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Questions tagged [ancient-egypt]

Questions pertaining to Ancient Egypt are concerned with the civilization that existed in Northeastern Africa from around 3100 BCE to roughly 400 BCE centered along the Nile River. This civilization was responsible for the Pyramids, the Sphinx, and was the precursor to modern day Egypt.

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Is the biblical Joseph story historically valid? [closed]

What are the non-scriptural evidence (if any) on biblical Joseph story, where he becomes Grand Vizier of Pharaonic Egypt in 15th century BCE. I know that the pharaoh is unnamed, and the era is close ...
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1answer
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What do historians infer about the world view of the ancient Egyptians based on the prophecy of Neferty?

Here are some excerpts of Neferty's prophecy Papyrus Hermitage 1116B, lines 17- to 21 Utterly destroyed are those times of happiness at those basin lakes, with men set to slitting fish, ...
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What’s this odd hat/crown and is it related to Baal?

So I was looking at a history book and it was set in ancient Egypt, in the temple of karnak. They were talking about how their were doors only the pharaohs and priests were allowed in, and how they ...
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1answer
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Is there any evidence in history to suggest that there was a Melanchro (dark-skinned) population in Colchis as claimed by Herodotus?

On Quora, I encountered a variety of unsourced claims on this subject which I will list below There are accounts of Black Colchians: In 522-443, a Greek poet named Pindar described the ...
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1answer
93 views

How did the Egyptian Pharaohs get their title?

I recently watched a presentation where the presenter said there was a man named "Rikayon" who became wealthy from charging people a death tax to bury their dead. After an ancient king (Nimrod) ...
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107 views

How did Ancient Egyptians see Europe and how did they call the area?

I was wondering how the Egyptians during the time of the Middle Kingdom saw Europe, besides Greece, Rome, and Macedonia? Did they ever travel to trade in or explore the northern part of the continent, ...
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1answer
128 views

Why is Anubis given a scarf in some representations?

Two links containing images of Anubis with scarf; https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis_Shrine https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis In some representations Anubis wears what seems to be a scarf. ...
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1answer
226 views

Why were Upper and Lower Egypt consolidated into a single kingdom?

The Narmer Palette depicts the Pharaoh Narmer bearing the Red Crown for Lower Egypt and then the White Crown for Upper Egypt. Were there any social, political or economic factors that necessitated ...
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2answers
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Are there any Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, or any foreign account of the demise of the Hittites?

The Hittite Empire collapsed due to a civil war inside the capital (ignoring the territorial losses that occurred earlier). Are there any foreign accounts of that era (non-Hittite) that describe ...
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1answer
105 views

Who were the Hermotybians and Calascirians mentioned as making up the warrior caste of Egypt by Herodotus

I was reading this wikipedia article about an elite military force in Egypt which began as an ethnic tribe from the deserts of the eastern Sudan. This tribe was called Medjay. It was mentioned that ...
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108 views

What is the earliest recorded example of an extradition treaty or law?

While reading a news article on someone being extradited from overseas to face justice in the U.S. it started me thinking about the history of the extradition process. Wikipedia and The History Vault ...
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How would a 16-year-old girl from Cleopatra's era curse?

For one of my novels, I need to learn how Egyptian 16 year old teenagers spoke to each other on a daily basis. I did some research online but I have trouble to understand what languages peoples were ...
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2answers
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Where can I find an explanation of the variations in style of Egyptian hieroglyphs?

I've seen that Egyptian hieroglyphs are not always written or drawn identically. Long time ago I made a trip in Egypt and saw, in the Valley of the Kings, a tomb with hieroglyphs on the walls that ...
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1answer
207 views

How old was the Egyptian calendar system?

I know that the Egyptians had a solar calendar, based on a certain effect of the sun over the Nile. I also know that it held 365 days without any fix to the quarter a day a year (like Feb 29th every ...
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2answers
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What is this ancient Egyptian material called “maklalu”?

I read this passage in a book, "A coloured linen maklalu-material, for one royal dress for the king. A total of 12 linen garments...” It was a gift from Queen Nefertari of Egypt to the Queen of ...
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1answer
285 views

Were the earliest Egyptian hieroglyphs ever discovered really found in Qustul in Ancient Nubia?

In a comment posted on an answer to the question, 'Does modern scholarship accept an Ethiopian origin for Egyptian hieroglyphs?', the user that posted the question wrote: "The oldest kingdom in ...
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3answers
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Does modern scholarship accept an Ethiopian or Nubian origin for Egyptian hieroglyphs?

Diodorus Siculus made the claim that the Hieroglyphs were actually an Ethiopian script, which was held sacred by the Egyptians and was learned and transmitted only within the priestly families of ...
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1answer
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Were Egyptian Pharaohs literate?

This video says scribes read letters to the king as the king was not literate. Can anyone comment on this
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337 views

What names did the ancient Egyptians give to different stages of their history?

The Egyptians, at least the most enlightened, had a relatively accurate idea of a large part of their past. It is striking to see how Manetho knew pharaohs from 2,500 years before his time when other ...
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Technological transfer/worker migration e.g. in ancient Egypt

My question revolves around how different inventions were shared between humans in ancient times, for example in ancient Egypt (between 3000 and 0 BC). Nowadays, science is often publicly funded and ...
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1answer
783 views

What is the primary source evidence for the theory that the African Ancient Egyptians are not black Africans whose origin is sub-Saharan Africa? [closed]

The question When did the ancient Egyptians discover or reach the Nile Headwaters? begins with the premise that the African Ancient Egyptians (pre 332 B.C.E.) did not originate at the headwaters of ...
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4answers
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Did Egyptian civilization start from North to South or vice versa?

I've been reading archeological claims that say that the ancient Egyptians came from the South and that the first chiefdoms and kings were in the south. Some also claim that there is a crown of ...
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Egyptian Khopesh - Why has it never been used since then?

The ancient Egyptians used a weapon called the khopesh. It was a curved blade that was excellent for getting around shields and puncturing body parts like kidneys. Why did no other army in the ...
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3answers
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How extensive and developed was the ancient Kushite (Nubian) horse trade?

In 1997 there was a fascinating paper published called The Horses of Kush by Lisa A. Heidorn in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies which summarized some finds about the popularity of horses from Kush ...
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What is the oldest known depiction of Isis with wings?

Some of the oldest known references to the goddess Isis are inscriptions, like the Pyramid texts. However, I have been interested in the visual depictions of the Egyptian gods and how they change ...
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1answer
227 views

Explain the symbols in the relief of Thoth raising Seti I in the Temple of Seti I at Abydos

Please can someone help me understand this relief. I want to know: What the symbols are What they symbolise What the hieroglyphs say. I am very intrigued by the two Wadjet-papyrus staffs and what ...
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1answer
177 views

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs jʿr.t (iaret)

Is this how to write "jʿr.t (iaret)" or Uraeus? Does "jʿr.t (iaret)" mean "rearing cobra" as stated on Wikipedia? The Uraeus (/jʊˈriːəs/; plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek οὐραῖος, ouraîos, ...
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0answers
143 views

What did states gain from spreading a particular religion? [closed]

(It might be easier to understand the question if I phrase it this way from the start before reading the rest: What did states gain from spreading a particular religion?) From what I've read, the ...
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0answers
170 views

Is there an explanation for the disproportionally small head of the Great Sphinx of Giza?

While I don't subscribe to the Orion correlation theory or the related water erosion theory, the head of the Great Sphinx of Giza is disproportionally small compared to its body. The fringe theories ...
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1answer
379 views

Earliest story?

Personal amateur research shows The Epic of Giglamesh to be the earliest work of literature. I am curious if ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs depicted histories, warnings or tales? Are any simple stories ...
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4answers
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Why do the pyramids show less erosion than the Sphinx?

Traditional Egyptology maintains that the Great Sphinx was carved around the same time that the Great Pyramid was constructed. I am relatively new to Egyptology but it seems clear that the base of the ...
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1answer
197 views

Mesoamerican and Giza's Pyramids [closed]

I am not a history major but I am very interested in Pyramids and their origin. Is there any theory that says Mesoamerican and Giza's pyramids were build before continental drift ?? If so, can you ...
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1answer
191 views

Egyptian funeral procession: what are these people doing / holding?

The picture below is notable for being the "World's oldest depiction of a stern-mounted steering rudder (c. 1420 BC)". This much is clear enough. However, I'm curious about the man on the left and ...
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1answer
118 views

Was every man compelled to follow his father's occupation in ancient Egypt?

Adam Smith wrote that in ancient Egypt: every man was bound by a principle of religion to follow the occupation of his father, and was supposed to commit the most horrid sacrilege if he changed it ...
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Did Egyptians circumnavigate Africa in three years during Nekau's reign?

I read in an old High School-level History book* that during the reign of Nekau (or Necho II), during the Saita Period, someone called "Hamon" circumnavigated Africa in three years. However the book ...
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1answer
158 views

What was the primary source Brugsch used to argue for Egyptian monotheism?

There is a theory held by some that Ancient Egypt had a degree of monotheism (A certain Emmanuel de Rougé even going as far as saying, in 1839, "The Egyptian religion is a pure monotheism, which ...
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1answer
328 views

Did all of Egypt, or just the Ptolemies decline?

From mainstream internet sources, I've had difficulty understanding the reasons for the decline of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy's kingdom was the most well position of all the Greek kingdoms, and ...
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1answer
227 views

How were artisans trained in Ancient Egypt?

I would like to know how artisans like potters and blacksmiths were trained to specialize in their trade in ancient civilizations. In particular, I am interested in how this was done in ancient Egypt. ...
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1answer
213 views

How was the Ancient Egyptian name 'God is Gracious' written?

According to this article Behind the Name: Ancient Egyptian Names Revealed there exists an Ancient Egyptian name meaning "God is Gracious". What is that name and how is it written in Hieroglyphics? (...
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1answer
109 views

Was Abu Simbel also designed to serve as a border between Egypt and Nubia?

Abu Simbel is a spectacular looking site located in the most Southern part of Egypt and in very close proximity to the Sudan-(Ancient Nubia). Although Abu Simbel was a massive Temple dedicated to ...
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1answer
973 views

How did thieves get into Egyptian pyramids?

I've heard that most of the treasures in the pyramids are supposed to have been stolen by later thieves. I wonder what was their method of getting in? Wasn't the pyramid sealed after the Pharaoh's ...
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1answer
695 views

Are there known completely sealed chambers in Egyptian pyramids?

According to new measurements, there likely is a large hidden chamber in the Great Pyramid (Paper). There is already speculation about its contents, with people looking at religious sources the ...
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2answers
367 views

Did Archimedes spend time in Alexandria, Egypt?

We know that Archimedes was a native of Syracuse , Sicily and that much of his scientific and inventive works were conducted in this particular Eastern Sicilian city during the 200'S BC/BCE. However, ...
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1answer
330 views

Egypt at the time of Cleopatra

Edited question: At the time of Cleopatra, were common rites and practises like for example the mummification of emperors, polytheism, the Pharaoh having the position of a living god present like ...
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1answer
120 views

Why are some New Kingdom dates quotes in pairs two years apart?

I am reading about New Kingdom Egypt. Many events are doubly-dated. For example, Akhenaten's reign is given as 1353–1336 BCE or 1351–1334 BCE. These dates always seem to be two years apart. I ...
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1answer
137 views

Which fortress east of Ancient Megiddo did Thutmose III go to during the siege?

After the ancient Battle of Megiddo, the rebels fell back to the city of Megiddo and the Egyptian army was victorious. The Egyptian army besieged the city of Megiddo by building a moat and a wooden ...
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2answers
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Why weren't the Egyptians attacked on sight in the ancient Battle of Megiddo?

In 1457 BC, Thutmose III and his army had to pass the mountains to reach Megiddo. He had three passes he could go through, one in the North, called Jokneam Pass, and another pass in the South, called ...
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2answers
353 views

Why are some Pharaohs depicted wearing the red or the white crowns even after the unification of Egypt?

We know that the red "Deshret" crown was used by the Pharaohs of Lower Egypt (Or in occasions related only to Lower Egypt), and the white "Hedjet" crown was used by Pharaohs of Upper Egypt (Or in ...
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1answer
103 views

Were Pharaohs still inscribed on walls and written on papyrus after their deaths?

If so, was it done for historical record, or tradition? Any details on this appreciated. Do we have any instances of artifacts depicting past Pharaohs or events that occurred before they were created?...
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10k views

Cooking on Ancient Ships?

In ancient times, ships would often be at sea for extended periods of time. During this time, I'm assuming they must have done some form of cooking, otherwise they would have just eaten cold, pre-...