Questions tagged [africa]

Africa is the continent on which the human species probably originated. It fostered some of the earliest known civilizations, and contains a vast array of cultures to this day.

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Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands?

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands? If no, then why not? How about the island countries Cabo Verde and São Tomé and their African continental neighbours?
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What was Yugoslavia doing in the Angolan Civil War?

I was looking through Wikipedia (a mixed quality source) about the military history of Yugoslavia, when I noticed this odd listing of Yugoslavia as one of the combatants in the Angolan Civil War (1975-...
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Advanced sub-saharan civilizations prior to cross-atlantic slave trade?

I came across the following passage in Desmond Morris' 1969 book The Human Zoo. In it the author is arguing that sub-saharan Africa contained advanced civilizations prior to the commencement of the ...
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Was African slave trade ever directed towards Europe? If not, why?

The capture, shipping and sale of African slaves was most famously directed towards the colonies of European empires in the Americas, where they were put to work on plantations and other harsh, labor-...
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What was the name of the region, Somalia, British Somalia or British Somaliland?

Somalia was created in 1960 by joining two regions: British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. References in Wikipedia keep toggling between British Somaliland and Italian Somalia, note the use of ...
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Did Africans defeat Europeans in battle between 1850 and 1950?

The battle of Adwa was fought between Italians and Ethiopians in northern Ethiopia in 1896. The Italians were defeated and it was the greatest victory for Africans. Were there any other battles where ...
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Were Western (French, US or other) powers involved in the coup against Captain Sankara of Burkina Faso?

I have researched this head of state of Burkina Faso using different papers, wiki articles, programs and French DGSE books to form an opinion on this puzzling character. It seems Captain Thomas ...
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On the eve of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's independence, the country had virtually zero doctors, or any other intellectuals?

Even Patrice Lumumba was educated at the level of a clerk. So why did the pioneers of the independence movement think that the newly independent country would succeed? Follow up: Is this trend ...
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Is there evidence for the use of the solenarion in late Medieval Ethiopia?

Shihab al-Umari, an Arab historian of the 14th century, wrote much of what's know of Emperor of Ethiopia Amda Seyon I campaigns against the Muslim States, namely Awfat, Dawaru, Arababni, Hadya, ...
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What goods were traded in the medieval Indian Ocean?

The Periplus of the Erythrian Sea has detailed reports of trade ports of the Eastern Indian Ocean in the first century AD. There are also plenty of archaeological reports, summaries, and books from ...
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Why did Guinea vote so differently in the 1958 French constitutional referendum?

In the 1958 French constitutional referendum, 79.3% of Metropolitan France and 82.3% of the territories voted in favor of the constitution. Out of the latter, votes in favor ranged from 64.40% in ...
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Where can I find documents on the 1992 fight between French soldiers and Somalian fighters?

I read in this French blog that before the battle of Mogadishu in 1993, French soldiers did fight successfully and manage to achieve their mission in June 1992 during the Oryx Operation (They were ...
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Impact of the spread of disease from non-Europeans to virgin populations in the Old World

It is well known that Europeans brought a host of different diseases to the Americas. This led to catastrophic declines in the indigenous populations. I am looking for documentation of non-Europeans ...
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Why hasn't Sub-Sahan African developed as fast as other regions between the beginning of civilisation and European colonialism? [closed]

First I asked the following question: How much contact did Sub-Saharan Africa actually have with the rest of the world since the beginning of civilization? I was expecting answers such as 'not much ...
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What caused the rapid African population growth in the last decades?

Wikipedia states: [African] population doubled in the period 1982–2009[4] and quadrupled from 1955–2009, according to United Nations estimates. Is there a consensus on the causes behind this rapid ...
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Relation between Afroamerican religions and colonial metropoles?

In most of Brazil, Afroamerican religion is Candomblé, which is rooted in Yoruba traditional religion, with influences of Angola-Congo traditions. The main exception is the Northeastern state of ...
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What was the ancient Greeks view on people of African descent?

I am interested in sources (reference author, work, paragraph/fragment) describing the view ancient Greeks held about people of African descent. By that I mean those whom they called Αιθίοπες (...
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How much contact did Sub-Saharan Africa actually have with the rest of the world since the beginning of civilization?

The book 'Guns, germs and steel' introduced me to the fact that the Sahara desert actually isolated Sub-Saharan Africa from the developments elsewhere since the beginning of civilization until ...
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Why were La Réunion and Mauritius uninhabited?

Why were the Mascarenes islands, La Réunion and Mauritius (and Rodrigues), uninhabited until Europeans arrived ? Many islands off the coast of Africa remained uninhabited until the arrival of ...
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Was it true that Nelson Mandela refused to renounce violence while in Prison?

I got this comment from an article on Mandela: Most white South Africans rejoin that Nelson Mandela had no reason to seek revenge on anyone, nor any basis for extending forgiveness to his previous ...
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Are there any known instances of sub-Saharan African democracy before European colonialism?

I've been reading up on pre-Athenian democracy (sometimes referred to as primitive or tribal democracy) where leaders were selected by some or most members of a group and were subject to established ...
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Mali - French colonial rule

So I'm researching the time of the french colonial rule in Mali at the moment. But there are some thing I don't understand, especially the part where the Mali region gets "added"(?) to french-sudan. ...
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What trains were used on the Dakar-Niger Railway in the late 1950s and early 1960s?

What trains were used on the Dakar-Niger Railway in the late 1950s and early 1960s, i.e. the transition to independence? Are there any images available? I can find images of the railway from 1950 and ...
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Did the Portuguese build any settlement around the Cape of Good Hope?

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to go around the Cape of Good Hope and build several outposts, later turned into large colonies, at Angola and Moçambique, on both sides of the Cape, but none ...
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How did the Belgians issue ID cards with ethnicity to women in Ruanda-Urundi?

I've read about how the Belgians issued ID cards to the inhabitants of their colony Ruanda-Urundi (later independent under the names of Rwanda and Burundi): Indeed, the Belgian colonists classified a ...
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Rwanda: Tutsis passing themselves as Hutus during the genocide

I'm searching for info about one (minor) question concerning the genocide in Rwanda 1994: Is there evidence of Tutsis trying to pass themselves off as Hutus to avoid being killed? (I know that this ...
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Why does the Star of David feature on these African coins from 20th century?

Why does the Star of David feature on these African coins from 1936 and 1959?
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Why did the NATO (help to) overthrow Kadhafi? [closed]

What was NATO's goal? What was the strategic objective? NATO tolerated Kadhafi when he was quite hardline against the West and attacked him when he took a much more cooperative attitude towards the ...
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Is Yam also known as Nubia?

Harkhuf, an Egyptian official, set out for a place called Yam, which a chronicle states was far south of Egyptian boundaries. But where exactly was Yam? Was Yam later called Nubia? Are Yam and Nubia ...
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Travel time for African Slave trade

What was the average travel time for African slaves being moved from the interior of Africa to the coast for export? Also, how long did they tend to wait on the coast until they were exported? I ...
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What distinguished the Republican Party of Liberia from the True Whig Party?

What was the difference between the two parties? Wikipedia says that the Republican Party was made up primarily of Americo-Liberians who had mixed African and European ancestry. I assume the TWP was ...
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Historical African Demographic and Agriculture Data

I'm looking for resources that give the the demographic breakdown of African nations for the time period 1880-1960 (so colonization), such as from censuses. Primarily, I need the european share of the ...
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How did ululation originate and spread?

Ulu or Ululation is the sound produced by throated "OOO' sound combined with moving the tongue rapidly sideways. This is done only by women (I think). Its done in Bengal (India), Morroco (Africa) and ...
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Did Jaques Chirac say “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [rate] power”?

This article claims that Jaques Chirac stated in March 2008: “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [rate] power” This is significant because it implies France is acting ...
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Was there a serious proposal to offer India territory in East Africa?

In the recent World Service series The War That Changed The World the episode dealing with India contains a rather extraordinary claim. A panel member, an Indian, says there was a notion during WW1 ...
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British Slave Inventory

At what point were the numbers of slaves transported by the British to America first recorded? How many people were transported as slaves from Africa to America by the British? How many of them died ...
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Why didn't Turkish become an official language in former Ottoman colonies in the Middle-East and North Africa?

The main language in the Middle East is Arabic, however English and French considered as a secondary language. Especially in Algeria, Morocco and Lebanon (there are other countries..) people still use ...
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Why was there no concerted effort to end the Barbary pirate raids until the 1800's?

Barbary pirate raids on the Mediterranean coast led to widespread depopulation of the coasts from Venice to Malaga with the obvious exception of the larger cities. The pirate raids also seem to be the ...
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African Clicking Language

During a class a friend of mine brought up an African Clicking language. I don't have a lot of information about this. Which language groups in Africa include clicking, and what is known about the ...
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How was Sahara desert formed?

According to U-Like C.B.S.E CCE Sample Papers with Solutions and Model Test Papers for Revision in SOCIAL SCIENCE, the Sahara desert resulted from overgrazing by herbivores. This happened because the ...
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What became of the plan to partition Angola?

At the height of the war between UNITA rebels and the MPLA government of Angola there was - I recall - for a time a plan to fully partition Angola and create two countries. UNITA would have the ...
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How many tons of diamonds did European colonies take from Africa? [closed]

Last night I watched a movie & it said a London Diamond Company in 60s had more than 3 tons of diamonds. Are those all from Africa? What is the total amount of diamonds that Europeans took from ...
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Is there any truth to the claim that freed slaves who moved to Liberia enslaved the local population?

This claim was made in a documentary I saw on youtube called 'The Cannibal Warlords of Liberia' at about 1:22, as well as on the blog BloggingWithoutMaps I can't find strong sources to back this ...
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Why did Kabila discard the name and flag of Zaire?

Early in Mobutu's long spell in power he instituted a policy of Authenticité, promoting African names over colonial ones. As part of that policy the name of the country was changed from Congo to Zaire....
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Is there a correlation between the colonial power and the stability/success of the post colonial state?

Looking at the history of Ghana relative to many post-colonial African states, it appears to be quite a successful and stable nation-state, both politically and economically, compared to many other ...
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Why did the attempts to keep Africa colonized after World War II fail?

After World War II, though the Attlee-led British government decided to give freedom to India, they held on to much of Africa. But why did this attempt at colonization fail? Wikipedia explains that ...
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Historically, have African nations had a higher proportion of coups than nations on other continents?

The president of the Central African Republic was recently ousted by rebel forces. According to atlanticwire there have been over 40 coups in the past 60 years. Do African nations have a higher ...
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What was the contemporary German public opinion on the Herero Genocide?

The genocide took place during 1904-1907, organized by General von Trotha. Wikipedia says: Von Trotha's methods caused a public outcry which led the Imperial Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow to ask ...
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What led to election violence in Kenya in 2007?

What were the historical circumstances that led to the violence in 2007? Do any of those circumstances still exist today, and if so, is there a possibility for the violence to happen again?
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Ancient Civilization in non-Egyption Africa? [closed]

I am looking for ancient civilizations in central and south of Africa. Were there any ancient cities, such as Timbuktu, Benin, or Zimbabwe for which there are scientific tools or other artifacts ...