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Questions tagged [colonial-america]

Colonial America refers to the period of American history (roughly late 15th century to the mid-19th century) when European states exercised political control over indigenous Americans and European settlers in the Americas. Colonial powers in the Americas included the Spanish, British, French, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedes, and Russians. The term is sometimes taken to refer to pre-Revolution British colonies that would eventually become the United States.

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2answers
1k views

How was silver/gold mining done in colonial Americas?

I've heard a lot about the vast amounts of silver and gold that Spain brought back from the Americas. I imagine that they looted the Aztecs and other peoples at first, but silver/gold exports ...
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Did Europeans ever trade Eye Aids (telescopes, spyglass, etc) to the Native Americans (1608 - 1850)?

Did Europeans ever trade telescopes to the Native Americans? Did they ever attempt to do so? Edit: changing this to any kind of eye aids. Telescopes, spyglass, binoculars, monocles, magnifying ...
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258 views

Around 1750, How many Native Americans (if any) spent the winter in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan?

This is the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan: I've been reading about it's history during the colonial era. Apparently the Native Americans mined copper from this area because there were great copper ...
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399 views

Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents favor the Old World?

Regarding the Columbian exchange, why did the ecological factors surrounding the re-connecting of the continents (Americas and Europe) favor the Old World (Europe)? Is there any irony in this? I ...
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838 views

Was sexual abuse/assault a unique feature of American Slavery or was there similar abuse in previous slave systems?

In reading about Thomas Jefferson's relationship with Sally Hemings I learned how he basically took her on as a concubine when they lived in Paris. It seems that this sort of thing was commonplace in ...
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468 views

Between the 7 Years War and 1776, was there any effort to have the colonies represented in Parliament?

I've now read a couple books about the American Revolution and the founding fathers. I don't think, however, I read anything about colonial assemblies or the continental congresses pushing for ...
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Who were the chief executives of the United States in the thirteen years before George Washington? [duplicate]

Fully thirteen years passed after the Declaration of Independence before George Washington became President—first under Congress, then under the Articles of Confederation. It's a famous trivia fact ...
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297 views

Why was Highway One routed right through Fort Ross?

California's coastal Highway One was completed in the 1930s. Until about 1970, the roadway actually passed through the stockade of the Russian colony, Fort Ross. Later the Fort became a state park. ...
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Who was the Irish interpreter in Monterey in 1822?

Kirill Khlebnikov was a Russian business agent who made several visits to Alta California. His "Travel Notes" from 1822 describe Khlebnikov's visit to Governor Sola in Monterey, who sent for "the ...
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Did Anza record exactly who came along on his expedition?

The first Anza Expedition of 1775 brought some of the first Spanish-speaking colonists into Alta California. At least one baby was born en route. Did Anza or anyone else in his party write down ...
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Did the Tlingits benefit from resisting the Russians more than other Alaskan tribes?

The Russian-American Company had ongoing problems with the Tlingit (Kolosh) people living near its colonial headquarters. In other words, the Tlingits resisted incursion more effectively than other ...
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Which ships arrived at Novo-Arkhangelsk between 1810 and 1815?

The Russian-American Company's colonial headquarters were at Novo-Arkhangelsk, today's Sitka. Occasionally, supply ships from Russian ports to the west (Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk, Kodiak) would arrive. ...
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What taxes were assessed on people in Alta California?

Countries and their churches extract rents from their citizens or subjects through various taxes. What taxes were individual Alta Californians required to pay in the Spanish and Mexican periods?
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Which Irishman worked at Mission Santa Cruz?

Kirill Khlebnikov was a Russian business agent who made several visits to Alta California. His "Travel Notes" from 1820 describe negotiations to buy grain from the Franciscan priest in charge of ...
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1answer
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How were native laborers on California ranchos treated?

The ranchos established during the Mexican period of California history relied on the labor of native Americans. Unlike the Mission properties, ranchos did not attempt to prevent workers from escaping ...
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Who cataloged the ships that visited Alta California?

I know I have seen a reference to a comprehensive list of ships that visted Alta California in the Spanish and Mexican eras, but I need help finding it again. Here is an incomplete list without any ...
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1answer
184 views

Did any plantation/hacienda/fazenda owner free all his slaves?

The North and South American masters that kept slaves are today criticized for it. Their income of course depended on slave labor. Anywhere in the Americas, did any of them free their slaves -- not at ...
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Why did not Spain manage to keep any colonial possessions in the new world?

It is well known that Spain had a huge presence in the colonisation and discovery of the new world. The Spanish empire is one of the largest in history and held vast territory in the Americas. Still ...
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1answer
66 views

Who accompanied Canónigo Fernández to Mexico City in 1822?

After Iturbide became President of an independent Mexico, the Canónigo Don Agustín Fernández de San Vicente was sent to Alta California to support the transition from Spanish rule and to relieve the ...
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Did the Creole estate in Russian America encompass Siberian creoles?

A large number of Russian American Company employees and colonists were Creoles, or the product of an ethnic Russian father with a native (Aleut, Tlingit, etc.) mother. They were established as a ...
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1answer
302 views

Who was the first retailer in Monterey, California?

There were no businesses in the Spanish presidio at Monterey. Trade goods from the missions and passing ships came through, but there wasn't much to buy. Outside the fort, what was the first fixed-...
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114 views

How much did Spanish California officials earn?

It is my understanding that in Alta California, priests and natives in Missions earned no cash salary, but Spanish army officials would have. From the governor down to a junior soldier, what did they ...
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Was anyone in Spanish or Mexican California tried for homosexuality?

In "So Far From Home" (Farris, ed.) a Russian visitor to California describes seeing trangendered natives, as Cabeza de Vaca also did three centuries earlier in what is now Texas. The military and ...
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How many women lived in Spanish Californian presidios?

The Spanish presidios in the Californias were military outposts, unlike the religious missions or the civilian pueblos. Their residents were not exclusively soldiers, though; at least prisoners and ...
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1answer
202 views

How did the Russian-American Company respond to employee desertion?

The Russian-American Company (head office: St. Petersburg) monopolized transit and commerce with the Russian American colonies and outposts. Almost the only people carried on Company voyages were ...
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1answer
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Who was arrested at El Cojo with Eliot de Castro?

According to Bancroft's "History of California" II:274, Spanish authorities acting on Governor Sola's orders detained Eliot de Castro, working for the Russian-American Company, along with "an American ...
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1answer
262 views

Who left Fort Ross to defect to Mexico?

Remarks by Kirill Khlebnikov reproduced in "California Through Russian Eyes" by Gibson, p. 332, say that one defector from Fort Ross had headed to Mexico. Who was the unnamed defector?
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Was Pablo Vicente de Solá married?

Solá, a Basque, was the last Spanish governor of Alta California, serving from 1815–1822 at the Presidio of Monterey. Did he have a wife and family, there or elsewhere?
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Does any library hold the archives of the Russian-American Company?

I am researching Russian visits to Alta California during the Mexican War of Independence, which were mostly or all projects of the Russian-American Company. There is a collection of Company documents ...
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How long would it take to travel from England to the colonies in the early 1700s?

I am working on a history project for school and cannot seem to find information on the length of a journey on a ship from England to the Charleston area of South Carolina in the early 1700s (1730-...
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How was the “backcountry” underrepresented, eventually leading to Bacon's Rebellion?

"Backcountry" generally means the rural parts (of Virginia, where this all happened) or the lesser-known parts. They were newer settlement areas, and generally had a far larger population than the ...
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2answers
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How did the different regions' cultures in colonial America eventually begin to unify?

There were a myriad of differences between the Northern and Southern regions, but I still don't understand how or why they grew similarities and united over time. Does it have something to do with ...
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How did Britain govern the thirteen colonies?

In the 18th century, if I understand correctly, the king of England appointed the governors of the thirteen colonies in North America. How far beyond royal appointments of governors did British rule ...
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4answers
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18th-century understanding of the word “colony?”

In 1750 there were thirteen British "colonies" on the east coast of North America. If I'm not mistaken, the words "colony" and "province" were both used at the time to refer to any of those. Today ...
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2answers
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Thirteen “colonies”, “provinces”, “states”, etc.?

One often hears of "the thirteen colonies", and of course the colonies were also called "provinces". Were they also sometimes called "states" before the Continental Congress convened?
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Relation between Afroamerican religions and colonial metropoles?

In most of Brazil, Afroamerican religion is Candomblé, which is rooted in Yoruba traditional religion, with influences of Angola-Congo traditions. The main exception is the Northeastern state of ...
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1answer
613 views

How harmful was the Tea Act of 1773 to the American colonies?

The Tea Act of 1773 was passed by the Parliament to rescue the East India Company. However, I read somewhere that it would have actually made tea cheaper everywhere in the Empire1. By this argument, ...
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1answer
262 views

Did colonists “resign the power of voting” and have no more right to govern themselves than the Cornish people?

What exactly made the Americans believe they were different than the Cornish people besides the distance which divided them from England? Wasn't it the settlers' own free decision to move from ...
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2answers
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How long did it take to sail from Philadelphia to Boston in the 1700s?

How long did it usually take to sail from Philadelphia to Boston in the 1700s? I've been able to find lots of sources talking about sailing time between England and the colonies, but I haven't found ...
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2answers
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What was the price of a horse around 1750?

I'm looking for the average price of a horse, in British Pounds, around the year 1750. I'm interested in draft horses (they pull carts), not riding horses, but the difference in price between those ...
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1answer
237 views

Who is speaking here?

Our English teacher gave us an exercise to do: We got different texts what people could have said and our task now is to find out: Who said it and when? Our current topic is "The early years of the ...
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548 views

How common was it for un-documented ships to bring settlers to the American colonies 1700-1750

How common was it for un-documented ships (including bypassing common ports of entry) to bring settlers to the northern American / Canadian colonies 1700-1750? I am looking for some basis (facts, ...
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2answers
272 views

How much would votes sell for in early America?

I am reading an essay by Alfred F. Young right now in which the author mentions that Gouverneur Morris said of enfranchising those without property: Give the vote to people who have no property and ...
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How densely populated were the Americas prior to European colonization?

I had a conversation with an individual recently about how unusual it was that there were so few individuals who appeared to be Native American in North America today. (I say appear since no doubt ...
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How was Virginia transformed from a society with slaves, to a slave society? [closed]

Not sure what the main answer to this question. I know Bacon's rebellion changed the lives of many poor whites with no land. Also, there were the slave laws which I need to do more research on.
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5answers
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Why was slavery profitable in the Southern colonies and not New England?

Why didn't Colonists in New England import massive numbers of Slaves?
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302 views

What was the relationship between the Tories and Quakers?

During the period of the American Revolution, most Quakers supported the British cause. But unlike many of the Tories, they were strict pacifists. What was the relationship between the British ...
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1answer
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Why did the Portuguese colonies stay united whereas the Spanish ones split up? [duplicate]

Why did the South-American Portuguese colonies unite into one country, Brazil, whereas the South-American Spanish colonies split into many different countries, i.e. Argentina, Peru, Chile, etc?
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1answer
869 views

Why is the charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations signed “HOWARD”?

Why is the charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations signed "HOWARD"? Note also that the Charter of Connecticut is likewise signed "By Writ of Privy Seal, HOWARD". But, the keeper of the ...
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1answer
656 views

Was the money requested by the French for the XYZ affair really a bribe?

I know that in history classes, and the American version of the XYZ Affair, that before the French would even sit down to the table with the Americans in order to discuss, basically, the piracy ...