Questions tagged [20th-century]

For questions spanning a significant proportion of the 20th century. Questions focused on the latter decades should consider using the contemporary-history tag. Individual tags exist for specific decades.

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2
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1answer
175 views

Were any works completely lost during the Nazi book burnings?

When the Nazis rose to power, they began a campaign of burning books deemed incompatible with the Nazi ideology. During these book burnings, were there any works that were completely lost? By "...
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1answer
194 views

What does “MET HLS INDIA” inscribed on a bottom of brass sugar bowl mean?

I've recently inherited two old Indian brass items, bought in 1970s (or earlier) in Poland, and I'm trying to work out where they come from. I've easily identified the origin of the ice bucket, since ...
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166 views

What uniform is my great great Cossack grandfather wearing?

The man bellow with the medals and the beard is my great great grandfather. He was a cossack in the Urals, I have been looking for ages but I can not find what Cossack uniform he is wearing. I really ...
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128 views

Where did the SOE agents sit in the 161 squadron Short Stirlings?

If this question is better suited for a more aviation-oriented forum, please let me know. During World War II SOE agents were dropped into occupied Europe by No. 161 squadron of the RAF. This ...
38
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1answer
11k views

Why does this London Underground poster from 1924 have a Star of David atop a Christmas tree?

There is currently an exhibit at the Art Institute of Chicago displaying posters promoting London Underground transit from the 1920's and 30's. This interesting piece comes from 1924. A full ...
10
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1answer
230 views

When in September 1939 did the British diplomatic mission leave Warsaw?

On September first 1939, at 4:45 in the morning, the Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on Danzig/Gdansk. September twenty-second is when German troops completed their encirclement of Warsaw. Somewhere in ...
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1answer
149 views

What, if any, futurists that went to war actually denied the movement later?

When I studied art in high school my teacher mentioned that most futurists that went to war later denied the movement. I couldn't find anything relating to this in the interwebs, other than the fact ...
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85 views

What does this signature say?

I’m having difficulty of reading what this fancy signature or fancy writing says on my great grandfather’s ring?
5
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1answer
114 views

What was the reason the Maronites lobbied for a state of Greater Lebanon?

I'm currently reading A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (1988) by Kamal Salibi. In the first chapter he argues that it was initially the Christian minorities of historic ...
5
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1answer
408 views

Were Communists drafted for the Vietnam war?

Given that it wasn't illegal to be a member of a Communist party in the US, how did the military handle draftees who might be sympathetic to North Vietnam? Were men who were members of the Communist ...
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44 views

What are some important female names who participated in the first human genome sequencing project?

Specifically, females involved in the human sequencing project, from between 1990 and early 2000s (I'm especially interested in medical doctors, but tech experts or of other branches of science are ...
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1answer
129 views

What caused the rise of international anti-semitism during the early 20th century? [closed]

In the years before 1914 violent pogroms were directed against Jews, who were made scapegoats for the problems of the Russian Empire. The flight of Jews from the east, first to escape the violent ...
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2answers
335 views

Why the M24 Chaffee was not used as a tank at Dien Bien Phu?

According to the Wikipedia page of the M-24 Chaffee, ten of these tanks were sent to the french forces in Dien Bien Phu, where they provide "fire support". Considering the French were outgunned by ...
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2answers
3k views

Why did the USA sell so many airplanes prior to WW2?

I am wondering why there are so much airplanes made in USA in the world's air forces prior to WW2, since I don't think the US Air Force had the better reputation. You can count the: Glenn Martin ...
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1answer
68 views

Reference request - Books on Israel-Palestine conflict [closed]

I am searching for a good even-handed account of the Israel-Palestine conflict. I read James Gelvin's book which was ok but I found lacking in detail when it came to the situation in more recent times....
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2answers
7k views

What publication claimed that Michael Jackson died in a nuclear holocaust?

I have a question about some paragraph in Finkelstein's Holocaust Industry. He writes that Some years back, the parody of a New York tabloid was headlined: “Michael Jackson, 60 Million Others, Die ...
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3answers
297 views

How is it possible to be ambushed twice at the same place?

How is it possible for an army to: go to some place be ambushed repel or see the attackers falling back Go to a place and fight retreat and be ambushed at the first place It is the battle of ...
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2answers
275 views

Has anti aircraft artillery ever repelled an air attack?

Anti aircraft artillery has been developed as soon as during ww1, but it seems, according to my research, that it has never been very efficient. In fact, it has never repelled an air offensive, and ...
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1answer
206 views

Did America help the Chinese nationalists to repel the communist advance?

As an answer said in this subject (What are some major military successes the Soviet Union achieved against the Western World?), it seems that the politics of USA had a great issue on the help of ...
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3answers
3k views

What happened to all the nuclear material being smuggled after the fall of the USSR?

I'm currently on my lunch break and deep in the Wikipedia hole which brought me to this article that details thwarted nuclear smuggling incidents in 1993/6. Many of the incidents involve elements that ...
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172 views

Where do the ethics of shounen anime come from?

shonen, or shounen (少年) anime (shows like Naruto, Dragon Ball, My Hero Academia, etc.) all (for the most part) realize a certain set of values, which are usually central to their plots and which the ...
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1answer
182 views

Did the RMS Carpathia have enough lifeboat capacity for its passengers?

Did the Cunard Line's RMS Carpathia (which rescued survivors of the sinking of White Star Line's RMS Titanic in 1912) have enough lifeboat capacity for its own passengers to begin with? According to ...
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1answer
155 views

Were non-firing replica firearms ever made to the same standards of fit, finish, and from the same materials as a functioning firearm?

The term replica firearm has an imprecise meaning. It covers everything from functioning firearms that look like historical weapons to toys that simply have the appearance of an historical or ...
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1answer
344 views

Is this a Masonic Ring?

I told by my Auntie that she had a Masonic ring that came from my Great Grandfather from my mum’s side of the family and I’m skeptical if this ring she sent a photo of is really a Masonic ring. I ...
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6answers
7k views

Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians?

An essay by Robert Kagan in the Washington Post, March 14, 2019, argues for rethinking the big theme of 20th-century history as a struggle between liberalism and authoritarianism, and for an ...
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2answers
225 views

Was Rachel Carson the first person to discover the environmental impact of fertilizers? If not, why was she the first one to talk about it publicly? [closed]

Rachel Carson was a marine biologist, environmentalist and a writer who alerted the world to the environmental impact of fertilizers and pesticides. When she discovered the impact of pesticides and ...
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8answers
5k views

Operation Vengeance and Individual Targeting of Enemy Commanders

Operation Vengeance (1943) was a US military operation aimed specifically to kill Japanese Admiral Yamamoto. It looks like something weird in contemporary era: are there any similar military ...
17
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1answer
3k views

About how many immigrants were on the Titanic?

All that I can find is that the majority of the 709 third class passengers were immigrants. Was it the vast majority, or nearly all of them? Would there have been any immigrants in second class? Is ...
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1answer
252 views

Why were the Yellow River dyke repairs delayed?

In 1938, in a desperate bid to slow the Japanese advance, Chinese forces breached the Yellow River dykes at Huayuankou, killing hundreds of thousands of civilians and displacing millions more. The ...
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1answer
511 views

Why was John Paul Jones pardoned in Whitehaven in 1999?

The Wikipedia page for John Paul Jones states that he was pardoned in Whitehaven in 1999 for his raid, but doesn't state why. So far, the article I have found that seems to contain the most ...
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1answer
1k views

Did 20th century militaries have their own fire-fighter units?

I tried googling this but fire-fighter is too similar to fire-fight (as in gun fight or shootout) so I keep getting the wrong results. I'm asking about fire-fighting as in containing and extinguishing ...
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2answers
1k views

Does the HMHS Britannic wreck still have a grand staircase or any staterooms?

Does the wreck of HMHS Britannic still have a grand staircase or any staterooms or were they all removed prior to being converted into a hospital ship?
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0answers
163 views

After Antarctica was discovered, did 19th or early 20th century map makers give any estimates on the % of the earth's surface covered by water?

According to the U.S. Geological Survey's article How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth?, About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered Wikipedia's Earth article also ...
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2answers
1k views

When (and where) did public polling start taking place on topics other than elections?

Image Source: The Roper Center on Cornell.edu Question When did public opinion polling on topics other than elections begin? Are there examples prior to the 1930's when Gallup and Roper began ...
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1answer
2k views

Did the founding members of the Black Panthers ever mention the role of Malcolm X in creating their group?

I'm trying to find out if the Black Panther Party (BPP) ever said (preferably in an interview of some kind) whether Malcolm X or the Nation of Islam's more active approach to civil rights helped to ...
4
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2answers
418 views

What were traffic lights like in the USSR?

I'm interested in the design of illuminated traffic lights (for automobiles) in the USSR, especially the old history. I tried to google this for what year the first illuminated traffic light was ...
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1answer
730 views

Has any music act ever topped the Beatles in sales?

The Beatles in 1965. Source: Wikipedia Elvis Presley is widely hailed as the King of Rock and Roll, but in 1966 John Lennon said the Beatles were "more popular than Jesus" in a London Evening ...
11
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1answer
877 views

How many pens were used by MacArthur to end the final chapter of World War II and where are they now?

General Douglas MacArthur counter-signs the Japanese instrument of surrender as Supreme Allied Commander aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945. Standing behind him are Generals ...
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1answer
2k views

When did the last (non-tourist) commercial stagecoach line run in the USA?

Stagecoach at Holladay Express Office, Boise City, Idaho, circa mid-1860s. Source: A Stamp a Day- National Stamp Collecting Month: The Mail Coach Background Across from my office is a small Wells ...
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1answer
335 views

How many Black Panthers were killed in 'justified homicide' that was later overturned?

A few days ago I was in a cafe where I picked up a leaflet on labour disputes which went into some detail about Fred Hampton. He was a African-American activist in the Black Panther Party (BPP), in ...
22
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1answer
410 views

What did Zhang Zuolin say after his train blew up?

Zhang Zuolin was an early 20th century Chinese warlord of Manchuria. He was fatally wounded by the Japanese Army on June 4, 1928, using a bomb laid beneath tracks where his armoured train travelled ...
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2answers
433 views

Who flew the T-38 “Missing Man” formation at the Challenger Memorial service at JSC, 31 January 1986?

President Ronald Reagan at Memorial Service for Challenger Crew. Photo courtesy of NASA On January 31, 1986 I attended the memorial service at Johnson Space Center for the STS-51-L Challenger crew. I ...
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1answer
2k views

In WWI, which countries used prisoners as soldiers?

What happened to prisoners incarcerated for domestic crimes (not war) before and during the outbreak of the Great War? Using a UK report, in 1914 the prison population dropped around 5000, but 11,000 ...
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1answer
5k views

Did the US quarter shrink in size?

I am confused by the size of a current US quarter. It is not a major problem, but it is baffling. It is smaller than a shilling, yet 5 shillings make a crown and 4 quarters make a dollar —...
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2answers
295 views

Was Freud the first to say that Judaism borrowed from Atenism?

Every source I mention seems to attribute this to Freud. Was there an earlier proponent? I realized the question as originally written was horrifically vague. I'm not looking for scholars before ...
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1answer
894 views

Did the Soviet Union hand over thousands of Jews to the Nazis in the spirit of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact?

The most recent episode of the Italian documentary TV series Ulisse - Il piacere della scoperta (Ulysses - The pleasure of discovery) covered the deportation of Jews from Italy, and at some point it ...
4
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1answer
461 views

How long did it take for mail to get to London from New York in 1919?

In an essay I am working on, I am writing letters between two sisters. One lived in New York and the other lived in London during the time of 1919. I need to figure out the amount of time it took for ...
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0answers
483 views

What is this old dual-disc metal object with a spindle? [more pictures added]

[Updated: There are now pictures of both top and side views. Scroll to bottom of post to see the side views.] While sorting through family artifacts, I found a black metal two-layer disc with a long ...
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1answer
506 views

What is the approximate date of this photo?

The photo below is of an (as yet) unidentified (English) family member and is from the London studio of Hermann Ernst. There is nothing printed on the back. The photo is part of a collection, the ...
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2answers
1k views

Why was France's birth rate low from 1800 to WWII?

Inspired by this lemma on Wikipedia as well as a few paragraphs here and there in Piketty's Capital in the 21st century I'm asking the question how the low birth rate in France between 1800 and WWII ...