Questions tagged [18th-century]

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

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What is the difference between a Russian serf and an American slave? [duplicate]

What were the legal and practical differences between say a Russian or Hungarian serf in the 18th century and an American Slave at the same time?
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Why are the signatures on the United States Declaration of Independence structured as they are?

When looking at the United States Declaration of Independence its easy to notice that John Hancock's signature is more prominent than the others: From my readings I know John Hancock did sign one of ...
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Why did some people need to pay a bond in the 1700s in order to get married?

This is more a genealogy question than a historical event but I couldnt think of anywhere else to ask it. (I hope it not off topic) In 1787 my Great (x6) Grandfather paid a bond of £200 the ...
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Why did archery not make a comeback when armor was phased out in the 18th century?

Even if we account for the argument that it is much more tedious to train a man to use a bow than a musket, why then did the arbalest not make a comeback? Its effective range - reportedly at 300m, is ...
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At the end of the Seven Years War, what was the total amount of gold and silver in Britain?

The Seven Years War ended in 1763. At that time, how much gold and silver existed inside Britain? This would include the British Treasury as well as any personal gold/silver of the nobility and ...
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Why was slavery profitable in the Southern colonies and not New England?

Why didn't Colonists in New England import massive numbers of Slaves?
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Earning a living from teaching chess in 18-19th century England

Would it be possible for a common class person to teach chess or sciences to nobles during the Industrial Revolution? I think higher classes would be disgusted by the idea of a commoner teaching them, ...
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How stable was the Middle East under Ottoman rule?

Since the outbreak of WWI, the Middle East has been a strategic area; many powers have vied for control. How stable was the region under Ottoman rule? Stable is, for the purposes of this question, ...
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Was Fredrick the Great considered a strong military leader or was it all because of the superior officers that came out of Prussia at the time?

Was all the military success due to Fredrick II's strategic ability or was it due to his commanders During his reign 1740-1786
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Other than coffee and tobacco what major product became Cuba's source of wealth in the 18th century?

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the production of this commodity? What, if any, affect did the Great Depression have on the industry?
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How did France balance the budget by 1738?

I recently read (Citizens by Simon Schama) that France had a per capita debt of two-thirds of the annual income of a carpenter or tailor in 1714. By 1738 France had managed to balance the budget (more-...
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What was the Seven Years War called at first?

When the Seven Years War broke out, obviously they had no idea how long it would last. What did Europeans call this war at first? I know that in the North American Theater, it was called the French ...
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What were the largest European Treasuries, in gold and silver, at the end of the Seven Years War?

From a related question, I'm now looking to compare the size of European Treasuries as they existed at the end of the Seven Years War (1763). I'm only interested in gold and silver that existed in ...
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What motivated revolutionary France to declare war on Britain in 1793?

France declared war on Britain in 1793 (War of First Coalition). What was its motivation for declaring war? It was already at war with many European powers at the moment, and it was not likely in a ...
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What was the price of a horse around 1750?

I'm looking for the average price of a horse, in British Pounds, around the year 1750. I'm interested in draft horses (they pull carts), not riding horses, but the difference in price between those ...
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What impact did the Seven Years War have on the American Revolution?

What impact did the Seven Years War have on the American Revolution?
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Where did the French National Constituent Assembly meet on August 4, 1789?

Where did the National Constituent Assembly decide to abolish feudalism? I read that the National Constituent Assembly did not meet in a specific place. Therefore I want to know where they met in ...
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Earliest Born Photographed Person

I recently came across an image of the well known daguerrotype of President Andrew Jackson taken in 1845. It lead me to wonder what is the earliest born photographed person. Andrew Jackson was born in ...
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Why did the United States under the Articles of Confederation have a hard time getting funding?

I see it written in many sources (examples: 1 and 2) that the central government under the Articles of Confederation could only "request" funds from the states. But the text of the Articles seems ...
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Was 18th century Prussia really so militarily obsessed?

I'm reading A Military History of Germany by Martin Kitchen, and I was surprised at the description of 18th century Prussia. The country is described as a North-Korea like military obsessed nation, ...
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Why did Peter the Great crown Catherine I as empress?

Watching a Russian tv-series about the life of Peter the Great, I didn't quite follow why Peter crowned Catherine I as empress. I looked the Wikipedia article but they don't mention any reason.
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Why was the Cornish Militia stationed in Devon in late 18th Century?

On Genealogy & Family History SE, I asked a question about Finding late 18th Century service record of Francis Green in Cornish Militia?, and it looks like it will need a degree of luck to find ...
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Contracted Trade in the 18th century

I'm trying to get an understanding of how trade worked in the 18th century. I'm trying to learn how trade was conducted so I can make a realistic game. I'm struggling to find a good source for the ...
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How was Virginia transformed from a society with slaves, to a slave society? [closed]

Not sure what the main answer to this question. I know Bacon's rebellion changed the lives of many poor whites with no land. Also, there were the slave laws which I need to do more research on.
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What were the borders of Egypt from 1798 to 1803?

It's very hard for me to find the borders for French Egypt during the time of Napoleon 1798-1803. Specially the southern borders of Egypt where did they go?
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Did George Washington ride sidesaddle?

A friend of a friend has just written that Washington, Lafayette and Jefferson all rode side saddle to ease the pain of their war injuries. Before I proceed to dismantle this person with extreme ...
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What can be said about conditions of slaves owned by George Washington?

I remember hearing a PBS documentary make a claim that the babies of slaves on George Washington's Mount Vernon went naked in winter. I have been trying to verify, or even get a good citation, for ...
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After America achieved independence, did George Washington continue to wear a military uniform?

After the American Revolution, the founding fathers seem to have adapted their 'costumes' from similar European ones. Like the Europeans, their uniforms often had orders, medallions and 'golden-like'-...
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During/After the Napoleonic occupation of the Germanic Rhinelands, what happened to the currency in the area?

Did Napoleon bring the French Francs over, or did the (many) local currencies remain in use? I understood that the area's tolls on the river were unified, but have a hard time imagining how exactly ...
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Ports Used by French Navy in 1792 and Strength of Fleet

I am currently writing series of young adult novels about the European Conflicts beginning in 1792. Where were the major and minor French Navy ports and yards, and what was the relative strength of ...
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Why did Peter the Great tie particular expenditures to particular revenue sources?

Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy in 1724. In his decree, he says the Academy will be supported by an annual grant of 25,000 rubles drawn from the custom tolls of Baltic Sea ports. (source) ...
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In the late 18th century, would any of the southwestern area of Germany used Franks instead of their own currency?

While looking up family history I found an old German marriage document which specified a dowry of "1000 Franks." With that, the families in question were from the Suggental/Waldkirch area in what is ...
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Curious office hours of Topographical Bureau where Napoleon served in 1795?

In his new biography Napoleon the Great Andrew Roberts reports about Napoleon's stint in the Historical and Topographical Bureau of the war ministry in Paris between mid-August and early October 1795. ...
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Why did Stephen Ambrose believe that the election of Aaron Burr would have led to the end of the USA?

I'm reading Stephen E. Ambrose's "Undaunted Courage", and in pg. 50, he writes (emphasis mine): On December 5, 1800, Lewis was promoted to captain. That month the states selected their delegates to ...
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Did the increase of slavery in the US bring an end to indentured servitude?

In the development of the New World, indentured servitude was quite common for passage across the Atlantic. Did the increase in slavery in America, especially in Virginia and other similar ...
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How did the central government of the United States finance itself under the Articles of Confederation?

The Congress of the Confederation couldn't levy taxes. State governments were the ones with the power to control commerce with other states and nations even. It also has the power to levy tax. If ...
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Need help interpreting “silver” hallmark - 1706?

I'm looking for some assistance in interpreting the silver hallmark in the image below. EPNS tells us it's not real silver, could 1706 really be the true date with that in mind? What does the shell-...
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How were small swords worn in the 18th century?

Quick summary: How was the small sword (or dress sword) fastened to the body? What are the different ways of wearing it? Looking at many drawings from this period, a good bunch of them depicts men ...
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When were public tariffs and taxes for water supply introduced for the first time?

Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use.It was in the 18th century that a rapidly growing ...
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Napoleon's exploits in 1785

Napoleon Bonaparte being commissioned Second Lieutenant at the age 17 in French Artillery, returned to Corsica. Given his French Allegiance, why did he join the resistance movement while still ...
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1answer
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Gregório Amúrrio: dates of birth and death

Gregório Amúrrio was a Franciscan missionary in California during the late 1700s. He was one of the five original missionaries to Alta California, and the co-founder of Mission San Juan Capistrano. ...
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In the British empire, what was the difference between a Governor General and a Viceroy?

In the many colonies of the British empire, it seems that the rulers of some were known as Governors General and others were officially titled as Viceroys. Was there a practical distinction between ...
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Anti-Semitism and Edmund Burke

Are there any historical references to Edmund Burkes' views on anti-Semitism? His works specifically deal with the British governance, and legal systems' that could guide the UK through the turbulent ...
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What happened to the French royal navy during the french-revolution?

Similar to my other question about her colonies I am interested in knowing what happened to the french royal navy of the period. Some ships must have been at sea and only learned the news as they ...
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During 1790-1800, was it legal to pay workers using whiskey?

As is well known, in frontier regions whiskey was regarded as an indispensable necessity to life, health and happiness, at the point that it usually had to substute for specie as a medium of exchange: ...
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Why is the Stamp Act of 1765 known as a “direct tax?”

I'm not exactly sure where to put this question... I am trying to figure out the difference between "direct" and "indirect" taxes in the context of some historical taxes I'm learning about in an ...
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How did Napoleon evade the British fleet and return to France?

After the defeat of the French fleet off the coast of Egypt in 1798, Napoleon's army was cut off in a far away and hostile country. One year later, after eluding the British fleet, he made it safely ...
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Dimensions and parts of Fort Douglas, Winnipeg Canada

I am having troubles estimating the dimensions of Fort Douglas that WAS in Winnipeg Canada. Fort Douglas (from what I understand, correct me if I'm wrong) was the stage of the battle of Seven Oaks. I ...
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How were Warrant Officers appointed to Royal Navy ships during the Age of Sail?

As I understand it, Warrant Officers got their name from the warrant issued by the Admiralty (depending on the applicant having the correct qualifications). From the descriptions I've read, these ...
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Amount of ammunition typically carried by an C18th British redcoat

How many rounds of musket ammunition did the typical British redcoat carry during the C18th & Napoleonic wars?