Questions tagged [ancient-egypt]

Questions pertaining to Ancient Egypt are concerned with the civilization that existed in Northeastern Africa from around 3100 BCE to roughly 400 BCE centered along the Nile River. This civilization was responsible for the Pyramids, the Sphinx, and was the precursor to modern day Egypt.

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What kept Egyptian Obelisks upright?

I'm NOT asking about how an Obelisk was erected, but what keeps it upright once it's in place? The few sources I can find (and the modern youtube re-enactments) all seem to imply that the obelisk has ...
ConanTheGerbil's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
4k views

Why did the Egyptians wait so long to introduce the leap year?

According to “The Accidental Superpower” by Peter Zeihan: “The mind-set of eternal stability was so deeply entrenched that when ancient Egyptian scholars discovered that they had failed to account ...
JonathanReez's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
282 views

Did the Egyptians grow beans during the time when the pyramids were built?

I was reading the paper about the discovery of a microfossil species and this line caught my eye: The equally learned Strabo, however, had recorded that the Egyptian Nummulites were the petrified ...
Weiss's user avatar
  • 143
-1 votes
1 answer
95 views

Who was the first Pharaoh? [closed]

Firstly, What is the oldest record that refers to the ruler of Egypt as "Pharaoh", and the reasons that led to this "break with tradition" of using the title(s) of his predecessors?...
Ptah-hotep's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

What are the figures on the top of the Last Judgement of Hunefer? What is the green furry thing? Why are some but not all holding an ankh?

I know the first statue represents Ra-Horakhty, the second one is Atum, third is Shu, and the sixth one is probably Sekhmet, but I have no clue what are the rest. Also, what is the object that is in ...
김지성's user avatar
  • 133
8 votes
2 answers
4k views

What is the earliest known historical reference to Tutankhamun?

When excavating historical Egyptian sites in the past, there was a limited list of Egyptian Pharaohs that were known in ancient times, mainly through the Bible etc. It was not until the decipherment ...
Alexander's user avatar
  • 191
2 votes
1 answer
293 views

Were Ancient Egyptian kings BELIEVED TO BE subject to judgment by Maat in the Afterworld like other people or were they immune or do we know? [closed]

It is claimed in various works (eg by James Allen) thаt the king was BELIEVED to have to go through the same procedure, notably the weighing of the heart, as other people before getting his eternal ...
Attila the Pun's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
345 views

What was the Ancient Egyptian's word for eleventh or twelfth?

I am researching the 12 hours of the ancient Egyptian night, and the spiritual journey through the duat. I have been able to find the ordinal numbers for the first hour through tenth hour online, tpj (...
Walter's user avatar
  • 219
4 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the structure in front of the entrance to Menkaure's pyramid?

Looking at the site around the pyramid of Menkaure on the Giza plateau (Egypt) in Google Earth, I've noticed what seems to be the remains of paving of a structure in front of the pyramid's entrance, ...
user3764418's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
181 views

What kings were considered to be divine by Ancient Egyptians, according to DIODORUS SICULUS?

DIODORUS SICULUS, wrote in his LIBRARY OF HISTORY, that Egypt for more than four thousand seven hundred years was ruled over by kings of whom the majority were native Egyptians. The Library of History ...
Ezra2020's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
373 views

Who was the last Egyptian pharaoh to be worshipped as a 'deity' or seen as something 'divine' whether in potential or actuality?

During the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, starting with Amnhotep III and ending with Ramses XI, pharaohs were worshipped as living 'deities'. After the declaration of Wehem Mesut and the subsequent ...
setszu's user avatar
  • 116
0 votes
0 answers
220 views

What do these Egyptian hieroglyphs mean?

I posted this before and it got closed because it's off topic. However, I looked and saw there were other questions on history asking about Hieroglyphs (for example "are there any Egyptian ...
user284091's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
103 views

When was The Tale of Sinuhe first REdiscovered?

I have found a website that gives the details of all of the sources of The Tale of Sinuhe, but I can't figure out what the actual date of discovery was for each of those sources (in order to find the ...
Tzvi K's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
316 views

Is there truth to the Dynastic Race Theory regarding Ancient Egyptians?

According to Dynastic Race Theory, [T]he earliest roots of the ancient Egyptian dynastic civilisation were imported by invaders from Mesopotamia who then founded the First Dynasty and brought culture ...
november's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
165 views

How do we reconcile hierarchical and violent aspects of Ancient Egypt with its nonviolent principle of Maat, as exemplified in negative confessions?

Maat represents and refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. Ma'at was also the goddess who personified these concepts, and regulated the ...
november's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
230 views

What is the source for exact years of the Hittite/Egyptian state of war?

The following is an excerpt of a critique on "Reason to Believe": Critic: Under these conditions, were the Ten Plagues and a total crush of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea waters to happen,...
Tzvi K's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
105 views

Did the ancient Egyptians really know that meteorite iron came from meteorites? [closed]

A dagger from Tutankhamun's tomb was probably made of meteorite iron. Quote translated from German from a newspaper article: "Researchers assume, based on hieroglyphics that apparently described ...
Siegfried's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

Where can I find a specific hieroglyphs website?

Almost a year ago I came across to a website that shows hieroglyphs and ancient details of a specific tomb. The website contains pictures of the tomb walls inside, with hieroglyphs, and they had ...
user777304's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
514 views

Who is represented by the small pharaonic bust in the corner of Room 1 of the British Museum- the Enlightenment Gallery?

I've magnified the information plaque in the virtual tour, but can only make out a name that appears to begin with a "P" and end in a numeral "I". Scrolling through the Wikipedia ...
user217348's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
275 views

Where did this claim about the Egpytian Theban army come from?

In this old Locomotive Engineers Journal, there is a short discussion of ancient vs modern army sizes. The writer gives a list of very large ancient armies. Most of the items on the list have easy ...
Master's user avatar
  • 415
2 votes
1 answer
983 views

What is the nature of the Hyksos territory in Transjordan and northern Arabia depicted on these maps?

I've seen maps like these online showing what appears to be a vast Hyksos-controlled region in Transjordan and northern Arabia during Egypt's Second Intermediate Period. While these two maps in ...
Mark Morales II's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
887 views

What would have been on the menu in an Ancient Egyptian tavern?

Public dining places It appears that there were public dining places in Ancient Egypt. A menu from one of them has been found, dating back to 6th Century BC. On this menu was cereal, wild fowl, and ...
John Strachan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
101 views

Is it possible that the title "pharaoh " was applied to any Egyptian king before Thutmose III (c. 1479–1425 BCE)?

According to Wikipedia: The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound pr ꜥꜣ, /ˌpaɾuwˈʕaʀ/ "great house", written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ...
ميخائيل مينا's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
917 views

Was there any Egyptian Pharaoh that was considered the one and only god that ancient Egyptians worshiped during his life?

I found the following verses in the Quran (the holy book of Islam): Quran 79:24 And said (the king pharaoh), "I am your most exalted lord." Quran 28:38 And king Pharaoh said, "O eminent ...
ميخائيل مينا's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
323 views

Why were 70 foreign women brought to Userkaf?

Userkaf According to Wikipedia, Egyptian pharoah Userkaf received tribute in the form of 70 foreign women. Trade and military activities, Wikipedia Userkaf launched a military expedition into Nubia,[...
John Strachan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
525 views

Was garlic an Egyptian deity, based on Pliny the Elder's "Natural History" (Book XIX, Ch 32)?

What historical evidence can validate Pliny the Elder's "Natural History" (Book XIX, Chapter 32) claim that - Egyptians worshiped garlic as a deity ? "Garlic and onions are invoked by ...
חִידָה's user avatar
28 votes
4 answers
5k views

How to explain the apparent discrepancy in the use of papyrus vs. clay tablets between Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia?

Nowadays, the papyrus plant apparently thrives relatively well in certain sections of the Tigris-Euphrates system. With that in mind, one naturally wonders why in ancient times the Sumerians and ...
5th decile's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
226 views

What does 'des' mean in ancient Egyptian?

Looking at the pefsu problems of ancient Egyptian mathematical papyri, I am wondering what does the word des mean? It is usually used together with the word jug to form des-jug, but sometimes the ...
Michael Munta's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
167 views

Did travelers need a pass to travel in Greco-Roman Egypt, particularly in and out of Alexandria?

I am writing a story in which people travel by boat in Greco-Roman Egypt (27 bce), and am wondering if there were internal controls on travel, or if people were pretty much free to come and go as they ...
Julie's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
124 views

What were the ancient Egyptian terms for the sports of wrestling and boxing?

Wrestling has had a long history, with images depicted of it going back at least 7000 years Wikipedia, and in Egypt at least from 2400 BCE it was depicted on tomb walls. I have been unable to find an ...
Walter's user avatar
  • 219
7 votes
2 answers
724 views

Were Egyptian monarchs referred to by the title "pharaoh" alone, without using their proper names, from around 1500 BCE until the 10th century BCE?

In his book Ani Maamin, Rabbi Joshua Berman makes a comment about the usage of the term "Pharaoh" in the Book of Exodus, indicating that it was in line with the standard conventions in Egypt ...
A L's user avatar
  • 799
-2 votes
2 answers
239 views

Why did the governments of the distant past last longer than those of the present/recent past? [closed]

For example, Rome and Egypt existed for massive amounts of time that pretty much any modern nation could not. Is this a selection bias on my end (comparing the most successful empires of the past to ...
Tuatarian's user avatar
  • 113
3 votes
1 answer
238 views

Did most major ancient cultures (e.g. the Mesopotamians) consider the heart as the main cognitive organ?

The Egyptians, Greeks (e.g. Aristotle), and Chinese certain did so. They believed that thinking was done by the heart. Was this true about all major ancient civilizations? Were there exceptions? ...
J Li's user avatar
  • 395
10 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the significance of "Pharaoh" versus "King" in ancient Egypt?

On Wikipedia, I started from the page of Ramses II, who is described as a pharaoh, and kept clicking on the 'predecessor' link. Every predecessor was a pharaoh until I got to Ahmose I. https://en....
Samid's user avatar
  • 2,202
-4 votes
2 answers
380 views

What made the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb such a significant archeological find? [closed]

The discovery of King Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt is often regarded as one of the most notable archeological finds of recent history, and is certainly one of the most famous ones. Before its discovery ...
robbieperry22's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
251 views

Is the diagram of the Egyptian trinity a copy of a pictogram on an obelisk?

Is this diagram of the Egyptian trinity a copy of a pictogram on an obelisk? It would be nice to know this and get some pictures of it and know more about the history of this particular obelisk.
Jakob's user avatar
  • 9
16 votes
1 answer
3k views

Can history shed any light on the "secret arts" of the Egyptian magicians who turned their staffs into serpents as claimed by Exodus 7:11-12?

The biblical story of Exodus 7:11-12 talks about the alleged existence of some "secret arts" that the magicians of Egypt made use of to accomplish the feat of turning staffs into serpents: ...
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
92 views

Where did the idea of a Pharaoh originate? [closed]

Before the unified Egypt there was a couple of places like Cheni, Nubut and Néjen and it is likely that Cheni's people gained the control of territory and from that moment on they occupied the area of ...
Gio's user avatar
  • 107
5 votes
0 answers
145 views

What is the name of the Egyptian temple which had a secret / fake voice projection chamber?

I've been touring Egypt a few years ago, and visited many temples. In one of them, I was shown a chamber, and a little passage which apparently went behind the chamber and allowed the priest to ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
375 views

What is the Thalassic Age?

What is the Thalassic Age? What exactly happened during that time? This came from reading that Greeks during Hellenistic period conquered some areas in Phoenicia, Mesopotamia and Egypt and developed a ...
Gio's user avatar
  • 107
1 vote
0 answers
102 views

Is šns the correct term for "loaf of bread" in Kemetic Ancient Egyptian?

I am looking for the term "loaf of bread" that was used in ancient Egypt. This is a long timeframe, so I am looking for the term used in the middle period of ancient Egypt. I have found šns ...
Walter's user avatar
  • 219
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

Is there evidence that Egyptian culture was originally matriachical? [duplicate]

I am currently reading The Origins and History of Consciousness by Erich Neumann. The book is essentially an application of recapitulation theory to the development of human consciousness, asserting ...
The Ledge's user avatar
  • 129
-3 votes
1 answer
235 views

Can a tablet dated to the reign of king Aha be deciphered?

The following is an outline of the tablet showing the string by which it was attached to goods for shipment or storage. Then comes the main source of information: The first two glyphs are easy to ...
Dimitrios Trimijopulos's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
642 views

Is there a historical basis for the "day of the false King" described in The Egyptian?

In Book 6 of Mika Waltari's historical novel The Egyptian, Kaptah, Sinuhe's slave and companion, ascends to the throne of Babylon for a day: I was by now familiar with many customs in Babylon, yet I ...
yannis's user avatar
  • 14.9k
9 votes
0 answers
706 views

What is the origin of this quote from the Book of the Dead, "May he journey in the Boat of a Million Years"?

At the beginning of the book The Boat of a Million Years by Poul Anderson is a quote from the Book of the Dead: Labelled as 18th dynasty, and translated as: May he go forth in the sunrise boat May he ...
tim_hutton's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
871 views

Did ordinary people during Hatshepsut's reign know she was a woman?

Queen Hatshepsut is probably the most famous female ruler of Ancient Egypt after Cleopatra. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a ...
Elmy's user avatar
  • 271
4 votes
1 answer
486 views

What is the meaning of this phrase in chapter 64 of the Book of the Dead?

In the aforementioned chapter, one can find the next sentence: "Come! Look! The leg is adhered to the neck, the buttock is over the head of the Western." (I'm sorry if this is not a ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
815 views

Did the deity "Horus" pre-date "Horus-Aha"?

Hor-Aha (or Aha or Horus Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes. He lived around the ...
user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Are modern day Egyptians the genetic descendants of Ancient Egyptians? [closed]

On the one hand Egypt clearly views itself as a member of the Arab world. Nasser advocated pan-Arab unity, Egypt is a prominent member of the Arab league, Arabic is the national language, etc. On the ...
conceptualinertia's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
309 views

What is the Ancient Egyptian word for "Fisher"

Or, failing that, "Fish". Need it for a project but really struggling to find anything definitive online. Thank you!
Chloe's user avatar
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