Questions tagged [20th-century]

For questions spanning a significant proportion of the 20th century. Questions focused on the latter decades should consider using the contemporary-history tag. Individual tags exist for specific decades.

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2
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1answer
230 views

Was anyone blamed for Japan's defeat at Tai'erzhuang?

The battle of Tai'erzhuang was the first major Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese war. IJA 10th and 5th divisions, aiming to take Tai'erzhuang and ultimately Xuzhou, were instead held up in ...
54
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2answers
8k views

Why was the Scout movement so successful?

I find it amazing how fast the scout movement spread after its creation. What I got from Wikipedia: Robert Baden-Powell became famous (rightly or not) at home for his activity in the British Army. ...
0
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1answer
390 views

How many people died of hunger and malnutrition in the post WWII 20th century?

I'm looking for a global overview of hunger and malnourishment deaths in the half century following WWII. While Wikipedia helpfully provides a list of famines, this only lists famine events - ...
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2answers
511 views

Did FDR support Hoover for the presidency of the US in 1920?

Franklin Foer writes in a new Guardian article: Americans of all persuasions began yearning for the salvific ascendance of the most famous engineer of his time: Herbert Hoover. In 1920, ...
2
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1answer
160 views

How was Hoche and Binding's text, arguing for the murder of certain disabled people, received within eugenics movements worldwide?

In 1920, Alfred Erich Hoche and Karl Binding published "Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens" - "The permission to destroy life not worth living" (my translation). The main point that ...
4
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1answer
114 views

When did Wang Mingzhang die?

Wang Mingzhang was a Chinese general of the National Revolutionary Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. He commanded the defense of Teng County (14-18 March 1938), part of the Xuzhou Campaign, ...
3
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2answers
256 views

British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races

Reportedly (from a source I cannot recall) the British had a very "interesting" guide about the Balkans. It had a sort of cheat sheet to the peoples around that area, with the stereotypical ...
1
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2answers
361 views

Where Are The Jane Fonda's Of Yesteryear? [closed]

Not long ago, New Orleans removed a well-known statue of Robert E. Lee that stood high on a pedestal in the middle of Lee Circle. That’s one of many recent examples of communities removing monuments ...
15
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3answers
1k views

In the first half of 20th century, how was gold inspected for authenticity?

Let's say this for the years 1900 - 1950, before we had modern analysis tools. When trade payments were made in gold, how was the gold inspected for quality? How did they assess the purity of gold, ...
3
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2answers
268 views

Did the Soviet Union investigate greenhouses in the early 1920's?

The Soviet Union had major food problems in the 1920's, what with the civil war and an attempt at forced requisitions. Their solution was the NEP, which used grain taxes instead of total requisition, ...
9
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3answers
819 views

Why was the capital of Ukraine moved in 1934?

The Russian Revolution is fairly famous for moving the capital from Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to Moscow. But I was surprised to learn that the capital of Ukraine was Kharkiv until it was switched to ...
3
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1answer
171 views

Did Moscow have natural gas in the early era of the Soviet Union (1917 - 1930)?

Did apartments in Moscow have natural gas in the years 1917 to 1930? If so, were they supplied by utility pipelines underground? I am curious because underground utility pipes are expensive to build ...
4
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3answers
932 views

What is this SSR of the USSR in 1923?

USSR was created Dec 30 1922. I could only find a list of 4 SSR's: Russian, Belorussian, Ukranian, and Transcaucasian. The Central Asian region was largely a part of Russian SSR, or RSFSR at this time....
6
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1answer
310 views

What possible uniform with decoration is my ancestor from New South Wales in the early 1900's wearing?

I have found the below picture of my ancestor. It was taken approximately in the early 1900's in New South Wales, Australia. I don't think he was knighted. I have found a census record that he was a ...
34
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3answers
13k views

Are there photos/footage of the Titanic sinking?

I know there are drawings and paintings from witnesses depicting the sinking of RMS Titanic, but are there any actual photographs or footage of the event happening? This video claims to be footage ...
2
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3answers
906 views

Who was the Kilroy?

In the 2nd World War it seems that American troops rallied around a man (or legend?) known as the "Kilroy". I've seen his image depicted on American tanks, letters, barracks, etc. Some I've seen in ...
10
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2answers
473 views

In Francoist Spain, what steps were required for non-Catholics to marry?

In Francoist Spain, if I understand correctly, the Roman Catholic Church had significant authority over many religious aspects of life, including marriage. On Wikipedia, I read: Civil marriages ...
7
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3answers
861 views

How did Manuel Quezon convince the US to release the Philippines?

In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie act was passed by Congress after Manuel Quezon's mission convinced them to grant independence to the Philippines. But in 1934, decolonization was not yet en vogue - ...
9
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1answer
338 views

Why didn't Saudi Unification Include the Coastal States like Qatar, UAE, Oman, Yemen, and Kuwait

Why are the following states independent and not a part of Saudi Arabia? Qatar, UAE, Oman, Yemen, and Kuwait While their annexation might be difficult in our current time period, it should have been ...
6
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1answer
260 views

How did desegregation affect the jobs of black school teachers in the South?

In its October 6, 1954 issue, the Southern Presbyterian Journal published a report from US News & World Report that suggested that black teachers in the South would be rendered unemployed by ...
7
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2answers
260 views

More cases of visiting politicians having their own entourage/followers beat up protesters?

During a recent visit of Turkey's president Erdogan to Washington, his bodyguards (and maybe other members of the entourage) attacked a small group of protestors. This is odd insofar as, it is a ...
6
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1answer
295 views

Why didn't the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia use the military to suppress the protests during the Velvet Revolution?

I've been reading a bit about the fairly peaceful transition of power in Czechoslovokia through the protests throughout the country, but I'm wondering, why didn't the ruling party attempt to bring the ...
2
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2answers
3k views

Who wrote the “Mi General Augusto Pinochet” Song?

It is available here. According to Wikipedia, mi general was a nickname sometimes used by General Pinochet's supporters. Is it modern or contemporary? In the former case I would like to know who ...
4
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2answers
1k views

How was South African infrastructure before 1994?

So we all know that 1994 was a good year for the social side of South African life. Apartheid was over, the government was now elected by the majority of the people and Nelson Mandela was in charge ...
7
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2answers
673 views

Did Spain and the Republic of China (Kuomintang) have diplomatic relations between 1931 and 1939? Were they friendly or unfriendly?

The Republic of China and the Kingdom of Spain had relations before 1931 (link). Did they maintain these relations after the Second Spanish Republic was established? After 1945, the Spanish State ...
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1answer
93 views

Which George V stamp would be used for a letter sent from London to Sweden in 1919/1920?

I've inherited some letters that my great-grandmother sent from London, UK to Stockholm, Sweden in 1919 and 1920. Unfortunately the stamps have been cut out (probably by a relative who wished to save ...
3
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3answers
464 views

During the Berlin Blockade, why didn't the people in West Berlin just go over to buy food in East Berlin?

It wasn't until 1961 that the Berlin Wall that was set up, what was to prevent the West Berliners from going over to the east?
6
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1answer
2k views

Is there a name for the WPA Art Style?

There seems to be a discernable common (although not universal) style to a lot of the art produced by the WPA during its history (1935-1943). I'd characterize it as more simplistic than realistic, ...
13
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2answers
666 views

In the early 1900's, how did US politicians treat black dignitaries from other countries?

Are there any historical records of US politicians (especially southern politicians) treating black dignitaries (especially royalty) with great pomp and ceremony, while simultaneously and ...
1
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1answer
163 views

What was the most important change that took place in American society as a result of the New Deal?

I'm having trouble identifying a singular, most important factor of the New Deal that changed American Society. I'm leaning toward saying that the creation of the PWA was the most important factor ...
4
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2answers
541 views

Did American leaders give any serious consideration to proceeding with Nixon's impeachment and trial after he resigned?

After President Nixon resigned, was any serious consideration (e.g. by members of Congress or important opinion leaders) given to proceeding with his impeachment and trial? The motive, of course, ...
0
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2answers
222 views

What is this complex in Colorado?

This image is located in Windsor, Colorado(40.4526°N -104.9273°W) and it continues to puzzle me. There is a high fence surrounding the about 5 acre area. I looked up who the land is owned by and the ...
5
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1answer
174 views

What Insubordination Did Colonel Sanders Do With Prudential Life Insurance?

I've been recently somewhat inspired by the story of Colonel Sanders, someone who experienced failure after failure and moved from job to job over his life, eventually going on to found Kentucky Fried ...
4
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1answer
128 views

What was the National Revolutionary Army's “Training Brigade”?

During the Battle of Nanking, China's forces included the so-called "Training Brigade" which defended Purple Mountain. What was the nature of this formation? The Wikipedia article describes them as "...
1
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1answer
237 views

Can anyone verify this story about the President's driver?

I remember hearing a story that I believe was either President Roosevelt or President Truman which involved his driver. There was a crash or incident because of his driver's error or negligence. After ...
0
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1answer
192 views

List of most populous city in each U.S. state in 1950

[I have cross-posted this question on the opendata.stackexchange (see here) but would like to benefit from your expertise as historians as well.] I am looking for a list with the most populous cities ...
7
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2answers
642 views

Which method of telephone calls was more popular: station-to-station or person-to-person?

My question is related to this question I asked earlier on the cost of a telephone call in the 1920s in the United States of America. Now, I am interested in the whole period from 1920 until 1960 and ...
11
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0answers
449 views

Was Heisuke Yanagawa really censored out in photos, and why?

Heisuke Yanagawa (柳川 平助) was an IJA Lieutenant General who commanded one of the main armies in the Battle of Nanking. He would have been one of the generals photographed marching into Nanking. I've ...
18
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1answer
605 views

What happened to all the historical photos taken by Malcolm X?

In his autobiography, Malcolm X often mentions carrying numerous cameras around, including a film movie camera. There are also plenty of photos showing him with a camera. However neither his official ...
9
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2answers
341 views

What universities existed in Dutch East Indies, and how available were they to the native population?

In the introduction of his translation to the historical novel Footsteps, the translator Max Lane (who is also described as a researcher on Indonesia) said that in the beginning of the novel, the ...
2
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1answer
236 views

“Hat Hair” in History

My understanding is that wearing hats of various kinds was much more widespread historically (e.g. in the late 1800's and early 1900's) than it is today, with sometimes complicated etiquette with ...
6
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1answer
200 views

Can you identify this ship of 1922?

I would like to identify the ship name and origin (from this link) Addtional info with picture - Caption: Children evacuated from the interior by boat arriving in Beirut Year Created: 1922 Source: ...
3
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1answer
599 views

Were Rosa Parks and Freedom Riders the first ones to use a bus to protest/change?

Buses have been around since the turn of the century. Specifically motor mass-produced buses since 1910 according to wikipedia. Now Rosa Parks did her famous civil action bit in 1955 of refusal to ...
10
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1answer
2k views

World War 1: Why did Italy not fight until 1915?

Today I learnt history about World War 1 and I have a question that has been bothering me. According to what I have studied, the Triple Alliance (1882-1915) was an alliance between Germany, Austria-...
4
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1answer
348 views

Meaning of Margaret Sanger's 15-20 million soldiers

Margaret Sanger gave a speech titled My Way to Peace 17 January 1932 to the New History Society, in New York. I don't know how much to include in my question, but an excerpt is: c) keep the ...
12
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4answers
20k views

Why are the ceilings so high in older houses?

The majority of multi-storey houses built before World War II have ceilings higher than nowadays. Today, the standard is about 2.4m, but in the 19th century or the first half of the 20th century it ...
14
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1answer
716 views

Why did Guinea vote so differently in the 1958 French constitutional referendum?

In the 1958 French constitutional referendum, 79.3% of Metropolitan France and 82.3% of the territories voted in favor of the constitution. Out of the latter, votes in favor ranged from 64.40% in ...
3
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2answers
873 views

Why didn't Mao see that the “Great Leap Forward” would be such a disaster?

I've been reading about Mao Zedong and I heard about his Great Leap Forward. I read that it ended up splitting families apart and causing a massive economic crash. Why didn't Mao Zedong see this would ...
10
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1answer
431 views

Was there a president that wanted to “Make America Farm Again”?

There seems to be a lot of push back as the US employment markets move toward knowledge work and away from more traditional industrial roles. I'm sure there was a similar time in history when moving ...
5
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2answers
293 views

Was there a historical figure named Fecund?

This is going to sound odd, but a Terry Pratchett book lead me to look up the meaning of the word "fecund", and the result included a google ngrams graph of its use in written works. As you can see, ...