Questions tagged [catholic-church]

The largest Christian Church and one of the oldest. The Catholic Church is overseen by a hierarchy led by the Pope.

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Is history of Polish Catholicism exceptional? [closed]

Zygmunt Zieliński in his study called "The myth of a Catholic Pole" in the book Polish political myths of the 19th and 20th centuries observes: (…) the criterion for distin­guishing the ...
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Why was William Tyndale burnt at the stake?

I read here that the main reason Tyndale was executed by the church was because he translated the Greek bible into English. Somewhere else I read that this is not true. Tyndale was charged with ...
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Was there Church opposition to heliocentrism in 1600?

According to the Stanford encyclopedia (entry: Copernicus): Pope Clement VII (r. 1523–1534) had reacted favorably to a talk about Copernicus’s theories, rewarding the speaker with a rare manuscript. ...
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When was the last time the Catholic Church excommunicated a government official for political reasons?

The Roman Catholic Church has a long history of excommunicating people. These days it is mostly constrained to excommunicating bishops who break with doctrine. The Pope regularly sends letters to ...
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What ancient manuscripts were lost when the Huguenots destroyed the Cluny Abbey library?

I've heard that the destruction of the great Cluny Abbey library (in the Burgundy region of France) both by the Huguenots (1562) and later during the French Revolution meant that a massive number of ...
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Did Henrietta Maria leave any writings in which she described her thoughts with respect to Charles I's afterlife?

Henrietta Maria, Charles I's queen consort, was a famously strident Roman Catholic. She outraged her husband's subjects by praying publicly under the gallows at Tyburn, where many Roman Catholics had ...
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Did the Catholic Church ban adoption in the Middle Ages?

In the book Contours of the World Economy (2007), by Angus Maddison, it says: The adoption of Christianity as a state religion in 380 AD led to basic changes in the nature of European marriage, ...
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What is the first instance of a Pope denouncing syncretism with non-Christian faiths in the modern era?

Modern era being 1500 CE and onward. Religious syncretism is an overlapping of faiths. For example, Santa Muerte is a Mexican folk saint that blends a Catholic icon with a native reverence of death. ...
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Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were not motivated as a distraction from internal conflicts?

I was just debating with a Catholic acquaintance. He ascribed merit to the Catholic crusades and said that many historians agreed with him. Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were ...
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Are there churches that belong to the German Armed Forces?

Yesterday, while walking through Graz, in southern Austria, I noticed an old church. I noticed it because it had a big symbol painted over its entrance door. You might have seen this symbol in WWI and ...
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What authority did the Catholic Church have over European monarchs from 900–1450?

I recently described the Catholic Church as a superpower during the Middle Ages and was surprised a respected member of the board (LangLangC) objected to that characterization and thought the Catholic ...
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What is the relevance of the Confession of Augsburg to the Colloquy at Poissy?

According the wikipedia article Colloquy at Poissy Catharine [de' Medici] appointed a smaller committee of five Calvinists and five Roman Catholics. Their task was to devise a formula on which the ...
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Did Freemasons motivate Spain's expulsion of Jesuits?

Carlos III of Spain was a Catholic, but an anticlerical one. After riots in Madrid, he expelled the Society of Jesus (and was followed in this by Pope Clement XIV). The same year, 1767, the first ...
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Were the popes during the Avignon era still considered bishop of Rome?

The Catholic pope is also the bishop of Rome, since St Peter. However, the Papacy moved to Avignon from 1309 to 1376. Were these popes (seven in all) still considered bishops of Rome? Bishops are ...
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What was the real name of Bishop Contumeliosus of Riez?

History has recorded the name of an allegedly badly-behaved bishop of Riez as Bishop "Contumeliosus of Riez" (he was later absolved of his accusations). Now, Contumeliosus is definitely not the real ...
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What was the biggest region in the Holy Roman Empire that was never Protestant, if any?

It is well known that Germany is denominational divided. This comes from the time of Reformation and esp. the Peace of Augsburg 1555, when the right of each prince of the Empire to decide over the ...
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What did the people of the Middle Ages call their period?

It's clear that Middle Ages is a term from the Renaissance. My question is: What names did scholars use during the Middle Ages for their own period? Well, of course Middle Ages is a single name for ...
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Where can I find historical statistics about Catholic monasticism? [closed]

I'm reading a book on monasticism (The World of Medieval Monasticism, by Melville) and the author very often makes statements like "by year X, there were Y monasteries in Europe with around Z members" ...
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Why was Copernicus not persecuted by the church, but Galileo was?

The Catholic Church's persecution of Galileo Galilei for embracing heliocentrism is very well known today. He was subjected to the inquisition and spent the end of his life in house arrest. However, ...
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How did people dress at the Jesuit missions to the Hurons?

The Jesuits established a number of missions among the Huron people of what is today Ontario during the 1600s. Unlike many other proselytizing groups of that era, the Jesuits were known for ...
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Looking for colonial era evidence of Jesuit missions from San Martin Peru up to the Pastaza river

if there are any Peruvian colonial era history experts out there, I'm looking for a citable source of some kind for the following scenario. In my research I've noticed an interesting discrepancy in ...
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What is the most severe punishment a priest could have in history for violating his vows of celibacy?

I am doing a research about this topic, because I wanted to know if at some point in the history of Chirstian Church (specially the Catholic Chuch) would have a punishment for priests violating their ...
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Did average church-goers understand mass in Latin?

Since around the 4th century AD, Latin is the official language of the Catholic Church. As such, most of this period, the official language of the Mass was Latin (there has been exceptions). A key ...
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To what extent is the Catholic church responsible for historical Antisemitism in Europe? [closed]

Jews faced a great deal of Antisemitism, as defined by radically different treatment compared to their Christian counterparts, with particular attention to violence, throughout their history. ...
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What was Pope Innocent VIII's reaction to the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews in 1492?

What was the reaction of the Pope of the Catholic Church to the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews of Spain on March 31, 1492? Did Pope Innocent VIII (d. July 25, 1492) condemn publicly Spain's decree? ...
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How did people ensure that renaissance Papal election bribery was honored?

Some papal elections during the rennaisance were notorious for allegations of bribery. For example the 1492 conclave which elected Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI. The amount needed for bribes ...
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Why was the date moved by 10 days instead of 9 during Gregorian calendar reform?

From Wikipedia: ... the Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First ...
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Who revoked their signatures from the union agreement at the Council of Florence?

In many Byzantine history books, a general statement is made that from the 700 strong delegation to the council of Florence, "many Orthodox bishops revoked their signatures" after the council ...
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Did the early Christian community on Iceland require the import of wine for liturgy?

Roman Catholic liturgy requires wine, which cannot be produced in Iceland. Did the Christianisation of early Norse settlers entail a need to constantly import wine as a result?
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Which Catholic priests were given diplomatic missions?

Fernández de San Vicente was a high-ranking priest appointed by Mexico's government for a diplomatic mission to the Californias in 1822. Despite being nominally in the same country¸ the isolation of ...
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Were the islands/countries discovered by Hispanic explorers named after Mozarabic feast days? [closed]

The Spanish and Portuguese often named newly discovered countries and islands after the feast days they were discovered, especially during the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It is always assumed ...
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Did Pope Urban II issue the papal bull “terra nullius” in 1095?

Countless sources claim that the origin of the term terra nullius is from a papal bull issued by Pope Urban II in 1095 called "Terra nullius". Here are a two: Pramod K. Nayar, The Postcolonial ...
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Why were Catholic priests so instrumental in the Mexican independence movement?

Catholic priests were leading figures in the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. In 1810, Hidalgo gave the Grito de Dolores; in 1811, Morelos occupied Acapulco and Mercado took San Blas. ...
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Was Deicide officially taught in American Catholic (“parochial”) schools and if so, when did it officially end?

In the 1970s, which was after Vatican II by several years, the younger brother of a friend was attending a Catholic school -- he was 9 or 10 maybe. He told me that the Jews had killed Christ and went ...
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Is there a meaning in a name marked on the rear of a headstone rather than the front?

I have found a family headstone with the names of the deceased on the front (with many details), and a military cross (for their son) in front of the stone. On the rear of the stone is a name and age,...
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Were priests in politics in New Spain?

In the the Spanish Empire generally, the royal state and the state church were tightly coupled. One hierarchy supposedly answered to the Viceroy and then the King; the other to the Archbishop and the ...
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Has there ever been an archbishop or bishop younger than the 16-year-old James of Nicosia?

In 1456, King John II of Cyprus appointed his illegitimate son James as Latin Archbishop of Nicosia. James was just 16 at the time. James soon lost his position, being forced to flee the following ...
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What caused the imposition of strict celibacy for Catholic priests during the 11th century?

At the Second Lateran Council in 1139, the Catholic Church implemented a rule requiring all priests to remain celibate. Although the Church has already talked about being celibate for the previous ...
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Were princes and other large landowners motivated to support the Reformation by the frequency of Church holidays?

Church holidays or holy days were very frequent in the middle ages. Here is one link Medieval Holidays that testifies this: "The rural population of the Middle Ages had their days of rest and ...
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Was there a priest on the Titanic who stayed on the ship giving confession to as many as he could?

In the fiction book Emily's Hope, by Ellen Gable, there is a passage set in 1912 that describes a news article about a priest on board the RMS Titanic: She glanced down at the newspaper again and ...
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A question about the definition of heresy (13th. C)

I write considering a definition of heresy, given by Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln (fl. 1235), who's words are widely cited in regards to the history of the inquisition: An opinion created by human ...
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Did Popes publicly call for any assassinations other than that of Elizabeth I?

According to encyclopedia.com, following on the Protestant Reformation, In 1580, outraged at the deaths of Catholic missionaries, Pope Gregory XIII made a pronouncement that encouraged Elizabeth's ...
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Did the Vatican punish France for rejecting Tordesillas?

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided up all new discoveries between Portugal and Castile, so establishing the position of Brazil. Pope Alexander VI's deal excluded the other Catholic states. ...
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When did England stop being a Papal fief?

In 1213, King John surrendered England to the papacy making it a Papal fief where the Pope would be paid annual tribute. However King Edward I did not act as a vassal to the Pope because he got into ...
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Schism of 1054 - what were the positions of Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch?

Q1 Given that the validity of the Western legates' act is doubtful since Pope Leo had died and Cerularius' excommunication only applied to individuals, why was the schism allowed to continue to the ...
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Why didn't “Europe” support the Byzantine Empire against the Turks?

Why didn't Catholic Europe support the Byzantine empire against the Turks? Or did they? How? Yes, there were some differences between the Catholic and Orthodox interpretation of christianity but the ...
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Does the Catholic church have a long history of child abuse, or is it something that started in our time?

There has been a debate on the causes of clerical child abuse is a major aspect of the academic literature surrounding Catholic sex abuse cases. However, I wonder what is the history of child abuse in ...
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Did Francis de Sales try to bribe Theodore Beza?

Source. The relevant quote. Money, all-powerful in this poor country, seemed to him so irresistible as an argument, that he went to Geneva to try and buy over old Theodore Beza, by offering him a ...
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When could California mission priests perform confirmation?

The Franciscan priests at California missions were empowered with the faculties to perform sacraments like baptism and marriage. A stricter standard applied in the case of the faculty of confirmation -...
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Did Spanish priests fight in South America?

I have been reading up (vi Wikipedia) on El Dorado and the Spanish and English expeditions through South America. It seems pretty clear that there were Priests and Scholars who would accompany ...