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Questions tagged [colonization]

The process of a country relocating some of its citizens to a territory under their purvey and asserting political, military and/or economic control over any native inhabitants who may already occupy said territory.

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Why weren't colonies accepted as part of their colonizing countries?

I'll use the British empire as an example, although in principle the same question could apply to every other colonial power. The British empire was ruled by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom ...
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1answer
103 views

Did Indigenous Australians burn land to get Europeans to move on, and did Europeans follow suit?

I was told by a guide that when European settlers originally arrived in Australia, Indigenous populations burnt their land to get the Europeans to move on. I am aware that the Indigenous did burn ...
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231 views

Did New Mexicans under Spain regard themselves as Mexican?

Mexico in its original sense is the homeland of the Mexica (Aztec) people and its principal city. The sense of the name broadened, presumably as people in the metropole spoke broadly about it, and ...
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303 views

What was the tonnage carried in the Triangle Trade?

I'm interested in metrics regarding trans-atlantic trade in the era of the sail. The specific timespan doesn't matter. The specific cargo also doesn't matter. I've searched but not found any ...
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Did Western “New Imperialism” actually free slaves in Muslim lands?

Slavery is fair game in mainstream/traditional Islam. I have heard various commentaries that abolishing of slavery in various Muslim-dominated countries actually coincided with the 2nd wave of Western ...
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1answer
165 views

Were the officers assigned to Kamchatka being punished?

The Russian Imperial army and navy had to build frontier outposts in very remote locations such as Kamchatka. During the Catherine the Great/Paul/Alexander period (1762-1825), the few ostrogs and ...
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167 views

Why did the French return all the Dutch Colonies to the Netherlands in Paris Treaty?

It seems to me that France helped Holland a lot in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. And also gave all Dutch colonies back to Holland in the 1783 Treaty of Paris? I was wondering why was that and what ...
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102 views

Immigrants to Mexican New Mexico

In its Mexican era California attracted immigrants, principally Anglo-Americans, who often worked as merchants and capitalists. English speakers like William Hartnell and Thomas Larkin dominated ...
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1answer
221 views

Did other American empires also fall to the Europeans?

Since forever, people have subjugated each other to demand labor or resources. A monarchic or centralized power that subjugates several other peoples is an empire. Half a dozen European empires ...
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1answer
505 views

Why did the Swedish colonies in America and Africa fail?

The Swedish empire controlled the Gold Coast in 1650-63 and New Sweden in present-day USA in 1638-55. Why did Sweden fail to hold these possession in the apex of its great power era?
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Quitclaim deeds sold by Californio ranchers

When California became a U.S. state, Californio ranchers' land holdings were under legal, financial, and physical attack. Their Land Commission claims were held up for years in the appeals process, ...
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1answer
107 views

Did the Vatican punish France for rejecting Tordesillas?

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided up all new discoveries between Portugal and Castile, so establishing the position of Brazil. Pope Alexander VI's deal excluded the other Catholic states. ...
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1answer
165 views

Were the Spanish aware that American mainland existed after discovering the Caribbean?

After the Spanish (Castille) first discovered The Caribbean (Nowday Dominican Republic, Cuba ect.) in the late 1400s / Early 1500s were they aware / did they predict that mainland North and South ...
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Journeys from Gujarat in India to Dare es Salaam in what was then, Tanganyika in 1925 and 1948

I am researching a journey for a novel where my character travels from Gujarat in India to Dare es Salaam in what was then, Tanganyika. The journey happens in 1925 and then again in 1948. Does anyone ...
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1answer
97 views

What was the commandant of Okhotsk's involvement in Russian-American Company hiring?

The Russian-American Company was a privately funded concern which obtained a royal monopoly on exploration and settlement in America. It sponsored and managed the Russian presence from the Aleutians ...
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170 views

Did the United States colonize California?

Upper California was a province of Mexico from the 1820s to the 1840s (sometimes unified with Lower California). Near the end of this period it was overrun with Anglo-American men that lived apart ...
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1answer
161 views

What kind of training did Imperial military officers receive? [closed]

In the early modern period, European empires maintained their faraway colonies with great armies and navies. Many enlisted soldiers and sailors were barely trained; imperial officers were often ...
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Why didn't Portugal found universities in its colonies like Spain?

Imperial Spain and Portugal conquered and developed huge empires. Both monarchies were Catholic and seized huge amounts of land in the 1500s. Both European motherlands had numerous universities, but ...
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Who was the first Russian woman to live in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky?

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is a port city on the Pacific Ocean. The indigenes in its location were Itelmen (Kamchadals). Today its population was dominated by ethnic Russians, but in the mid-18th ...
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2answers
510 views

Why did Europeans and Asian countries develop much faster than African countries [closed]

There are numerous pages, papers and talks held about this topic. Then ideas conveyed revolved around the ideaology of African countries, varying cultures and most common factor, colonalism. As a ...
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400 views

Has there ever been a situation where the “motherland” treated its colonies well anywhere in the world?

Has there ever been a situation where the "motherland" treated its colonies well anywhere in the world? So being born in a former French protectorate, I've been taught about the horrendous treatment ...
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5answers
520 views

Is there a Russian Black Legend? (a dispute about the morality of Russia's colonial expansion)

In the early modern era several European nations dramatically expanded their territory through conquest. All of them used violence and coercion to push their frontiers forward. The notion that Spain'...
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1answer
113 views

New surnames for baptized natives

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries on remote frontiers around the world chose new Christian names for the natives they baptized. Apparently the monks who missionized Kamchatka also ...
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1answer
439 views

17th century Japanese colonies in Southeast Asia?

After a period of exposure to European interests, Japan secluded itself in the 1630s. George Lensen wrote in "The Russian Push Towards Japan": On the eve of her seclusion, Japan had begun to expand ...
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1answer
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Cold War proxy countries views on nationalism or decolonization?

The Cold War countries like the US and USSR had interests in other regions of the world which often resulted in indirect proxy wars. I believe the funds were provided by the larger country and often ...
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2answers
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What did the British Empire mean by “Free Trade” in reference to the colonies?

Background: This feels like sort of a silly question for me to be asking after reading about the Victorian Age and the British Empire for several months, but here goes. As I've read about the ...
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1answer
240 views

How did 19th century European nations arbitrate the process of colonization among themselves?

Background: During the 19th century the great powers of Europe colonized, and informally dominated, large portions areas of Asia, Africa, and (to a lesser extent) Central and South America. Often, as ...
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1answer
177 views

In the French Empire, what was the difference between french colonies éphémèras and comptoirs français?

Just a quick question I've been unable to google an answer to. I was looking at this map, to get a better idea of the progress of French colonialism in the 19th century. A couple of google and word ...
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43 views

Economic Conditions of Colonies [duplicate]

As far as I have seen, the economic conditions of Spanish colonies are so much more worse than the colonies of the other European Countries. Why is that so?
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3k views

Why has Nepal never been conquered or colonized?

Why has no country conquered or colonized Nepal? Nepal lost the Anglo-Nepalese War with East India Company but was not colonized.
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2answers
236 views

What was the Orthodox Church's role in Russian expansion?

Yuri Semyonov's The Conquest of Siberia says the main motivation for the Russian empire's eastwards expansion was the acquisition of furs (in the form of yasak, the fur tax assessed on native male ...
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1answer
550 views

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands?

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands? If no, then why not? How about the island countries Cabo Verde and São Tomé and their African continental neighbours?
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1answer
237 views

Most recently settled area habitable without modern technology

Among islands or archipelagos with a size, climate, and ecology suitable to sustain a healthy population of stone age technology humans, which one was settled most recently? Among "large" landmasses ...
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2answers
296 views

Which people resisted Russian expansion most fiercely?

The Russian Empire's expansion towards the east and south meant conquering lots of local tribes along the way (Buryats, Yakuts, Kuriles, etc.). These peoples unwillingly became ethnic minorities in ...
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Why would native women of the Russian Far East undergo Orthodox baptism?

Russian colonism of the Pacific Rim included religious missions which sought to perform baptisms. As an incentive to conversion, baptized native men were exempted from imperial fur tax (they then had ...
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Did Africans defeat Europeans in battle between 1850 and 1950?

The battle of Adwa was fought between Italians and Ethiopians in northern Ethiopia in 1896. The Italians were defeated and it was the greatest victory for Africans. Were there any other battles where ...
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Time frame of Rita Indiana's video “Da Pa' lo' Do'” (Dominican Republic)

This question is about the history of the Dominican Republic. Look at the uniform shown in the beginning of Rita Indiana's video "Da Pa' lo' Do'," which means "There's enough for both," where "both" ...
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1answer
542 views

What factors contributed to successful colonization of Asia & Africa? [closed]

What all factors contributed to successful colonization of Asia and Africa by European countries in 18th and 19th century? And, why England was more successful than the other European countries?
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What caused the shift from annexation of territory, to colonization of territory?

What caused the shift from annexation of territory, to colonization of territory? I've been thinking about this for some time, but can't come to any definite conclusions as my knowledge in history ...
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1answer
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Rights and Statuses of different types of Roman Colonies

I was reading SPQR by Mary Beard and in the book (pg 200) she mentions the a Roman colony in Spain called Carteia, which was populated by legion veterans. They married local women and had children ...
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505 views

Why were Indians able to free themselves of the European Colonialists unlike South Africans? [closed]

About 8 months back, I went to South Africa. I did try to learn a bit about the country before going there. I was very much surprised to learn that 'Apartheid' was a thing/practice till Nelson Mandela'...
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What is the impact of 18th to 19th century colonialism on the live of the common people of the colonial empires

This topic suddenly came to me when I was doing my homework. I went online to search but most of the articles only talked about the impacts on the country or place that was being colonized. According ...
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1answer
208 views

Historical Instances like the settlement of Pitcairn Island

Are there any more instances in recorded history where a group of people have formed a isolated island society like the mutineers of the HMS Bounty and their Tahitian captives did on Pitcairn Island?
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Why did not Spain manage to keep any colonial possessions in the new world?

It is well known that Spain had a huge presence in the colonisation and discovery of the new world. The Spanish empire is one of the largest in history and held vast territory in the Americas. Still ...
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2answers
215 views

How often did ships stop at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the early 1800s?

In 1813, Petropavlosk became the administrative center of Kamchatka, but it was still tiny. How often did ships stop there around the time of this change? Likely, many of the voyages were to Okhotsk, ...
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1answer
190 views

Was there a church around 1800 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky?

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, founded in 1742, had just 85 residents in 1792. According to "So Far From Home" (Farris, ed.), a priest named Yakov Volkov was there in the 1790s. Was there a church? Because ...
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2answers
5k views

Why did no other empire contest Russia's colonization of North-Asia?

As far as I know, no 18/19th century empire tried to colonize Siberia or the northern Far East besides Russia. That sounds implausible to me and I'm curious how could that be?
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Why did China annex Tibet?

This is probably a very naive question, but here it goes: Was there an economical or political reason for the invasion of Tibet by China in 1950? It does not seem to me that Tibet is a particularly ...
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4answers
659 views

18th-century understanding of the word “colony?”

In 1750 there were thirteen British "colonies" on the east coast of North America. If I'm not mistaken, the words "colony" and "province" were both used at the time to refer to any of those. Today ...
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3answers
903 views

How did the British and French train their troops during the colonial eras?

From what I saw in movies, during many battles throughout the 1700s to early 1800s involving the French or British armies, rows of troops from both sides would fire volleys of bullets into each other ...