Questions tagged [china]

Generally refers to the country referred to as the People's Republic of China, a country in E Asia. With a surface area of 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km). The current Capital is Beijing.

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Did China repay Soviet grain aid?

The Sino-Soviet rift/split is a complicated issue. But there can be little doubt that it was complete by mid 1963, when the «Polemics on the General Line» were released by the Chinese Communist Party. ...
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How did Taiwan participate in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58?

Wikipedia's International Geophysical Year begins: The International Geophysical Year (IGY; French: Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July ...
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What impact does colonial legacy have on current US presence in the South China Sea dispute?

In recent years, the South China Sea has become somewhat important from a geo-political standpoint. China is building military bases, among many other things, and the US has been speaking about ...
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Was Tibet ruled by Yuan Dynasty empires?

Did Yuan dynasty empires ever ruled Tibet as they claim or was it always an independent state as claimed by The Tibetan Govt in Exile?
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Were Korea and Tibet's relationship with Qing China similar?

Korea (Joseon) and Tibet both paid tribute to the Qing Empire, while maintaining internal autonomy. However, Chinese Nationalists were happy to support the independence of Korea, but not that of Tibet....
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Why did the USSR support the PRC entry into the UN?

In 1971, the USSR (and satellites) voted in favor of UN Resolution 2758, which recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) as "the only legitimate representative of China to the United ...
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What is the oldest excavated/discovered piece of silk textile made for clothing or writing?

Chu manuscript dating back to circa 300 B.C., middle of the Warring States era. Mawangdui robe's dating back to ~ 200..150 B.C., beginning of the Western Han. Do you know any older examples of silk ...
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What incentives were there for Soviet and Chinese politicians to try climb to the top when there was so much history of deposing their own? [closed]

USSR had 1936-1938 Great Purge, 1941 Red Army purges, Leningrad affair. Beria was executed. Nikita Khrushchev, Zhukov, Podgorny were ousted. In China, Hua Goufeng was ousted, Zhao Ziyang house ...
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Why did China annex Tibet?

This is probably a very naive question, but here it goes: Was there an economical or political reason for the invasion of Tibet by China in 1950? It does not seem to me that Tibet is a particularly ...
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Why did the Spanish government award a decoration to Chiang Kai-Shek?

In 1936 the republican government granted Chiang the Order of Isabella the Catholic.1 Why did they do that? The Wikipedia article on Chiang is where I got this from.
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How did China deal with the Black Death during the second plague pandemic?

As far as I know, Europeans quarantined people. Sometimes neighbors sent food, and some people checked and marked houses infected by the Black Death. Sometimes corpses were burned in a mass pit, and ...
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What are the best resources for studying oracle bone inscriptions?

Can someone please recommend the best resources for studying Chinese oracle bone inscriptions? Rather than general or specific information about oracle bones, I'm looking for collections or catalogs ...
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Did China ever consider a phonetic writing system?

I was surprised to learn the following about the Japanese and Korean languages: Japanese used a lot of Chinese characters in their language and had no phonetic system, until around the year 800 when ...
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How did a nomadic minority group the Manchus come to rule over China?

The population of the Chinese empire was about 120 times larger than the Jurchen tribe, who later renamed themselves to Manchus. Yes, the Manchus were very skilled warriors and the late Ming dynasty ...
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Why do some sections of Great Wall of China seem to be bidirectional?

Official historiography says that Great Wall of China is built "across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various ...
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How did the conquering Mongols and Manchus of China end up becoming part of China?

The Mongols conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty. The Manchus conquered China and established the Qing dynasty. Why is it in both cases, the conquering countries became part of China at ...
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Was there intermixing between Brits and Hong Kongers during Britain's control of the territory?

When Britain took control of Hong Kong at the end of the First Opium War did British Europeans stay and intermix (intermix=make new humans)?
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What taxes were legally required to be paid in silver in Qing China?

Background It is often argued that the following mechanism heavily contributed to the commencement of the opium trade between the Qing and British Empires (you are welcome to correct my understanding):...
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In the 18th c., did/would China accept gold from Europe as trade payment? Why / why not?

In reading about the historical Opium situation in China, the silver trade is mentioned again and again. I get the impression that China only accepted silver, even though I have never seen gold ...
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Why didn't America “rent” parts of China? [closed]

After the Opium War, Britain and France signed treaties with China that said they could establish "spheres of influence" over parts of China. Britain and France went this way, but why didn't America?
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What title did the merchants permitted to deal with Canton's 13 Factories carry?

What I know: During the period leading up to the Opium Wars, trade into China from Europe was locked down to 13 buildings in Canton known as the 13 factories. European merchants were only permitted to ...
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Why didn't Mao see that the “Great Leap Forward” would be such a disaster?

I've been reading about Mao Zedong and I heard about his Great Leap Forward. I read that it ended up splitting families apart and causing a massive economic crash. Why didn't Mao Zedong see this would ...
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Was there anyone involved in the negotiations of New Territories (Hong Kong) lease still alive at the time of the negotiations of its return to China?

As well explained by this answer, I know the usual confusion among the previous cession in perpetuity of Hong Kong versus the lease of the neighboring New Territories. For all effects, China got the ...
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Why was Britain willing to return Hong Kong but not Gibraltar?

Why was Britain willing to return Hong Kong to China, but not Gibraltar to Spain? Was it because Gibraltar has more strategic value than Hong Kong?
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Why was Calcutta a node in the opium smuggling network prior to the Opium Wars in China?

As per Wikipedia's History of Kolkata page: After the territorial conquest of Bengal in 1757, the British East India Company pursued a monopoly on production and export of opium from India. The ...
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Why did the British take Hong Kong instead of any other of the later treaty ports?

The aftermath of the first Opium War declared that Hong Kong and the island of Kowloon should be ceded to the UK as a port for refitting ships and storing cargo. It also meant there was easy access ...
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Why was 19th-century Japan able to modernize and not China?

At the start of the 19th century, Asian countries had militaries less effective than Western nations. In 1853, the US Navy forced Japan to enter into trade with the United States. The Japanese ...
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Were the commentaries and subcommentaries part of the Tang Code?

Are the commentaries and subcommentaries in Wallace Johnson's translation of the Tang Code (Princeton University Press) written by Wallace Johnson or are they part of the original text of the Code?
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What was China's claim line in the Aksai Chin before the 1962 war?

The original mutually agreeable boundary seems to have been the McCartney-MacDonald line since the late 1890s. In the 1910s and 1920s China seems to have accepted even the Johnson line, by publishing ...
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What weapons did Yue Fei use against the Jin Cavalry

One of my Chinese friends said that the Jin troops rode 5 horses at once and charged as a very heavy cataphract. Yue Fei used a special halberd and cut off the horses legs. The riders fell off their ...
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What was the National Revolutionary Army's “Training Brigade”?

During the Battle of Nanking, China's forces included the so-called "Training Brigade" which defended Purple Mountain. What was the nature of this formation? The Wikipedia article describes them as "...
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Where was Mao Zedong during the Japanese surrender in Zhijiang (芷江) at the end of WWII in 1945?

Timeline for context: 9 August, 1945: atomic bomb on Nagasaki. 15 August: the Japanese announced their acceptance of the unconditional surrender (Potsdam Proclamation). 21-23 August: the Japanese ...
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Which ranks of concubine resided in the gong and yuan respectively?

Background/ TLDR Having at long last gained access to this source by a certain Mr. Woo and with the support of the answers to my previous question I can finally gather some statistics on successions ...
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Did the Portuguese get anything in return when they handed back Macau?

In 1999, Portugal fully returned Macau to China. However, did they get something for giving Macau back to China, or was it just a sign of good faith and decolonization in general?
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What was the de facto rule by which the imperial title was transmitted in various Chinese dynasties?

I seek to find information about which rules or trends - if any - applied in Chinese imperial succession during different dynasties. I found this source, but I can’t get access and what I see in the ...
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Where can I find the original “On the New Rules for Destroying Countries” (1901) by Liang Qichao?

From a Crash Course World History video: In China, Liang Qichao came up with a different source of reform, the Strong State, after the failure of the Boxer Rebellion in 1901, he wrote his awesomely ...
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How do the efforts of the Jesuits in China differ from their efforts in Japan?

Question How do the efforts of the Jesuits in Ming China China differ from their efforts in Japan? I know that when the Jesuits arrived in both countries, they started to convert people into ...
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Why didn't the Chinese attack Hungnam during the evacuation?

The Hungnam evacuation was a notable event during the early years of the Korean War. Retreating to the port of Hungnam from the recent defeat at Chosin Reservoir, UN forces managed to evacuate about ...
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What have been the major milestones in the creation of state literacy policies?

There have been times as literacy was not obligatory. So, many people were not able to read/write in their mother tongue, but it was just normal. Today, most people are literate, and this is a result ...
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What were the political beliefs of Sir Robert Hotung regarding socialism and communism?

Sir Robert Hotung Bosman, KBE JP (1862 – 1956) was a Hong Kong businessman and philanthropist in British Hong Kong known as "the grand old man of Hong Kong". He has a colorful history, being the ...
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Which Nazi functionary is shown here?

Wikipedia says that the following image depicts the Chinese leader of a Japanese puppet state, Wang Jingwei, with Nazis. The full information on Wikipedia reads: Wang Jingwei having a toast with ...
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Why were the populous coastal areas of China not linguistically united?

Whilst most of China is quite culturally and ethnically diverse, there are significant areas especially on the coast and river plains which are mostly Han Chinese. These provinces are also united by a ...
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Why weren't the New Territories ceded to the British instead of leased in 1898?

Note New Territories is abbreviated to NT. Here's an overview of the UK's acquisition of HK - The handover of Hong Kong was in 1997 so it's safe to discuss the PRC's land policy in Hong Kong. But ...
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Why China was able to unify and not Europe?

If you look at a map of China through the ages, you will usually find (from about the Han up) a huge mass representing China. On the other hand, you look at a map of Europe, and you'll usually see a ...
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Why didn't the Khalkh Mongols support the Dzungars in their fight against China?

Khalkha Mongol khans fought for China against the Dzungars. What was the reason for that? Why did the Dzungars become enemies of the Khalkh Mongols? See: Dzungar Genocide & Dzungar–Qing ...
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Does Chinese history really span the past 5000 years?

Chinese kids the world over are frequently taught that there is "5000 years of Chinese history". What basis is there for this claim?
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Chiang's allies were “a kidnapper, a hooligan and a bully” but which was which?

Chiang Kai-shek complained bitterly about his allies Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union (the latter admittedly not at war with Japan till the very end). But when he stated that China's ...
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Why could China keep most of the lands it conquered after 17th century but European powers could not?

If we look at the map of Ming dynasty, we see a much smaller China. Most of the northern and western part of today's China was conquered during Qing dynasty. In contrast, many European powers have ...
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When and why China started to make a difference in the superpower arena?

China is starting to be more and more remarked on as a superpower, but this surely didn't happen overnight, so what would be that decade that was very auspicious for China and why?
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Did any Chinese revolutionaries being helped by the Japanese get suspicious of Japan's intentions?

From the way things went, it seems to me that Japan played Chinese nationalists into breaking up the Qing empire, in order to expand Japanese power in the region. Were any Chinese revolutionaries ...

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