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Questions tagged [colonial-america]

Colonial America refers to the period of American history (roughly late 15th century to the mid-19th century) when European states exercised political control over indigenous Americans and European settlers in the Americas. Colonial powers in the Americas included the Spanish, British, French, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedes, and Russians. The term is sometimes taken to refer to pre-Revolution British colonies that would eventually become the United States.

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Was there any distinction between the 13 Colonies and the Canadian provinces prior to the American Revolution?

Was there any distinction between the 13 Colonies that became the United States and the Canadian colonies/provinces prior to the American Revolution? For example, did New Brunswick and New Hampshire ...
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American Indian amulet, possibly from the Andaste/Conestoga

Am reading Lindholm, Nya Sveriges Historia (History of New Sweden) and there is a description (p. 67) of two objects in a Swedish museum, a war club and a "wolf skin war bonnet". On the web pages of ...
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Did indentured servants in British North America have job security?

Most people know about the practice of Indentured Servitude in the British North American colonies - that workers would receive "free" passage to the Colonies in exchange for working for the ...
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Did any Moors accompany Hernando de Soto in his exploration of Mississippi?

I was reading about Hernando de Soto and saw William Powell's painting (Relevant bit cropped and added below): The odd thing (Marked with a red arrow) is the man who looks Moorish and is dressed in ...
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Do we know who graduated from the University of Mexico in the 1700s?

The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was the country's first and foremost university in the colonial period. According to George I. Sánchez, by 1776 it had awarded 29,882 bachelor's and 1,162 ...
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Who was the Halach Uinik of Can Pech?

Who was the ruler (Halach Uinik) of the pre-conquest Mayan state (Kuchkabal) of Can Pech around the beginning of the 16th century? If not the individual, the dynasty?
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What's the rationale for shipping coins back to Spain from its colonies?

Since the days of Pirates! the thought of capturing the Spanish treasure fleet on its way back somewhere in the Spanish Main was a primary target because of all the gold and silver it transported to ...
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Was it legal for colonists in colonial America to sell their daughters into marriage? [closed]

Was it legal for colonists to sell their daughters to other men for the purposes of marriage? If legal, to what degree did the consent of the girl matter? From this post by the Atlantic Marriage ...
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Who issued the passports for travel to Russian America?

Employees of the Russian-American Company were supposed to have seven-year passports to travel from Russia to the Company's colonies. The passports come up frequently in the Communications of the ...
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Late 17th century colonial Anglican pastor

I am preparing to play an Anglican pastor/priest at a live-action role-playing game. The (pretend) location: an English colonial outpost in the Caribbean. The (pretend) time period: circa 1695. And ...
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Immigrants to Mexican New Mexico

In its Mexican era California attracted immigrants, principally Anglo-Americans, who often worked as merchants and capitalists. English speakers like William Hartnell and Thomas Larkin dominated ...
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Why did Iturbide choose Fernández for the mission to California?

After Mexican independence, Emperor Agustín I took power. During his short reign he understandably sent a representative to the Californias to procure and check on their loyalty. The representative, a ...
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Did other American empires also fall to the Europeans?

Since forever, people have subjugated each other to demand labor or resources. A monarchic or centralized power that subjugates several other peoples is an empire. Half a dozen European empires ...
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Origin of straight municipal boundary line in NJ

If you look at a map of the municipal borders of New Jersey, you see a clear line mid-state running northwest to southeast. It's about halfway between NYC and Philadelphia. What is the historical ...
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Location of Hagemeister's six-language diaries

Leontii A. Hagemeister (or Gagemeister) was a Baltic German navigator of the Russian navy and briefly governor of the Russian-American company. The best work on him in English is by Richard Pierce, ...
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Did the Vatican punish France for rejecting Tordesillas?

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided up all new discoveries between Portugal and Castile, so establishing the position of Brazil. Pope Alexander VI's deal excluded the other Catholic states. ...
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Why did the colonies fight Cresap's War?

I am reading about Cresap's War. I do not fully understand why colonies within the British Empire had wars with one another. Did the British Colonies in America have independent rules, like the ...
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Would colonial Maryland have been tolerant to all religions?

I have heard that Maryland was the birthplace of religious freedom in the US because it was founded by a charter about which Wikipedia says "On 20 June 1632, (King) Charles granted the original ...
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Did Britain look into taking California?

The Spanish colonized California in part to forestall the expansion of other empires. The territory was in danger of invasion throughout the Spanish and Mexican eras (1769-1846). Visitors and ...
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What was the commandant of Okhotsk's involvement in Russian-American Company hiring?

The Russian-American Company was a privately funded concern which obtained a royal monopoly on exploration and settlement in America. It sponsored and managed the Russian presence from the Aleutians ...
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Did the United States colonize California?

Upper California was a province of Mexico from the 1820s to the 1840s (sometimes unified with Lower California). Near the end of this period it was overrun with Anglo-American men that lived apart ...
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Was Governor Solá expelled from Mexico?

Pablo Vicente de Solá was a Spanish military officer who served resisting the Hidalgo Revolt and then as the last Spanish governor of Alta California. [Nuttall: The Gobernantes of Spanish Upper ...
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Why didn't Portugal found universities in its colonies like Spain?

Imperial Spain and Portugal conquered and developed huge empires. Both monarchies were Catholic and seized huge amounts of land in the 1500s. Both European motherlands had numerous universities, but ...
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Colonial intelligence during the pirate age

Watching the Black Sails series, there are several references on "La casa de contratación", and characters say that, among other things, it was dedicated to colonial intelligence. I think there were ...
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New Latin American navies raiding Spanish interests

The newly formed navies of the Latin American wars of independence sometimes raided or blockaded Spanish interests in other parts of the Americas. Consider the Liberating Expedition of Peru, the ...
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What was the most significant change Americans experienced during the 1830s? [closed]

What would you say was the most striking or best-remembered change for people living in the United States were experiencing during the 1830s, that were different from those of most other eras? I'm not ...
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For who or what was Cojo Creek named?

Cojo Creek (Cañada del cojo) is the boundary between the Rancho Punta de la Concepción and the Rancho Nuestra Señora del Refugio. The anchorage at the mouth of this creek was a prime smuggling spot in ...
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What were the most important causes of the 1692 Salem Witchcraft Trials?

Basically what the title says: what were the most important causes of the 1692 Salem Witchcraft Trials? We are having a discussion over this topic in one of my history courses, and a classmate ...
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The boundary between New York and Quebec before the seven years' war of 1756‒1763

This is related to this earlier question, which deals with events after the war. Before the Seven Years' War of 1756‒1763, if I understand correctly, Quebec was ruled by France. In that war, Britain ...
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What was the price of going from England to New England as a passenger in the 1600s?

Lots of places mention that traveling to New England was so expensive that many people became indentured servants to get across, but I couldn't find a place that actually says how expensive it was.
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What was the purpose behind Charles II's charter for Connecticut squatter settlements?

In my US History book, the text reads the following: As a slap at Massachusetts, Charles II gave rival Connecticut in 1662 a sea-to-sea charter grant, which legalized the squatter settlements. I ...
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history of religion in America [closed]

What was religion of native America, before British colonial? Around when Christianity evolves in America?
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How did the education system in Colonial North America work?

I read that Hamilton changed his birth date from 1755 to 1757 to look better for attending King's College. Also, many other Founding Fathers attended colleges at 15 or even younger. What education ...
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Was the Somerset Decision in 1772 in England the real underlying cause of the American Revolutionary war?

I had a discussion with a Brit the other day and naturally the topic drifted to our historic break from the UK in 1776 and I boasted of our noble fight for liberation and freedom. The Brit was amused ...
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How was silver/gold mining done in colonial Americas?

I've heard a lot about the vast amounts of silver and gold that Spain brought back from the Americas. I imagine that they looted the Aztecs and other peoples at first, but silver/gold exports ...
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Did Europeans ever trade Eye Aids (telescopes, spyglass, etc) to the Native Americans (1608 - 1850)?

Did Europeans ever trade telescopes to the Native Americans? Did they ever attempt to do so? Edit: changing this to any kind of eye aids. Telescopes, spyglass, binoculars, monocles, magnifying ...
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Around 1750, How many Native Americans (if any) spent the winter in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan?

This is the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan: I've been reading about it's history during the colonial era. Apparently the Native Americans mined copper from this area because there were great copper ...
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Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents favor the Old World?

Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents (Americas and Europe) favor the Old World (Europe)? Is there any irony in this? I ...
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Was sexual abuse/assault a unique feature of American Slavery or was there similar abuse in previous slave systems?

In reading about Thomas Jefferson's relationship with Sally Hemings I learned how he basically took her on as a concubine when they lived in Paris. It seems that this sort of thing was commonplace in ...
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Between the 7 Years War and 1776, was there any effort to have the colonies represented in Parliament?

I've now read a couple books about the American Revolution and the founding fathers. I don't think, however, I read anything about colonial assemblies or the continental congresses pushing for ...
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Who were the chief executives of the United States in the thirteen years before George Washington? [duplicate]

Fully thirteen years passed after the Declaration of Independence before George Washington became President—first under Congress, then under the Articles of Confederation. It's a famous trivia fact ...
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Why was Highway One routed right through Fort Ross?

California's coastal Highway One was completed in the 1930s. Until about 1970, the roadway actually passed through the stockade of the Russian colony, Fort Ross. Later the Fort became a state park. ...
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Who was the Irish interpreter in Monterey in 1822?

Kirill Khlebnikov was a Russian business agent who made several visits to Alta California. His "Travel Notes" from 1822 describe Khlebnikov's visit to Governor Sola in Monterey, who sent for "the ...
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Did Anza record exactly who came along on his expedition?

The first Anza Expedition of 1775 brought some of the first Spanish-speaking colonists into Alta California. At least one baby was born en route. Did Anza or anyone else in his party write down ...
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Did the Tlingits benefit from resisting the Russians more than other Alaskan tribes?

The Russian-American Company had ongoing problems with the Tlingit (Kolosh) people living near its colonial headquarters. In other words, the Tlingits resisted incursion more effectively than other ...
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Which ships arrived at Novo-Arkhangelsk between 1810 and 1815?

The Russian-American Company's colonial headquarters were at Novo-Arkhangelsk, today's Sitka. Occasionally, supply ships from Russian ports to the west (Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk, Kodiak) would arrive. ...
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What taxes were assessed on people in Alta California?

Countries and their churches extract rents from their citizens or subjects through various taxes. What taxes were individual Alta Californians required to pay in the Spanish and Mexican periods?
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Which Irishman worked at Mission Santa Cruz?

Kirill Khlebnikov was a Russian business agent who made several visits to Alta California. His "Travel Notes" from 1820 describe negotiations to buy grain from the Franciscan priest in charge of ...
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How were native laborers on California ranchos treated?

The ranchos established during the Mexican period of California history relied on the labor of native Americans. Unlike the Mission properties, ranchos did not attempt to prevent workers from escaping ...
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Who cataloged the ships that visited Alta California?

I know I have seen a reference to a comprehensive list of ships that visted Alta California in the Spanish and Mexican eras, but I need help finding it again. Here is an incomplete list without any ...