Questions tagged [ancient-egypt]

Questions pertaining to Ancient Egypt are concerned with the civilization that existed in Northeastern Africa from around 3100 BCE to roughly 400 BCE centered along the Nile River. This civilization was responsible for the Pyramids, the Sphinx, and was the precursor to modern day Egypt.

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Why Cleopatra is considered to be both a Hellenistic monarch and a monarch in the Egyptian pharaonic tradition [closed]

Why Cleopatra is considered to be both a Hellenistic monarch and a monarch in the Egyptian pharaonic tradition. It will help if you review what we have covered about the origins and family structure ...
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How did the Egyptian Pharaohs get their title?

I recently watched a presentation where the presenter said there was a man named "Rikayon" who became wealthy from charging people a death tax to bury their dead. After an ancient king (Nimrod) ...
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What are the most recommended non-biased books on Egyptian History

I am new to Egyptology, what are the most recommended non-biased books on Egyptian History, Hieroglyphs, mythology, etc... that are not biased and written by experts in the field? By non biased, I ...
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Are there any Egyptian hieroglyphs representing four sounds?

Based on current literature describing the Egyptian language such as Hoch (1994), Allen (2013) and Selden (2015), it adds to my understanding that egyptians developed written phonograms which could ...
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Just how fanciful is Egyptology?

I've just started learning about Ancient Egypt, and it's fascinating, but it's making me wonder about the reliability of my information. For instance, it is claimed that the Ogdoad governed the four ...
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What are the Ancient Egyptian words for these concepts?

I just want to know what words ancient Egyptians might have used for "country", "nation", "state", "kingdom", and "empire" (especially empire), preferably in their oldest forms. Can anybody help me ...
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Usability of fingerprints on ancient objects

Today, I was reading an article on early image of Jesus found in an Egyptian tomb. Along with it, one tomb of a scriber was found buried together with writing tools consisting of a metallic inkpot so ...
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How exactly were beer/bread made in Ancient Egypt?

I'm writing a novel set in large part in Ancient Egypt and am incorporating many tasks of everyday living into the narrative. The one I'm stuck on is the making of bread and beer (which were ...
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Does the ancient Egyptian religion still have followers? [closed]

The Ancient Egyptian religion was 3000 years old, and one of the oldest religion in the world. The religion had numerous gods and practices and flourished until the spread of Christianity in 4th ...
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How did they cook on ancient ships?

In ancient times, ships would often be at sea for extended periods of time. During this time, I'm assuming they must have done some form of cooking, otherwise they would have just eaten cold, pre-...
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What did Lord Carnarvon study at Trinity College Cambridge?

This question is about the famous Egyptologist. I read that he was educated at Eton and Trinity College, but cannot find information about his time at Cambridge - in particular what degree he obtained....
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Are there more long Egyptian texts in pure hieroglyphics available online?

So far I've only found 3 or 4: https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/oip34.pdf (This has a lot of fragments) http://etana.org/sites/default/files/coretexts/14900.pdf ...
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Were Egyptian Pharaohs literate?

This video says scribes read letters to the king as the king was not literate. Can anyone comment on this
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Why were the Amarna letters written on clay tablets?

Papyrus had been known for 1500 years when the Amarna letters were written on clay tablets. Why were they written on clay and not papyrus?
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What’s this odd hat/crown and is it related to Baal?

So I was looking at a history book and it was set in ancient Egypt, in the temple of karnak. They were talking about how their were doors only the pharaohs and priests were allowed in, and how they ...
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Why did the Middle Kingdom stop building pyramid tombs?

In the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built pyramids to serve as tombs for their pharaohs. In the Middle Kingdom, they dug in the cliffs in the Valley of the Kings. What is the reason for them changing ...
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Were there a pharaoh who believed in any of the Abrahamic religions?

There are many stories in religious books about Abraham meeting pharaoh of Egypt. Also Jacob, Josef, Moses, etc. Did any of these pharaohs believed in Abrahamic religions? Was there any proof from ...
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Is there a connection between kushits and kushans?

I've noticed a resemblance in tribe names. I know that the Kingdom of Kush and the Kushan Empire are divided not only by a substantial distance but also a substantial amount of time. Is there any ...
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Does modern scholarship accept an Ethiopian or Nubian origin for Egyptian hieroglyphs?

Diodorus Siculus made the claim that the Hieroglyphs were actually an Ethiopian script, which was held sacred by the Egyptians and was learned and transmitted only within the priestly families of ...
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Is biblical Joseph story historically valid? [closed]

What are the non-scriptural evidence (if any) on biblical Joseph story, where he becomes Grand Vizier of Pharaonic Egypt in 15th century BCE. I know that the pharaoh is unnamed, and the era is close ...
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How popular was the name Imhotep?

How popular was the name Imhotep in Ancient Egypt, and what other great personages bore this name? His name is said to mean "the one who comes in peace", and there are similar names like Amenhotep, ...
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What is under the Great Sphinx of Giza?

This video (8:16) shows a tourist displaying a ladder going into an underground shaft at the base of Sphinx. Just wondering what is inside it and its purpose.
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What were the Ethiopians doing in Xerxes' army?

What were the Ethiopians doing at Thermopylae? From Book III, paragraph XXV: Having viewed all, the spies departed back again. When they reported all this, Cambyses was angry, and marched ...
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What knowledge may have been lost at the Library of Alexandria?

Of course we'll never know for sure, but do historians have some reasonable ideas about what knowledge may have been lost at the Library of Serapeum of Alexandria, when it was destroyed by the Decree ...
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What is the earliest recorded example of an extradition treaty or law?

While reading a news article on someone being extradited from overseas to face justice in the U.S. it started me thinking about the history of the extradition process. Wikipedia and The History Vault ...
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Why were Upper and Lower Egypt consolidated into a single kingdom?

The Narmer Palette depicts the Pharaoh Narmer bearing the Red Crown for Lower Egypt and then the White Crown for Upper Egypt. Were there any social, political or economic factors that necessitated ...
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Is there any evidence that Cleopatra and Caesarion considered fleeing to India to escape the Romans?

In a book, Land of the Seven Rivers by Sanjeev Sanyal, I saw a claim made by the author which says that Cleopatra and her son Caesarion wanted to flee to India to evade Roman arrest. Sanjeev Sanyal ...
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Was the west bank of the Nile farmed in Ancient Egypt?

This seems like a simple question, but I couldn't find an answer that would have used the detail I was hoping. So, the background: I've been going through Bob Brier's 'The History of Ancient Egypt' ...
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Great Sphinx photo from WW2 shows a big platform under the chin

This photo is in a TV documentary about World War 2 in Africa. I see a large square platform build of bricks that goes right up to the chin. What is this and why was it removed? And why is nothing ...
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Did Egyptian civilization start from North to South or vice versa?

I've been reading archeological claims that say that the ancient Egyptians came from the South and that the first chiefdoms and kings were in the south. Some also claim that there is a crown of ...
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What's the Ancient Egyptian phrase/word for “Royal Road of Life”? And how would it have been spelt?

I have been looking to translate this for a while, but unfortunately I cannot find any Ancient Egyptian "dictionaries" nor do I possess any knowledge of the Ancient Egyptian grammar at all. So, maybe ...
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What do historians infer about the world view of the ancient Egyptians based on the prophecy of Neferty?

Here are some excerpts of Neferty's prophecy Papyrus Hermitage 1116B, lines 17- to 21 Utterly destroyed are those times of happiness at those basin lakes, with men set to slitting fish, ...
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Is there any evidence in history to suggest that there was a Melanchro (dark-skinned) population in Colchis as claimed by Herodotus?

On Quora, I encountered a variety of unsourced claims on this subject which I will list below There are accounts of Black Colchians: In 522-443, a Greek poet named Pindar described the ...
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Live mummification

Many movies have depicted live mummifications (famously in the Mummy series) for grave crimes against the pharaohs. Was this really a practice in ancient Egypt as punishment?
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Is Yam also known as Nubia?

Harkhuf, an Egyptian official, set out for a place called Yam, which a chronicle states was far south of Egyptian boundaries. But where exactly was Yam? Was Yam later called Nubia? Are Yam and Nubia ...
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Are there any Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, or any foreign account of the demise of the Hittites?

The Hittite Empire collapsed due to a civil war inside the capital (ignoring the territorial losses that occurred earlier). Are there any foreign accounts of that era (non-Hittite) that describe ...
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How did Ancient Egyptians see Europe and how did they call the area?

I was wondering how the Egyptians during the time of the Middle Kingdom saw Europe, besides Greece, Rome, and Macedonia? Did they ever travel to trade in or explore the northern part of the continent, ...
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Why is Anubis given a scarf in some representations?

Two links containing images of Anubis with scarf; https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis_Shrine https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis In some representations Anubis wears what seems to be a scarf. ...
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When did the Egyptians stop wrapping their dead in bandages?

I'm curious as to when the Egyptians stopped wrapping their dead in thin strips of fabric and transitioned to burial shrouds. Any historical speculation as to the reasons for this transition would be ...
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Are there known completely sealed chambers in Egyptian pyramids?

According to new measurements, there likely is a large hidden chamber in the Great Pyramid (Paper). There is already speculation about its contents, with people looking at religious sources the ...
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Ancient Isis Origin

I am writing an essay on how ancient Isis was originated in Egypt. I have 2 out of 3 points. Her temple in egypt and the ancient texts from egypt. I need 1 more point. Can anyone help?
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Did ancient Egypt gain any significant cultural influence from other states/regions?

Western cultures, to the best of my understanding, can trace their roots back to Ancient Egypt. Many modern day Western cultures took influence from Rome, which in turn took influence from Greece, ...
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What did the ancient Egyptians think of Khufu?

What did the ancient Egyptians think of Khufu? Did they feel he was cruel, strict, kind, greedy, ect? I need this information for a school project I'm working on about Khufu.
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What is the layout of Ancient Egyptian pyramid shafts?

I'm investigating proposed alignments between pyramid* shafts and constellations for a video project, and for it, I need to know shaft angles and directions, the directions with respect to true North ...
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How much Ancient Egyptian survived into modern Coptic & Egyptian Arabic?

The Egyptian spoken language has evolved dramatically due to influences from the many foreign powers who ruled Egypt over the ages. Coptic is an Egyptian language with strong influences from Greek, ...
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Did the Ancient Egyptians understand the importance of the brain?

I remember hearing recently that new research has suggested that the ancient Egyptians did not view the brain as a useless organ, and had a reason for disposing of it in the manner they did. I can't ...
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Who were the Hermotybians and Calascirians mentioned as making up the warrior caste of Egypt by Herodotus

I was reading this wikipedia article about an elite military force in Egypt which began as an ethnic tribe from the deserts of the eastern Sudan. This tribe was called Medjay. It was mentioned that ...
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How would a 16-year-old girl from Cleopatra's era curse?

For one of my novels, I need to learn how Egyptian 16 year old teenagers spoke to each other on a daily basis. I did some research online but I have trouble to understand what languages peoples were ...
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What is the historical basis for the Exodus?

As a sideline to the question How Long Did the Belief in the Egyptian Sun God Ra Last?, the comments have become a long discussion on the historicity of the Exodus. Rather than have pages of comments ...
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Where can I find an explanation of the variations in style of Egyptian hieroglyphs?

I've seen that Egyptian hieroglyphs are not always written or drawn identically. Long time ago I made a trip in Egypt and saw, in the Valley of the Kings, a tomb with hieroglyphs on the walls that ...