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Questions tagged [17th-century]

The 17th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1601 to December 31, 1700 in the Gregorian calendar.

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What do we know about Hennig Brand's family?

What do we know about Hennig Brand's family? He is credited with the discovery of Phosphorus of course, but it appears he was married twice during his life. Did he have any children, and if so do we ...
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What were John Milton's daily reading habits?

In a college course on John Milton, I believe I remember the professor saying that Milton had an extremely rigorous daily reading schedule, something like one hour of Greek and two hours of Hebrew ...
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Is the historical consensus that Galileo did not drop balls from the Leaning Tower of Pisa?

A narrative commonly taught in schools and propagated in books is that Galileo Galilei "dropped two spheres of different masses from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent ...
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Do we have any authentic Native American flute music from the 18th century or earlier?

Just wondering if any actual music from Native Americans was recorded (written record, transcribed to some kind of sheet music) by Europeans, in the 18th century or earlier. I'm especially interested ...
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What is the earliest mention of use of spyglass by seafarers?

I am somewhat familiar with history of telescope in the scientific context however didn't find much info about history of its use for practical purposes beyond general statements. I'm more interested ...
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Why didn't line infantry tactics try to keep up a constant volley of fire?

Often in movies on the American revolution and back when muskets were common place the opposing armies would line up facing each other and take turns firing. One side, then the other. Kind of like a ...
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Did Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Finance Minister of Louis XIV, sanction mass executions for reasons of economic policies?

In his book, The Mystery of Capitalism, author De Soto claims that Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Finance Minister under Louis XIV, had people executed for economic reasons. Colbert is still a widely admired ...
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Who is the first person in the 17th century to describe themselves as a “white” person and who invented the term “white race”?

According to the Wikipedia article entitled White people The concept of a unified white race did not achieve universal acceptance in Europe when it first came into use in the 17th century, or ...
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Late 17th century colonial Anglican pastor

I am preparing to play an Anglican pastor/priest at a live-action role-playing game. The (pretend) location: an English colonial outpost in the Caribbean. The (pretend) time period: circa 1695. And ...
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What 17C protocol left a princess standing whilst commoners sat?

I am reading WILLIAM AND MARY by John Van Der Kiste 2008, 2011, in which he relates William III's reluctant plans to remarry after Mary II's death. This was to ensure the Protestant succession after ...
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How did life for commoners in Okinawa change with the Satsuma invasion?

In 1609, the kingdom of Ryukyu which covers what is today known as Okinawa, was invaded by the Japanse Satsuma clan. How did this affect the everyday life of commoners (Everybody not noble or a ...
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Were there ever instances of sailors pressed into British service in Europe ending up in the Caribbean?

I am working on a story in which I wanted to include a character who was pressed into the British Navy in 1790's England, and ended up on a ship headed to the Caribbean. This is a pretty integral ...
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What are these “Papal States” in Germany after 1648?

I don't usually watch this person's videos, but I couldn't find another one. What do the "Papal States" in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia represent? I especially want to know what affected the ...
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What was the heaviest example of horse armor (barding) from 16th and 17th centuries?

I would like to ask what the heaviest known example of armor for war horses is. Specifically, I'm asking about horse-armor in the 16th and 17th centuries (European, primarily, but I will accept other ...
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How far were early grenades thrown in the 17th century?

Early grenades weighed about three pounds, apparently, and were generally thrown by tall, strong men. I haven't been able to find a figure on how far they were normally thrown, at what range they were ...
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Was the Dutch State independent when the Dutch East India Company was founded?

How were The Dutch able to build a successful trading empire by 1602 (with The Dutch East India Company) if the Dutch State gained independence after the Thirty Year's War in 1648? The war ends in ...
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How do I interpret this 17th century English ledger?

I'm an auditor. A colleague and I were discussing some 17th century English ledgers (pictured below). These come from the English Levant Company. However, we aren't sure how to interpret them. How ...
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What did Catesby and crew expect to do after the explosion?

In Britain, we are taught in school about the Gunpowder Plot, the events that led to it and to Fawkes's capture on November 5th 1605 under the Houses of Parliament and the gradual round-up of the co-...
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How did Tenures Abolition Act of 1660 change feudalism in England?

The Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, according to Wikipedia, "changed the nature of feudal land tenure in England". It: .. replaced various types of military and religious service tenants owed to the ...
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What did the top minds of the late 17th century have to say about Salem witch trials?

I think of Newton, Hooke, Leibniz, Wren, Locke -- assuming they knew hard to believe they would not have thought it crazy but I have read nothing about Newton, et al saying anything.
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When Janszoon's expedition landed in Australia in 1606, which one-person weapons (if any) were carried?

Basically what the title says. Wikipedia mentions early 17th century exploration of New Holland beginning in the first few years of the 1600s, but insofar as I can tell doesn't really go into what was ...
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17th century Japanese colonies in Southeast Asia?

After a period of exposure to European interests, Japan secluded itself in the 1630s. George Lensen wrote in "The Russian Push Towards Japan": On the eve of her seclusion, Japan had begun to expand ...
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What was the price of going from England to New England as a passenger in the 1600s?

Lots of places mention that traveling to New England was so expensive that many people became indentured servants to get across, but I couldn't find a place that actually says how expensive it was.
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Did Free Masons hold Enlightenment ideals?

I was doing research on early US presidents and read that men like George Washington probably were attracted to the Masonic Lodge due to the Lodge aligning well with popular Enlightenment ideas around ...
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How did the Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth become official?

I believe that they were good allies but were they also at some point became one nation. But it seemed like an unusually long "courtship" that lasted decades, or even centuries. That's why am kinda ...
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How many people were needed to build a country house?

After visiting the Wimpole Estate in England, I'm wondering how many people would have been needed to make such a project viable. The country house on the site today started construction in 1640, ...
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Can anyone identify this painting of a Cossack? [closed]

Can anyone identify the name and artist of this painting?
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Was there any restriction on private citizens owning cannons and other large weaponry in 17th, 18th and 19th century Europe? [closed]

Were there laws limiting what kind of guns a private citizen in Europe could own? Could John Doe go to a shop and commission a cannon to be made for his own personal use?
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Around 1640s, at what time did people eat Christmas dinner?

To my knowledge, in the past, people used to go to bed earlier; usually at sunset. My question is, around 1640s, when candles were used to light the interiors of buildings, at what time of day did ...
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Is there any resource to learn interiors of a house for particular classes in 17th Century in Bohemia?

I would like to learn details of the living places for particular classes and professions in Bohemia in 17th Century. (For example a burgher, or carpenter guild master etc.) I try some novels written ...
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Did 17th Cent. French Gentlemen Necessarily Use a Scabbard for Dress Swords?

I'm costuming a show that takes place in the 17th century, Paris, "Cavalier" period, as far as costumes go. I can't seem to find a conclusive answer regarding whether the gentlemen need to have a ...
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Why did Charles I not borrow abroad?

The reign of Charles I of England can be summarized to a large degree as a continued attempt to raise revenue without authorization from Parliament. As is well known, Charles and his advisers had to ...
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What is the flag in this 17th century painting?

I'm doing research on a painting 'Koppertjesmaandag' by Adriaen van Nieulandt in 1633. In the right corner of the painting you can see a couple of ships with their flags. One in particular is a gold ...
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Religion in European international politics after the Peace of Westphalia?

Thirty Years' War started out as a war of religion, and then almost all European entities got involved in it. It was concluded by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which led to a great deal of changes ...
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Why were cobblers so radical?

Peter Ackroyd writes on page 88 of his account of the English Civil War: Cobblers were well known for their radical Protestant sympathies. What was so special about cobblers?
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What was a “searcher” associated with a funeral in 1690?

Life In A Noble Household 1641-1700 by Gladys Scott-Thomson, 1937, analyses the household accounts of William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford. On page 236 is listed an entry from December 1690 where the ...
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Did the legal principle of conflict of interest exist in the 17th century?

17th century Europe saw many trials related to Catholic-Protestant disagreements. Was the legal principle of conflict of interest operative at the time, so that for example the same person could not ...
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When did the Hudson Bay get its current name in French?

In French, the Hudson Bay is called "La baie d'Hudson". Apparently it was originally called "mer du Nord" (North Sea) in the 1600's, the according to its french wiki page. Now obviously, Henry Hudson ...
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How were city government and law enforcement authorities organized in Northern Italy in the 17th century?

How was it all actually working there, in the dark 16xx-s? Who was the major of a town, what was his duties and capabilities? How were laws issued? How was organized the analog of police: a city ...
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At the Battle of Augusta, how did the French learn that de Ruyter was mortally wounded?

According to Wikipedia, in the Battle of Augusta (1676) The battle was a short but intense affair and ended abruptly when Duquesne, after hearing that De Ruyter had been mortally wounded, ...
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What other courts were similar to Louis XIV of France's court in Versailles?

After reading about feudalism in the Middle Ages it became apparent that lords lived on their lands far away from the king and provided military services themselves in exchange for said lands. However,...
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Book about Glorious Revolution

I am currently reading Acemoglu, Daron & Robinson, James: Why Nations Fail, which made me want to read more about the Glorious Revolution of 1688. I am particularly interested in an economic ...
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How was Virginia transformed from a society with slaves, to a slave society? [closed]

Not sure what the main answer to this question. I know Bacon's rebellion changed the lives of many poor whites with no land. Also, there were the slave laws which I need to do more research on.
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How many wives did John Thurloe have – or did he have a mistress?

John Thurloe - Cromwell's Spy Chief Most sources say two, but I suspect these all derive from the introduction Birch edition of the State Papers being “a lady of the Peyton family”- first name unknown ...
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Why was William III of England referred to as the British-Batavian Nassau?

While reading through the book Medallic illustrations of the history of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II vol. I, I came across this interesting description. My question is why ...
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How extensive was the slighting of castles in the English Civil War?

Wikipedia states During the English Civil War many castles and fortified houses were slighted by the Parliamentarians to stop them being used by the Royalists. Most of the destruction was in ...
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Why was the Old Wardour Castle not demolished after the English Civil War?

After the English Civil War, some strongholds such as Corfe Castle were slighted, that is demolished, by order of Parliament. Another Royalist castle, the (Old) Wardour Castle appears to not have ...
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When were public tariffs and taxes for water supply introduced for the first time?

Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use.It was in the 18th century that a rapidly growing ...
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What is the usage of a small wash-house in Versailles during Louis XIV times?

I was searching for the usage of a small construction on the edge of the Versailles Castle gardens (the stone thing on the left on the picture below, one of the gates (Saint-Antoine) is on the right): ...
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What was the purpose of tunnel fighting in a 17th century siege?

Since I watched the movie Alatriste, and wondered what was the usage of tunnel fighting in the 17th century, as can be seen in the Hulst siege scene. I am aware that in medieval times, tunnels (or ...