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Questions tagged [archaeology]

For questions about the study of the physical remains of humans and human activity.

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3
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3answers
827 views

Where can I find reliable primary sources written by Ancient Egyptian laborers?

I am working on a Year 12 New Kingdom Pharaoh assignment. I have chosen Ramesses II and must determine if he was an effective king. I have decided that he was, but now I just have to provide the ...
21
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5answers
5k views

Why were there no agricultural, city-state forming civilizations in the Ice Age?

In spite of various fringe historians claiming to have found remains of Ice Age civilizations on lost continents, Atlantis and what not, there is - to the best of my knowledge - no tangible evidence ...
2
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1answer
219 views

If archaeology shows that people abandoned the ancient Trojan region around the 6th century BC, why do we have so few written evidences of that?

My professor told us that people lived around the location of ancient Troy up to the beginning of the 6th century BC and moved away mostly because they couldn't deal with prices in Neorion Harbour. ...
4
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1answer
263 views

What are the dimensions of this pomerium marker?

The pomerium of Vespasian from 75AD (pictured below) was moved to Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome in the 20th century. What are its dimensions, and what is its height, measuring from street level to ...
12
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1answer
286 views

What sources could Tacitus or Appian have used that have since been lost?

I was fascinated by the announcement of the 'virtual unrolling' of a fire-burned scroll in En-Gedi that has been analysed and found to be part of the book of Leviticus. As the Guardian noted, the ...
7
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3answers
243 views

What are early archeological clues of humans boiling food?

Over the course of my life I have seen several large, dangerous fires. Unfortunate animals often perish in these. Especially slower ones, such as turtles. Surely, it can not have been difficult for ...
6
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4answers
476 views

How do I differentiate ancient ceramic from today's junk?

I've been to London's River Thames, a famous place where it is relatively easy to find ceramics and other relics of the past. I found something but I have no idea how to distinguish ancient stuff ...
5
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2answers
250 views

What was the name of the father of Mesha, king of Moab?

In English translations of the Mesha Stele, the opening words are "I am Mesha son of Chemosh-melekh, king of Moab the Dibonite". However, the truth is that the actual text of the Stele (rendered in ...
8
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1answer
549 views

Did some Roman/Pompeiian houses have atria for slaves?

According to Wikipedia (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_the_Vettii) the House of the Vettii brothers had two atria, one specifically for slaves. Servants' quarters are to one side off the ...
6
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2answers
339 views

How do archaeologists prove that two settlements belonged to the same civilization?

Suppose I found two different settlements named A and B. These settlements are located near the river X. The distance between A and B is so that it would take at least M months of continuous travel to ...
11
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1answer
482 views

Has Mohenjo-daro been reconstructed?

What is the extent of current knowledge on the physical structure of the city of Mohenjo Daro? Have all possible roads and buildings (possibly in 3d) been reconstructed? Do we completely know the ...
-4
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1answer
488 views

How many stones high are the pyramids of Giza? [closed]

How many stones high are the pyramids of Giza, on the outside? There are three pyramids, did they have a pre-determined number of stones in height? in that case was it representative of something? ...
3
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0answers
75 views

Can stable Istotope analysis unambigously identify the Iberian Peninsula as the origin of signatures in human bones? [closed]

Is the Isotope signature (e.g. O and Sr) of the Iberian Penisula specific enough to proof a human spent decades of adult adult there? This is not about the teeth, only about bones.
3
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2answers
226 views

Why does the Ħaġar Qim seem to have drilled holes / pitted dots on its stoneworks?

Does anyone has idea/knowledge, why neolithic temple stones would have these small holes? They are facing to sun, other side of the stones is flat. Smaller object were drilled all over, not just one ...
5
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3answers
719 views

What caused women to lose their access to resources and become a part of men's possessions with the start of the agriculture era?

I'm reading the book SEX AT DAWN: the prehistoric origins of modern sexuality, the book suggests that in prehistoric times, when homo sapiens were just foraging on the earth, the relation between men ...
1
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2answers
164 views

About the use of the arrow shaped tool in archaological digs

I have seen the arrow-shaped tool and the board (shown in below image) in quite a few photos from archaeological digs. I had some questions about the arrow shaped tool: Does it have a name? What is ...
3
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1answer
219 views

Dating of Hammurabi discrepancy

I have multiple sources regarding the code of Hammurabi/Hammurapi and they have two conflicting dates of origin. Some give a date of compilation at near 1795-1750 B.C and some date it at 2250 B.C. ...
3
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1answer
622 views

Are there any texts/translations of the 4 main Egyptian creation myths?

According to wikipedia there are 4 main Egyptian Creation Myths. These appear to be: Ogdoad creaton myth of Hermopolis Creation myth of Atum from Heliopolis Creation myth of Ptah from Memphis ...
4
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0answers
140 views

What was the purpose of a tally stick?

I was recently reading a translation of "The debate between Sheep and Grain" Babylonian creation myth. It mentioned the following in lines 130-142: Every night your count is made and your tally-...
11
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2answers
507 views

Did iron age Britons still use the “ritual” sites built by their neolithic predecessors?

Pre-Roman sites in Britain get lumped together as "ancient", but in reality they span a good couple of thousand years between the neolithic and the iron age. That made me wonder whether there was any ...
3
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1answer
751 views

Differences between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the books of Moses [closed]

On Wikipedia, I read that the texts from Exodus in the Dead Sea scrolls contain some differences from the canonical version. However, I couldn't find them online. Can someone give me a few examples?
2
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2answers
124 views

What is the labelling system for artefacts?

I have no practical or academic experience with archaeology. Some well-known archaeological sites have colloquial names. For example Newgrange or its Kerbstone 52. They can be unambiguously referred ...
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2answers
788 views

What's the origin of Crespi plates? [closed]

I've found this article about The Mysterious Crespi Collection & The Metal Library And there is a picture of The enigmatic Crespi plate: And it's said: The age and origin of these items is ...
6
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4answers
390 views

Use of lead sheets in reconstruction of late medieval tower?

I guess it's more of an archaeology question, but this is the closest forum I could find. So, we stopped at Gardiki Castle, Corfu, Greece, built in the late Byzantine era in the 13th century, and ...
10
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2answers
3k views

What were the insignia of the Western Roman Empire and what happened to them?

When Romulus Augustus was deposed by Odoacer, it is said that the "Imperial Insignia" was sent to Constantinople. I always wondered what kind of object(s) this was and if it survived in any form. If ...
5
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1answer
208 views

Copper and Bronze Age Burials in Western Europe

Can anyone estimate the number of high-prestige burials that have been found in France, Spain or Portugal which date from, say, 3000 BC to 1000 BC? For example, supposing that there were 2000 persons ...
2
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1answer
389 views

Has anybody a complete list of Obelisks in the World?

I'm interested to see if we can build up a full list of all Obelisks around the world. It would be great to have the coordinates of each location, so I can mark them on Google Earth. Yes, I did do a ...
4
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2answers
889 views

Chinese legendary figures with European appearance [closed]

I've been fascinated by the discovery of the Indo-European origin of the mummies in the Tarim basin. This article says: The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that ...
30
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3answers
2k views

What is the historical basis for the Exodus?

As a sideline to the question How Long Did the Belief in the Egyptian Sun God Ra Last?, the comments have become a long discussion on the historicity of the Exodus. Rather than have pages of comments ...
15
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3answers
713 views

Authenticity of the Russian birch bark manuscripts

More than 1000 birch bark manuscripts have been found in Novgorod and other Russian cities in last 50 years. Many of them stayed in the soil for more than 700 years. In the same time, no special ...
4
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2answers
717 views

What is the age of Machu Picchu principal temple?

Brian Foerster in this video tells a theory that Incas built their city on top of an older one, judging by the difference in the block material (granite), size, and the precision of their composition. ...
11
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4answers
701 views

Does the Kimmirut find indicate pre-Viking Europeans traveling to Baffin Island?

A 2008 article from the Nunatsiaq News claimed there was new evidence of European contact with the Canadian Arctic, saying things like: Dating of some yarn and other artifacts, presumed to be left ...
8
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1answer
298 views

Has the strength of the historical-archaeological method ever been tested experimentally?

Historians routinely draw quite far-reaching conclusions about all aspects of society from archaeological artifacts and textual documents that – naturally – represent only a minuscule fraction of all ...
15
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2answers
821 views

Which undeciphered writing system has the largest corpus of text?

Dozens of ancient writing systems are still undeciphered. My question is: Which of them has the largest number of known inscriptions (and might thus be most accessible to future decipherment, though ...
5
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1answer
388 views

Who was the shepherd that discovered the Gobekli Tepe? [closed]

I was watching a National Geographic documentary about the famous "Göbekli Tepe". In many of the articles and in the documentary - they say it was discovered by "a shepherd" or "the shepherd" or "the ...
21
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5answers
22k views

Did Antarctica remain entirely unvisited by humans until the early 19th century?

Antarctica today is covered permanently by thick layers of ice, making it extremely inhospitable to humans. And, unlike the Arctic regions, it had no indigenous population of humans when modern man ...
12
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3answers
2k views

Why do people still leave flowers at the Temple of Julius Caesar?

I visited Rome recently and did an audio tour through the Colosseum and Roman Forum archeological sites. In the Roman Forum there is the remains of the Temple of Caesar, where Julius Caesar was ...
7
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0answers
453 views

Could depicted items (brooch, urn, key) really be 3000 years old?

My father, who died a few years ago, has left the depicted items to me. Apparently he found them as fragments near a local hill. He had the items dated by some authority and according to that source ...
12
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2answers
558 views

Ancient statue I found near my place

I have found an ancient statue covered in the ground. I am from Haifa, Israel. There are no old buildings nearby. Here is its photo; I don't know what it is! I would like to know what period this ...
5
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1answer
100 views

Are “I, II, III, …” versions of archaeological versioning of layers unique to Troy?

When reading about archaeological research on Troy, one can see that archeologists distinguish between different discrete numbered layers (Troy I => Troy IX). Is that a standard approach in ...
11
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2answers
335 views

How much of the *Iliad* was confirmed scientifically?

Obviously, one of the central facts of Homer's Iliad was confirmed when archaeologists found Troy. But were there any other details of Iliad (such as existance of Atreidae dynasty, Agamemnon actually ...
3
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0answers
177 views

Were there prehistoric interaction between Caucasian and Asian people? [closed]

Are there any documented instances of prehistoric interaction between Caucasian and Asian people? Do archeological sites such as Xiaohe Tomb complex imply there were?
6
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1answer
329 views

Are parts of the Sphinx older than 5000 years?

Are parts of the Great Sphinx of Giza more than 5000 years old? There was a controversy about this question 15 years ago on which I didn't find anything to conclusively prove or debunk it.
7
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3answers
859 views

Plagues in Pre-European Americas?

Are there any historical accounts that those living in the Americas encountered a plague or plagues that proved to be as devastating on the population as that of the Bubonic (black) plague in Europe? ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Evidence of diets that were exclusively vegetarian

What evidence, provided by archaeological anthropology, is there in regards to diets that were exclusively vegetarian by choice from Ancient history (4th millennium BC) to Classical antiquity (5th ...
14
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1answer
903 views

Are there examples of well known medieval battles with very little archaeological evidence?

When I was researching the history of The Battle of Kulikovo (битва на Куликовом поле), I was struck by the seemingly complete dearth of available archaeological evidence at the site of the battle (...
7
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2answers
421 views

Tarim Mummies origins and theories separating fact from fiction

Is there any conclusive evidence of where the Tarim Mummies originate from? What were these "westerners" doing in China? The theories I have heard are that they are the forebearers of the Kazaks or ...