Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [catholic-church]

The largest Christian Church and one of the oldest. The Catholic Church is overseen by a hierarchy led by the Pope.

4
votes
0answers
59 views

Did Spanish priests fight in South America?

I have been reading up (vi Wikipedia) on El Dorado and the Spanish and English expeditions through South America. It seems pretty clear that there were Priests and Scholars who would accompany ...
21
votes
4answers
4k views

Has there ever been an archbishop or bishop younger than the 16-year-old James of Nicosia?

In 1456, King John II of Cyprus appointed his illegitimate son James as Latin Archbishop of Nicosia. James was just 16 at the time. James soon lost his position, being forced to flee the following ...
3
votes
2answers
233 views

What was the Catholic Church trying to do in Spain in the 1930s?

Right now I'm trying to learn about Spain's transition to democracy in the 20th century. To start, I'm looking at the civil war that took place in the '30s. And the question I'm trying to answer is: ...
-1
votes
2answers
159 views

Why, and how, was the Catholic Church in Spain reactionary in the early 20th century? [closed]

Right now I'm trying to learn about Spain's transition to democracy in the 20th century. To start, I'm looking at the civil war that took place in the '30s. And the question I'm trying to answer is: ...
4
votes
2answers
198 views

Was any Church dispensation granted to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine’s marriage?

They were 3rd cousins and therefore related within the seventh degree since consanguinity was determined by counting up to the nearest common ancestor. I read sources that said that they did not ...
1
vote
0answers
187 views

What were the most controversial thesis' of the Scholastics?

What actual theses were controversial and caused a stir at the time (not today) in the sense of having the most amount of written response? What specific questions were defended in actual theses by ...
3
votes
2answers
129 views

How were Icelandic bishops elected before the union with Norway?

By reading some basic texts (in English translation) (like Hungrvaka) I came to know that the bishops were elected on Iceland, and then had to make a journey to mainland Europe to be consecrated (...
4
votes
2answers
433 views

Why was William Tyndale burnt at the stake?

I read here that the main reason Tyndale was executed by the church was because he translated the Greek bible into English. Somewhere else I read that this is not true. Tyndale was charged with ...
6
votes
0answers
179 views

Catholic priests starting a war

Catholic priests were leading figures in the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. In 1810, Hidalgo gave the Grito de Dolores; in 1811, Morelos occupied Acapulco and Mercado took San Blas. All ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Responsibilities of a naval chaplain in the Spanish empire

In the beginning of the 19th century Agustín Fernández was chaplain of the naval base at San Blas. Records in the colonial section of the Mexican national archive, summarized in all caps, refer to his ...
9
votes
2answers
390 views

Did Freemasons motivate Spain's expulsion of Jesuits?

Carlos III of Spain was a Catholic, but an anticlerical one. After riots in Madrid, he expelled the Society of Jesus (and was followed in this by Pope Clement XIV). The same year, 1767, the first ...
9
votes
1answer
296 views

Does any copy exist of the Papal bull which authorized the Spanish Inquisition?

I have been trying, without success, to find an exemplification or any lesser copy of the Papal bull (issued by Pope Sixtus IV on November 1, 1478) known as Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus (...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

ut and et in the third Dicta Patricii of the Book of Armagh

I am doing research on the motto of the Pontifical Irish College in Rome (Italian: Pontificio Collegio Irlandese) which reads "Ut Christiani Ita et Romani Sitis" (Book of Armagh Folio 9). Most ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Did the Vatican punish France for rejecting Tordesillas?

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided up all new discoveries between Portugal and Castile, so establishing the position of Brazil. Pope Alexander VI's deal excluded the other Catholic states. ...
4
votes
1answer
617 views

What are these “Papal States” in Germany after 1648?

I don't usually watch this person's videos, but I couldn't find another one. What do the "Papal States" in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia represent? I especially want to know what affected the ...
34
votes
2answers
8k views

Did the Pope's crossbow and archery bans have any effect?

One of the more famous and certainly curious decisions at the Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 was a ban on using missile troops against Christians. Specifically, Canon 29 states that: We ...
2
votes
3answers
562 views

Who was the most recent pope to crown a king or emperor?

Charlemagne was crowned by Pope St. Leo III: But who was the most recent pope to crown a king or emperor?
7
votes
2answers
294 views

Why was the date moved by 10 days instead of 9 during Gregorian calendar reform?

From Wikipedia: ... the Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

Tombstone-covered floor in Churches

I recently visited the Basilica di Santa Maria in Aracoeli in Rome and found that the floor was covered with tombstones. Some of the tombstones simply contained text and decoration, while others ...
5
votes
1answer
355 views

What was the most recent Catholic coronation ceremony of a king?

What was the most recent Catholic coronation ceremony of a king*? Karl of Austria's, December 1916? *excluding popes, who are both civil kings and heads of the Catholic Church
4
votes
1answer
476 views

Why did the church attack Mainz for printing books?

A history of Gutenberg recounts: The invention of the printing press was received with opposition from the Catholic Church. The printers of Mainz fled after an attack from soldiers of the ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Was Canónigo Fernández a traitor to Mexico?

Agustín Fernández de San Vicente was the canon priest of the Cathedral of Durango and the Vicar-General of New Mexico. In between these church posts, at the time of Mexican Independence, he traveled ...
10
votes
2answers
420 views

What was the Catholic Church's opinion of Diệm's South Vietnam?

I've started watching The Vietnam War, and would like to know something incidental to the early stages of this conflict. Ngo Dinh Diem led an increasingly brutal and unashamedly pro-Catholic ...
2
votes
1answer
245 views

In the Lombard period, could not the Byzantine Empire have occupied Rome?

The Italian campaigns were finished in 556. The three chapters schism between the emperor and Pope came to a head. Some popes were dragged to Constantinople. This shows that the Emperor was exerting ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Should the Great Schism of 1054 be taken to be 1204 (or 1182) instead?

It seems that 1054 wasn't such a big deal: forty years later Pope Urban and Emperor Alexios were on such good terms that a crusade was initiated to save Constantinople and the Holy Lands; even in 1136 ...
6
votes
3answers
3k views

What was the death toll during the Inquisition?

I'm researching about the death toll during the Inquisition, I'm particularly interested in what happened from 12th to the 15th century but not exclusively to this period. One part of this question ...
10
votes
1answer
428 views

Considering what was known about Hitler in 1933, why would German bishops declare that Catholics could cooperate with the new State?

Partially prompted by this other question "Were Hitler's anti-Jewish sentiments known at all to those who voted him to power in 1933?" According to the information in above question, the antisemitism ...
10
votes
2answers
398 views

In Francoist Spain, what steps were required for non-Catholics to marry?

In Francoist Spain, if I understand correctly, the Roman Catholic Church had significant authority over many religious aspects of life, including marriage. On Wikipedia, I read: Civil marriages ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Have any opinions by Fanny Allen of her father's book on theology survived?

Fanny Allen was a daughter of Colonel Ethan Allen of the Continental Army, noted for taking Fort Ticonderoga from the British by surprising them while they slept. (Or General Ethan Allen if you like; ...
9
votes
1answer
364 views

How did the crusaders “know” that they found the Holy Blood?

The Basilica of the Holy Blood, a church in Bruges, claims they hold the Holy Blood and the main thesis is that it was brought to Bruges by the Second Crusade. Note that in 1964, Nicolas Huyghebaert ...
6
votes
2answers
193 views

Did California mission priests administer, not merely call for, corporal punishment?

California missions were staffed by a Franciscan priest or two, and a half a dozen soldiers. The former addressed spiritual and administrative concerns and the latter established physical security for ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

When could California mission priests perform confirmation?

The Franciscan priests at California missions were empowered with the faculties to perform sacraments like baptism and marriage. A stricter standard applied in the case of the faculty of confirmation -...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

Vatican hidden (secret) rooms and passages?

The Vatican is the smallest sovereign state in the world by both area and population and at the same time is considered a place of many mysteries. Many movies contain episodes of a Vatican ...
5
votes
1answer
98 views

What did the administrators of secularized California missions do?

The Alta California missions built in the Spanish period were initially run by Franciscans, then secularized in the 1830s, becoming regular parish churches. Some lay people officially served to "...
7
votes
1answer
209 views

How did people ensure that renaissance Papal election bribery was honored?

Some papal elections during the rennaisance were notorious for allegations of bribery. For example the 1492 conclave which elected Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI. The amount needed for bribes ...
16
votes
1answer
757 views

Has Catholic excommunication ever caused the dethronement of any king?

Wikipedia has a list of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church, with a little explanation of the causes for each case, but (understandably) none of the effects. I'm curious if this measure has ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

What differentiates a priest, a clerk, a capellanus, a subdeacon and a rector? [closed]

I have been looking at the list of rectors of Eversholt church, Bedfordshire, from http://bedsarchivescat.bedford.gov.uk/Details/archive/110033099. The various people listed there are each described ...
8
votes
3answers
6k views

Why was Copernicus not persecuted by the church, but Galileo was?

The Catholic Church's persecution of Galileo Galilei for embracing heliocentrism is very well known today. He was subjected to the inquisition and spent the end of his life in house arrest. However, ...
3
votes
0answers
118 views

Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
1
vote
1answer
573 views

What divided the Roman Catholic church from the Orthodox church? [closed]

What incident or reason divided the Roman catholic church from the orthodox church of Russia. And who decided the differences between the two churches and faiths?
0
votes
1answer
795 views

When was the last time the Catholic Church excommunicated a government official for political reasons?

The Roman Catholic Church has a long history of excommunicating people. These days it is mostly constrained to excommunicating bishops who break with doctrine. The Pope regularly sends letters to ...
7
votes
2answers
907 views

Who was the first Pope?

I know that Peter is the first Pope, but I do believe that he is called a bishop and is one of several including the Bishops of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, and others. Who was the first ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

Were the dates of saints days moved as part of the Gregorian calendar reforms?

I understand that if one were to go back in time and ask a participant at the battle of Agincourt what the date was, he would (if he knew) say that it was the 16th of October, he would also (more ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

What caused the imposition of strict celibacy for Catholic priests during the 11th century?

At the Second Lateran Council in 1139, the Catholic Church implemented a rule requiring all priests to remain celibate. Although the Church has already talked about being celibate for the previous ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Lusatia oath from 1422

Citizens of Lusatia are claimed to have been made to take an oath in 1422, starting with the following words Die Ketzer und in dem christlichen Glauben irresame Leute zu tilgen und zu verderben ...
10
votes
4answers
7k views

Why didn't “Europe” support the Byzantine Empire against the Turks?

Why didn't Catholic Europe support the Byzantine empire against the Turks? Or did they? How? Yes, there were some differences between the Catholic and Orthodox interpretation of christianity but the ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

Why did the French Revolution bring secularism?

The Roman Catholic Church was one of the victims of the French Revolution. Many of the priests, nuns, and other clergyman were abolished. Why did the revolutionaries "hate" the Roman Catholic Church?
6
votes
1answer
1k views

What was the banquet of chestnuts?

It is supposed that at some point in Vatican history an event took place commonly referred to as the banquet of chestnuts. However this story is doubted and discounted in many quarters. Is there any ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Did Franco consider Hitler a “son of the Catholic Church” who “died while defending Christianity”?

Did Francisco Franco, who established Catholicism as the State religion of Spain, consider Hitler a "son of the Catholic Church" who "died while defending Christianity"? If so, why? Hitler acted ...
3
votes
1answer
184 views

Is there a Buddhist-Franciscan connection?

A sentence in a book review seems to presuppose that: Cardini also says nothing about the Muslim world as a conduit for cultural goods from even greater distances, such as Chinese-style ...