Questions tagged [20th-century]

For questions spanning a significant proportion of the 20th century. Questions focused on the latter decades should consider using the contemporary-history tag. Individual tags exist for specific decades.

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5 votes
2 answers
557 views

Where can I find more information about this use of Yakuza against a demonstration in 1960?

This (German) article states that in 1960 Japan's President Nobosuke Kishi hired 28000 Yakuza as thugs against an anti-American demonstration. I find nothing indicating this in the Wikipedia article ...
29 votes
1 answer
6k views

What is the origin of the "No Symbol"?

I have been able to trace the "🚫 No symbol" (red circle with single diagonal line through it, U+20E0 ⃠ COMBINING ENCLOSING CIRCLE BACKSLASH) as far back as the "Geneva Convention ...
6 votes
2 answers
529 views

In Montgomery, Alabama, how common was it to be arrested for sitting in the incorrect section of the bus?

Rosa Parks' arrest, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, is the most famous case, while Claudette Colvin is often listed as the first. (Sometimes she is listed as first, other times as the first ...
51 votes
2 answers
13k views

Why does German money from the 1940s not bear Nazi symbols?

I have a 5-mark German banknote (I think from 1941 or 1942), looking exactly like this: I am curious why the banknote not only does not bear a portrait of Hitler, but doesn't include any German state ...
4 votes
1 answer
772 views

What did whistling bombs actually sound like?

Apparently some WWII-era bombs had whistles built into their design, so that they would whistle as they fell. Often, for example in Looney Tunes cartoons, this is depicted as a whistle that gradually ...
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

During World War II, in the U.S., were diapers available?

As is well known, during World War II many consumer goods became difficult to find and with regard to the situation in the United States, after some searches, I observed that, among others: U.S. ...
0 votes
1 answer
121 views

Are there any first-person subjective reports from individuals exposed to Agent BZ?

Agent BZ is a chemical weapon explored by the US military which induces overwhelming hallucinogenic states. While there's a fair amount of data on the history of this subjects and the rough ...
43 votes
13 answers
7k views

What were Hitler's religious beliefs?

Hitler is often cited as an example of an evil atheist (along with Stalin and Mao). But there are several quotes from him that seem to indicate he believed in the Christian God - and even used this to ...
9 votes
1 answer
381 views

What was a Purity Chapter?

In turn-of-the-last-century American newspapers, I keep finding notices of numbered "Purity Chapters" holding meetings, like this... The annual meeting for the election of officers of ...
71 votes
9 answers
18k views

Why did the USSR give Crimea to Ukraine?

In 1954 Soviets transferred Crimea from Russian Soviet Republic to Ukrainian Soviet Republic. Why is this strange? The whole act, at least officially, was meant to be "a gift", a token of friendship....
1 vote
3 answers
3k views

Did Russia and Ukraine exchange Crimea for Taganrog? [closed]

Did Ukraine give Russia the Taganrog region in exchange for Crimea?
6 votes
4 answers
3k views

Why did Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng receive different punishments for their role in the Xi'an Incident?

Having failed to persuade Chiang Kai-shek to abandon war with the communists and instead unite to fight Japan, Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng finally opted for force and captured Chiang in the Xi'an ...
2 votes
2 answers
599 views

Has anti-aircraft artillery ever repelled an air attack?

Anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) has been developed as early as during World War I. However, according to my research, it seems that it has never been very efficient. In fact, it has never repelled an ...
2 votes
3 answers
504 views

What was special in interwar Austria-Hungary?

I recently spoke with someone claiming that the tail end of the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was especially a fertile breeding ground for inventors and entrepreneurs, especially in the 1920s ...
3 votes
1 answer
281 views

Is there audio of Malcolm X's original The Ballot or the Bullet speech?

Malcolm X's famous Ballot or the Bullet speech - his first after leaving the Nation of Islam and "ranked 7th in the top 100 American speeches of the 20th century by 137 leading scholars of ...
2 votes
2 answers
328 views

Could healthy young men avoid Wehrmacht conscription before 1939?

The path for men in Nazi Germany seemed to be being part of the Hitlerjugend until the age of eighteen, then serving in the Reichsarbeitsdienst for six months, and then doing two years in the ...
0 votes
2 answers
226 views

How did the Cold War contribute to the passing of the 1964 Civil Rights Act?

I understand from Dudziak's "Cold War Civil Rights" that Soviet criticism of the US's civil rights record influenced the passing the 1964 Civil Rights Act. However, I was wondering if there ...
1 vote
1 answer
361 views

Who made this grandfather clock?

I found this grandfather clock and I was fascinated by its workings. Since this is about history, I'd like to know who made it so I can research the rest. I will upload four pictures of it. First ...
9 votes
1 answer
5k views

Who was head of Academy of Fine Arts Vienna in 1907-1908?

Do we know the names of people who would have made the decision not to admit Hitler in 1907 and 1908? Who was President of the Academy?
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Do photos of Wernher von Braun and Neil Armstrong exist? Have they ever met?

A quick google search for the term "Korolev and Gagarin" reveals many photos of the two together - surprisingly, as Korolev's identity was kept strictly secret up to his death. When searching for "...
1 vote
0 answers
134 views

Is there any evidence that the black community was anticipating election-related violence in the lead up to the Ocoee Race Massacre?

PART I: THE OCOEE MASSACRE The "Ocoee Massacre", was an incident of race-related violence directed at the black community in Ocoee, Florida on 2 November 1920. I'll briefly summarize the ...
4 votes
1 answer
306 views

Did the USSR attempt to broker peace negotiations between Japan and USA?

I ran across a remark in the German Wikipedia, in the article about the Tokyo War tribunals. They discuss the points 35 and 36 of the charges (waging war against the USSR) : Von besonderem Interesse ...
8 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why was France's birth rate low from 1800 to WWII?

Inspired by this lemma on Wikipedia as well as a few paragraphs here and there in Piketty's Capital in the 21st century I'm asking the question how the low birth rate in France between 1800 and WWII ...
20 votes
1 answer
4k views

About how many immigrants were on the Titanic?

All that I can find is that the majority of the 709 third class passengers were immigrants. Was it the vast majority, or nearly all of them? Would there have been any immigrants in second class? Is ...
33 votes
4 answers
10k views

Did people in China resort to cannibalism during the reign of Mao?

I have often heard and read this, but I wonder if credible sources can support these claims. I even heard stories of merchants selling human flesh and children under 12 sold to be eaten. I read about ...
22 votes
5 answers
27k views

Why is the capital of Turkey Ankara rather than Istanbul?

Turkey's predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire, had its capital in Istanbul. Are there any reasons for the capital's move when it became Turkey?
25 votes
4 answers
11k views

How were diplomats and their staffs treated when World War II was declared?

This could be a large and varied subject so I will restrict it to the 20th century and give two instances. In Sept 39, after Poland was invaded, the British diplomat in Berlin handed a note to the ...
4 votes
1 answer
341 views

What kind of car did Lij Samson Beyene crash?

Lij Samson, a grandson of Haile Selassie, died at 28 or 29. According to biographer Haggai Erlich: In July 1963 one of his grandsons, Lij Samson, was killed. The prince drove recklessly after a ...
0 votes
3 answers
261 views

Why are there 37 numbers on European roulette wheels?

A European roulette wheel contains the numbers 0 to 36. Who decided to put 37 numbers on a wheel, and why did they choose this number?
1 vote
1 answer
142 views

Where can I find information on a WWI soldier?

Does anyone know where to find details on WWI soldiers? I am researching a captain called Thomas Zachary Woods. Thus far I have found this website: http://doingourbit.ca/profile/thomas-woods. Where ...
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

Can anyone help me find out more information about the Daniels and Fisher Cadets?

According to Colorado Encyclopedia Online, William B. Daniels opened a dry goods store when he arrived in Denver, CO in 1864. In 1872 he partnered with William G. Fisher to make Daniels and Fisher Co. ...
7 votes
1 answer
530 views

Are there pictures expressing anti-occupation sentiment directed at British Forces in Germany before 1990?

Researching the history of the British Army of the Rhine it seems difficult to locate pictures of certain aspects regarding the German views of these times and troops. The Rhine Army or Rhine Garrison ...
12 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why did J. Edgar Hoover publicly deny the existence of the Mafia for so long?

According to Wikipedia, Hoover denied or ignored the existence of the Mafia as a criminal organization until the Apalachin Meeting in late 1957, when it became impossible to ignore. What good did ...
0 votes
0 answers
185 views

What was the culture context for having close relationship between boss and workers in early 1900s Germany?

I'm reading Die Verwandlung by Franz Kafka. In the beginning parts of it, the story involves the protagonist Gregor's manager visiting him a few times, to figure out why he wasn't coming to work (...
0 votes
1 answer
215 views

How common was it for archaeologists in past eras to believe in giants?

The past has involved many myths about the existence of giants. Various colonizers and travelers, for example, reported giants among the indigenous peoples of the Americas (eg "Giant Amerindians: ...
2 votes
0 answers
196 views

What is/are the earliest first-hand account of a sex worker?

I was just reading Hell's Belles: Prostitution, Vice, and Crime in Early Denver by Clark Secrest. I can't find the part now (it's not that important), but he comments that we have no surviving diary ...
10 votes
4 answers
5k views

Why does the first decade of the 21st century start with 2000?

Wikipedia says that The 21st century began on January 1, 2001 and will end on December 31, 2100. The first decade of 21st century is the 2000s. Here Wikipedia says that The 2000s was a decade ...
54 votes
9 answers
42k views

Why did Hitler not invade Sweden?

I was looking over a map of where the Nazis invaded and they never attacked Sweden. I was wondering why since it seems like a much better strategic move than invading Russia. Why might they have ...
14 votes
6 answers
3k views

Where did the so-called "Japanese Skulls" end up?

I have read that there was a disturbingly common practice of American soldiers in the Pacific theater of WWII to take the skulls of dead Japanese soldiers as trophies to take home, give to girlfriends,...
0 votes
0 answers
132 views

Why did Women's Day never really catch on in the US, even though it started there?

The roots of International Women's Day (March 8th) go all the way back to New York City in 1909 and the Socialist Party of America. However, from what I have learned the International Women's Day is ...
6 votes
2 answers
6k views

Has anyone ever been punished for Project MK-ULTRA?

So I've been looking into what MK-ULTRA is, and recently a scary question has came to mind. That question being, has anyone been punished for the events of MK-ULTRA? By punished, I don't mean a slap ...
3 votes
1 answer
339 views

Was jealousy the cause of Ernst Winter's death?

I was on Wikipedia and I came across the Konitz Affair. I am guessing that Wikipedia took it from the Jewish Encyclopedia.com, which appears to have copied the entry from a 1925 book, 'The Jewish ...
3 votes
0 answers
184 views

Did the teaching of evolution in the US suffer greatly from the Scopes Monkey trial?

After reading the story of the Scopes Monkey Trial, I learned that the teaching of evolution in the US suffers greatly from it. To quote some words from the wiki item, at the section Anti-evolution ...
1 vote
0 answers
67 views

How is "Jones series" used in the National Archives Office of Strategic Services records?

I was looking around on the National Archives' website in their World War II archives and came across Records of the Office of Strategic Services 1940-1946 (RG 226). One of the contents of the records ...
12 votes
1 answer
1k views

Where was the U.S. president when Captain McGonagle was awarded?

The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Were non-firing replica firearms ever made to the same standards of fit, finish, and from the same materials as a functioning firearm?

The term replica firearm has an imprecise meaning. It covers everything from functioning firearms that look like historical weapons to toys that simply have the appearance of an historical or ...
8 votes
1 answer
830 views

How did people 'park' their horse and buggy in early 20th century cities? How was theft prevented?

I am writing a story that is set in Philadelphia 1904. The protagonist of the story travels to a part of town near a church, parks his horse and buggy, and walks a couple of blocks to visit a brothel. ...
29 votes
10 answers
20k views

How did the US/South Vietnam lose the Vietnam war?

South Vietnam was helped by US. Even when the US was gone, they had a 1 million army. So why did they lose? Even without US support, South Vietnam had about the same manpower, higher technology, and ...
4 votes
2 answers
501 views

What did anti-Greek stereotyping look like in the United States in the early 20th century?

I am writing a story that is set in the 1920s. Several of the characters in the story are either immigrants from southern or eastern Europe (e.g., Greece, Italy) or their children, and I'm trying to ...
5 votes
3 answers
1k views

How did British people cope with damp/mould without central heating in the past?

Having read a bit about damp and mould issues in poorly heated homes, I was wondering whether this was an issue for Britain in the past, where few houses have central heating systems. Presumably the ...

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