Questions tagged [ancient-rome]

Ancient Rome was a civilization centred around the city of Rome, that lasted from the 8th century BC to 476 AD (West); 1453 AD (East).

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-3 votes
0 answers
66 views

Did the Romans believe that a planet was a dead god? [closed]

The ancient Romans believed that the planet Saturn was the god Saturn. They also believed that Jupiter killed his father Saturn. How could they simultaneously believe that Saturn was dead and that he ...
  • 183
3 votes
0 answers
113 views

How were Ceasar's troops supplied with food during the Siege of Alexandria?

During the Siege of Alexandria, Julius Ceasar and a few thousand troops were stuck in the royal quarter of Alexandria for several months, with a local army surrounding them. Did the royal quarter have ...
  • 550
2 votes
0 answers
89 views

Why is syncretism mostly described through an "interpretatio graeca", rather than any other polytheism?

Ancient Greeks such as Herodotus thought other culture's gods (e.g. Egyptian) are actually same deities as theirs, just having different names. For example, Plutarch said Not different gods for ...
  • 31
-2 votes
1 answer
138 views

When did Pontius Pilate rule?

The most precise years for his rule I've seen is 26/27 AD to 36/37 AD. Has someone gotten it down to at least a precise year?
15 votes
1 answer
2k views

How aware were the latter Greek-speaking Romans (ERE: Byzantines) of the early history of Rome?

To what extent were residents of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire aware of the early history of Rome, it's legendary founding, the monarchy, the republic and early empire? Did they have access to ...
  • 269
2 votes
1 answer
178 views

Did the polytheist Greeks or Romans call their priests “father”?

I assume not, but perhaps it has just escaped me, because I am so used to this form of address from the Greek Orthodox Church. There might be texts showing that some of them did, or texts commenting ...
  • 2,582
1 vote
2 answers
245 views

What prevented the Romans from naval expansion? [closed]

Now, I have a very poor understanding of history (my high school didn't even have a history class), so if I'm missing something please point it out. The ancient Roman Empire was pretty large for its ...
6 votes
1 answer
250 views

When did subtractive notation become common for Roman numerals?

The additive notation of Roman numerals for 4 and 9 is IIII and VIIII. The subtractive notation is IV and IX. Wikipedia doesn't go into detail about which form was known and popular during which ...
0 votes
1 answer
240 views

Roman armies seem to dislike fighting at night, Livy called it dishonourable. Skulking about. (Ennius, Scaenica, 254-7) Why?

The query is in relation to Roman preference to erecting a secure camp at the end of each day and disparaging comments made regarding opposing forces who us e the night to their advantage. For example ...
5 votes
1 answer
213 views

How many Jews lived in Rome in the period immediately before (and during) the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE)?

I have been researching some of the events that occurred during the Jewish-Roman wars in ancient Israel. I have tried to find approximate population records of the Jews before and during the period of ...
1 vote
1 answer
200 views

How was the Roman Empire officially referred to by contemporaries throughout the 1st to 6th centuries AD?

I understand that the notion of state in the specified period was different from the modern one and maybe was gradually changing over time. However, I still believe that contemporary sources ...
2 votes
0 answers
260 views

How would a Roman soldier address his superior officer? Reversely, how would a superior officer address a lower ranking Roman soldier?

Let's pretend for a second there is a legionnaire named Marcus and a centurion named Augustus. Would the legionnaire refer to his superior officer as "Centurion Augustus"? Or would he say &...
  • 37
16 votes
3 answers
11k views

How did ancient Roman family names survive to current day use?

Family names in Ancient Rome were in disuse after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Still some of them are in current use, for example, my grandmother's last name "Cicero&...
  • 177
11 votes
2 answers
3k views

Did Lucian of Samosata make this joke on purpose?

This is going to be a bit of a niche question, so bear with me. Recently I've been reading the work of famous satirist Lucian of Samosata. He's pretty funny, but the thing is, I can't read the ...
  • 211
2 votes
0 answers
107 views

What is the origin of the Roman hand-laying ritual which the word "assert" traces back to?

According to the OED 2nd edition (and OED 1913, L&S, and Gaffiot) the earliest known attestation of the word assert is a Roman hand-laying ritual: assert, v. (əˈsɜːt)[f. L. assert- ppl. stem of ...
  • 129
3 votes
0 answers
95 views

What was the estimated weight of transport wagons (plaustra) in 1st through 3rd century Rome?

I am writing a paper about land transport using oxen carts and wagons in central Italy during the High Empire (late 1st century BC to early 3rd century AD), including some computing simulations of ...
  • 41
1 vote
0 answers
111 views

What early sources other than the books of Maccabees and Josephus are there for Judean rebellions under Antiochus IV?

Other than the books of Maccabees and Antiquities of the Jews (book XII) by Josephus, can anyone help me by pointing me to other early (3rd century or earlier) sources for the Judean rebellions under ...
  • 183
7 votes
1 answer
155 views

What was this king/ warrior's exact name (AGATHOFLIS)

I'm reading some books (in Arabic) about north African history, and exactly the Igilgili (modern day Jijel ) region and I found a story about a warrior / king who tried to conquer the region (4th ...
  • 241
0 votes
0 answers
215 views

Which Roman writer wrote this passage?

I'm operating off of fuzzy memory here and I’m unable to find the source of this passage. Some time ago, I read a passage from some ancient Roman writer that went something like this: “He came and he ...
  • 2,259
-1 votes
1 answer
136 views

What was at the start of Early Roman codices?

What was on an early Roman codex before the actual text of the author? For example, we have the title, author, copyright notifications and other publication information. In contrast what would you ...
3 votes
1 answer
612 views

Was the quality of Roman armor really worse than the armor of knights of the XII-XIV centuries?

When I was studying the metallurgy of ancient Rome, I saw a rather controversial study done by Michael Fulford, David Sim and Alistair Doig called "The production of Roman ferrous armour:a ...
4 votes
2 answers
339 views

How did Scipio Africanus recruit his army for Zama?

The story of the Second Punic War doesn't quite add up to me. According to Cottrell [1], after the battles at the Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae, Hannibal had slaughtered in battle 1/5 of the Roman ...
2 votes
1 answer
144 views

Why did Hadrian put Jupiter's statue in Beith Hamikdash?

The third Roman Jewish war happened 'because Hadrian put Jupiter's statue in Beith Hamikdash' (Temple in Jerusalem). Why would he do so? I've heard that originally his relationship with his Jewish ...
1 vote
2 answers
414 views

Did Hadrian have any children?

the Roman ruler's daughter coveted Rabbi Yishmael for his physical beauty. When she was told that he would have to be executed as well, she asked that the skin of his head be flayed while he was ...
0 votes
1 answer
218 views

Did Mithridates VI ever lead 500,000 soldiers?

When criticizing ancient sources and ancient army numbers, Hans Delbrück mentions a Mithridatic army allegedly 500,000 strong: "In the battle of Chaeronea Sulla is supposed to have defeated 120,...
  • 415
5 votes
1 answer
342 views

Why do ancient Jewish sources increasingly downplay Rome's role in Jerusalem's destruction?

Josephus, the (in)famous Judeo-Roman historian, in his pivotal account of the Jewish-Roman war, seeks to persistently and systematically distance the Romans from any moral responsibility in the Temple'...
  • 1,135
5 votes
1 answer
317 views

Did Rome annex Byzantium, the Greek city state, around 47AD?

This well-received YouTube video claims that Rome annexed Thrace in 45AD and then the Greek City State of Byzantium in 47 AD. Byzantium is also the last surviving Greek City State after the Rome ...
  • 189
19 votes
2 answers
4k views

Was Uranus a Roman god?

Is Caelus the Roman equivalent of Uranus, or did the Romans adopt the latter and incorporated him in their mythology while keeping his original name? I've seen multiple conflicting answers on the ...
  • 348
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

How tall was the average Italian Roman in the late Republic/early Imperial period? [duplicate]

I've seen word of a study using bodies found from around 500 BC to 500 AD that gave average heights for women about 155 cm and men 165 cm, but this seems to me to be a wide range of time and area. By ...
38 votes
1 answer
11k views

What language did Gaius Julius Caesar speak with Cleopatra?

What language did Gaius Julius Caesar (GJC) speak with Cleopatra? My thoughts: GJC spoke Latin. Cleopatra spoke many languages, including Arabic, Aramaic, Hebrew, Egyptian, Greek. Or did they need a ...
  • 437
6 votes
1 answer
3k views

Who was the tallest Roman ever found?

Was Maximinus Thrax the tallest Roman known to have ever lived? I am suspecting there might be taller specimens. Or maybe there aren't and he is simply the tallest.
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
603 views

Did the Roman Republic really have 60 legions?

A common claim is that during the last civil war of the republic, the combined legions of Antony and Octavian totaled 60 legions. Another variant is that Octavian alone commanded 60 legions after ...
  • 415
0 votes
2 answers
302 views

Were the Romans Trojans or Latins? [duplicate]

I was reading the Aeneid by Virgil and it looks like the Romans allegedly descended from the Trojan soldier Aeneas. The book then explains how this soldier fathered generations that fathered someone ...
14 votes
3 answers
4k views

What is the "bag on a stick" Hercules is holding in this picture?

The picture in the upper right of this page depicts Hercules/Heracles (or is it King Erystheus?) sitting on a chair or a throne, with the Nemean lion's skin and a club. Archaeolovers clarifies why ...
  • 243
7 votes
1 answer
794 views

Were freedmen part of the "familia"?

In LINGVA LATINA A Companion to Familia Romana Second Edition by Jeanne Marie Neumann, an unofficial companion to the Lingva Latina course, she states that: When a master manumitted … a slave, that ...
  • 7,805
5 votes
1 answer
3k views

Were there "Taxes Paid" slave tattoos in the Roman Empire?

In this video, YouTube: Did Ancient Romans Use Tattoos? @ 4:35, the presenter mentions a "Taxes Paid" tattoo. I understand it's just YouTube but I believe this creator doesn't typically ...
37 votes
2 answers
7k views

When and why did garum disappear?

Garum or liquamen was, apparently, extremely popular in classical Rome, consumed by rich and poor on a daily basis, almost on par with bread. It was also known to other Mediterranean civilizations. ...
  • 4,564
4 votes
1 answer
247 views

(How) did the Republican Romans refer to previous decades or centuries?

Nowadays we can speak of, say, "the 1970s" or "the 18th century," and it conjures up that era's zeitgeist, fashions, etc. It's true that such things changed more slowly in the ...
  • 49
6 votes
1 answer
345 views

What attempts were made to limit Roman-era water pressure/flow 'theft' by code, pipe length, and expanders and by whom?

I am searching for more knowledge as to what limitations were placed upon delivery to in-house water supply systems during the Roman Era. These limitations could have been via code, pipe size, pipe ...
  • 163
4 votes
1 answer
308 views

Which person is portrayed in this statue?

I was visiting the Capitolini Museum in Rome last week and this statue caught my attention, It was sad that I couldn't find more information about it but I hope someone could identify it or give more ...
  • 41
2 votes
0 answers
213 views

Did classical Romans have preferences for slaves based on ethnicity or racial characteristics?

I have read of Greeks who were valued as tutors, secretaries, etc, presumably because they were literate and other races (barbarii) tended not to be. Are there any historical records of general Roman ...
6 votes
0 answers
124 views

Which building is shown on p. 159 of "Roma descritta ed illustrata" (seconda edizione)?

On Wikimedia Commons, the following illustration of a building presumably located in Rome is shown ("p. 159" refers to the pagination of the source PDF file, see below): Source: The ...
  • 3,326
1 vote
0 answers
94 views

Are the sources in Flora Unveiled correct?

According to the book, Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants by Lee Taiz and Lincoln Taiz published by Oxford, Chapter 8: Plant sex from Empedocles to Theophrastus (pg 213), the ...
1 vote
0 answers
102 views

Did Hadrian conspire to kill Trajan? [closed]

Some years ago I read a novel trilogy about Trajan's life and in the last book it shows the bad relationship Trajan had with Hadrian, and how Trajan was planning to designate as successor an African ...
-3 votes
1 answer
98 views

Which of the Roman wars was the most important and riskiest for Rome? [closed]

The Roman republic and later empire existed for quite some time and there was quite a few wars, but if I where to look up the most important ones, which would they be? Understood in the way that the ...
  • 405
3 votes
0 answers
161 views

Did travelers need a pass to travel in Greco-Roman Egypt, particularly in and out of Alexandria?

I am writing a story in which people travel by boat in Greco-Roman Egypt (27 bce), and am wondering if there were internal controls on travel, or if people were pretty much free to come and go as they ...
  • 39
1 vote
0 answers
97 views

Greek/Roman play in which a woman encourages a pregnant slave to marry a slave owner and pass off the baby as his?

I can’t for the life of me remember which play this is, or indeed whether it’s Greek or Roman? There’s presumably a lot more to the plot than this, but all I remember is that a young woman is sold ...
  • 21
11 votes
1 answer
2k views

When did Romans give sticks to children to beat an enemy traitor?

I'm pretty sure I one time read a story along these lines: The Romans were at war with some other nations (maybe during the early days of the Republic?). A traitor from the opposite camp abducted ...
  • 253
35 votes
4 answers
8k views

What was the pound (unit of weight) initially equal to?

Studying history, you can often come across the old non-metric units of measurement. And while usually by a name of a unit one can understand what was taken as its basis, in the case of the pound, ...
  • 467
2 votes
1 answer
235 views

Where were there fractal structures in ancient Rome?

I am looking for some examples of fractal or fractal-like structures and patterns in ancient Rome. I did some research but did not find much. On this topic I only found this article Scipedia.com where ...
  • 145

1
2 3 4 5
11