surviving bank in the world prior to MPS getting that status?

Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena S.p.A. [...] (MPS) is the oldest surviving bank in the world [...] Wikipedia: 1 (and 2, 3) Assuming that this is correct, and using the same criteria, which was the ...
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What was El Greco's relationship with the Spanish Inquisition?

2007's biopic El Greco claims the painter was put on trial by the Spanish Inquisition, more specifically Grand Inquisitor Fernando Niño de Guevara, for blasphemy. The film is a heavily fictionalized ...
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Was Christopher Colombus Polish?

A Polish friend of mine stated that Colombus was of Polish heritage. Claims are made that he was a Polish immigrant to Italy, and that he came from a disgraced noble family in Poland. http://www....
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Why, during the Spanish reconquista, did King Ferdinand not take over Portugal?

After unifying Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon through marriage, Ferdinand I proceeded to conquer the Emirate of Granada and almost unify the Iberian Peninsula, but left Portugal alone. Is there ...
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379 views

Organisation of mercenaries

In the War of the roses how were mercenary units organised and administrated? Were they paid per lance, archer, knight etc? Would there be a King's representative who would go the mercenary ...
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1answer
400 views

Were women banned from entering the castle of Trakai?

According to legend, Vytautas the Great banned women from entering the Trakai Island Castle under penalty of death. I read it in Russian, it is called "The Horse of knyaz Vytautas". The plot is ...
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Who gave Charles the Bold his nickname and why?

I am talking about the Duke of Burgundy here. Wikipedia has a tantalizing footnote (n. 1): Charles le Téméraire is more accurately translated in English as "the Rash", but the English speaking ...
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When was the Western Facade on the Sant Andrea Basilica by Alberti constructed?

I've found conflicting answers on other website and was wondering if anyone knows.
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175 views

Could Columbus have suspected the New World lay on his path to India? [closed]

According to most historical textbooks Columbus made mistakes while measuring the size of the Earth. This led him to believe, that he can travel to India westwards in a reasonable time. This is ...
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519 views

Horace Walpole on Richard III

Thus reads Wikipedia: In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard III (1768), Walpole defended Richard III against the common belief that he murdered the Princes in the Tower. In ...
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Plate armour worn by men-at-arms fighting on foot 1380-1415

I am interested in how much plate and what exactly plate elements have been worn by men-at-arms/soldiers at the turn of the 14th century in different parts of Europe. I have established that a ...
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1answer
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Riveted mail - flat or round rings? Die cut rings mixed with riveted ones?

I'm interested in the chainmail worn in the 14th and 15th century. As far as I know, almost all chainmail found in Europe has been riveted and woven 4 in 1. But I hear that there were chainmails made ...
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Popularity of knight-robbery in the 15th century in Germany, Poland and Silesia

I've found the term Raubritter (German), which is translated to Robber-knight, and I was wondering - was it a popular thing in the 15th century? Were there many such knights? If they were tolerated by ...
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Proportion of footmen and soldiers to knights in battles

Im looking for some scientific articles/expert opinions on the typical proportion of footmen and soldiers to knights in small and big scale battles in the 14th and 15th century. A summary for pretty ...
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Linen doublets around 1380-1410, middle and eastern Europe

Most people agree that doublets and hose were made with wool on the outside and linen on the inside. Are there any evidence that confirm such belief? Any guild documents, findings, etc? Do we have ...
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Researching a Spanish document from the ~XV century

One of my family relatives who lives in Seville, Spain (my family is from Andalusian descent) has sent me pictures of a book she owns and has received from her mother. My family claims that the book ...
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Why is King Henry V regarded as such a great King?

In History magazine it says: King Henry V is well-known as a great man - charming, wooing, gracious, triumphant and an English hero. However, in a battle he ordered every male over 12 years old to ...
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712 views

Who first combined the lateen and square sails that led to the carrack?

In the middle ages the square sail was used in the Atlantic cogs, whereas in the Mediterranean the lateen sail was used due to its more flexible use. The combination of both sails into one ship ...
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What were the demographics and economics of South-East Asian islands around year 1400?

Background: Prior to the arrival of the Europeans on the scene, the island chains in South-East Asia, specifically in the area of today's Indonesia, Philippines and neighbouring states, housed a ...
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Why did China shut itself out of the world in the 15th century?

After a period of maritime explorations (see Zheng He) in the early 15th century, the Ming Dynasty started shutting the Middle Kingdom out of the rest of the world. This of course continued with the ...