Questions tagged [colonization]

The process of a country relocating some of its citizens to a territory under their purvey and asserting political, military and/or economic control over any native inhabitants who may already occupy said territory.

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2answers
139 views

Does the idea of white Europeans being the “true Aryans” come from the British India? [closed]

I have recently had a conversation with a man from India over the Internet and he told me this interesting claim. He said that "Aryan" meant "noble" in Sanskrit, and the British, ...
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Why didn't colonial empires exchange their colonies with others empire to make their territories whole?

The colonial age created some weird territories that separated one country’s territory into terrible shapes, such as Senegal (colonized by France) and Gambia (colonized by Britain). Why didn't France ...
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Were there any major battles between Australian Aborigines and English Colonists? [closed]

The English were hostile to most of the natives near their colonies. However, I can't seem to find any evidence as to whether or not the Aborigines partook in any battle against British colonists in ...
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Why is Germany's history of colonialism and imperialism less prominent compared to other European nations? [closed]

Spaniards and Portuguese in South America, etc UK in India, Pakistan, etc Dutch in SEA: Indonesia, etc French in Africa Belgians in Congo Why was Germany not as involved as these nations?
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Are there historical instances of settlers who were largely uncontacted and undisturbed after settling?

I am looking for historical instances of a rather specific and strange scenario: Settlers who settled a wild/unclaimed territory (ideally 100-300 in number) who after settling in the new place, were ...
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1answer
270 views

What were the requirements for Ancient Greek colonist groups?

Disclaimers Given that the colonies were not created in empty space, it may not have been necessary to equip each and every group of colonists with the skills needed to be self sufficient. Assuming, ...
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8answers
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Why did Austronesian/Polynesian people not colonize Australia?

Australia hosted aboriginal populations since prehistory. However technologically advanced civilizations (in comparison) lived nearby, in Indonesia, Polynesia and New Guinea. Why was it not colonized ...
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How did the Belgians issue ID cards with ethnicity to women in Ruanda-Urundi?

I've read about how the Belgians issued ID cards to the inhabitants of their colony Ruanda-Urundi (later independent under the names of Rwanda and Burundi): Indeed, the Belgian colonists classified a ...
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Why were the Scandinavians not as expansive as other Europeans in global colonization?

By expansive, I mean in terms of land area. On the Wikipedia pages of Norway's, Sweden's, and Denmark's colonies, it shows they had very few parcels of land around the globe, compared to the colonies ...
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What was the role of Indian princes and aristocratic landowners under British colonial rule?

I am currently reading Ludwig von Mises' Human Action and find it rewarding in various ways. For instance, von Mises points out the following about volunteers' roles even around autocratic rulers: ...
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Why did no one take Siberia over before the Russians, and how did they do it?

I realize that Russia had ambitions in the east and they took over Siberia. However Siberia was just north of the Mongols really and its islands were easily accessible to Japan in history. They even ...
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1answer
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Where can I find historical taxation/revenue datasets for imperial countries in the early 20th century?

I'm a grad student trying to conduct research, and my project depends on finding a dataset which enumerates taxation and revenue by colonial-era and post-colonial governments within the early 20th ...
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Why was the area now known as Liberia chosen as the location for repatriation of African slaves in the US?

The American Colonization Society thought that colonizing Africa for the purpose of returning US slaves to Africa was the solution to slavery problems. Why, and how, did they come to decide that the ...
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1answer
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Did Japanese modernisation have an effect on Ethiopia?

On his wikipedia page, Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam, "the primary author of Ethiopia's July 1931 constitution" the article calls him a politician and intellectual of the Japanizer school ...
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1answer
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What degree of relations did the different Hawaiian islands have between themselves before Kamehameha's unification?

I am trying to figure out if there were actual cultural, commercial and political links among the islands, and especially if there was an actual Hawaiian unified identity or this is constructed after ...
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Has there ever been a situation where the “motherland” treated its colonies well anywhere in the world?

Has there ever been a situation where the "motherland" treated its colonies well anywhere in the world? So being born in a former French protectorate, I've been taught about the horrendous treatment ...
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1answer
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Where can I obtain the full “British Statistical Blue Books” of British colonies in Africa?

I'm a poli sci grad student looking to access the full British statistical blue books which catalog statistics for British colonies. Does anyone know where I can obtain access to them, preferably free ...
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1answer
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Were the Islamic Caliphates (Umayyad and Abbasid) and the Mongol Empires truly as benevolent as they are portrayed?

My history textbooks insist on the same idea: these empires were religiously tolerant, allowed trade to flourish, and improved the quality of life for the subjects. On the other hand, all the ...
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4answers
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Why did China annex Tibet?

This is probably a very naive question, but here it goes: Was there an economical or political reason for the invasion of Tibet by China in 1950? It does not seem to me that Tibet is a particularly ...
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In Indian census, were the children of a Thug recorded as “Yet to Be Thug”?

I read (can't remember where at the moment) that in a population census (probably around 1911) the child of a thug used to be recorded as "yet to be thug" in profession column in India. ...
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1answer
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Why do Afro-Caribbeans have English names whereas Indo-Caribbeans still have Indian(ish) names?

Why don't Afro-Caribbeans have African names or Indo-Caribbeans have English names? Did colonizers find it difficult to pronounce African names but not Indian names? Further to this question, if this ...
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Why didn't Japan expand into Ezo?

Throughout the first millenium of Japanese history (and before that even) the Japanese rather steadily expanded up Honshu. Once they had taken the whole of Honshu however they seemed largely to stop. ...
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How do we compare historical empires on these statistics?

I see three criteria here: I'm wondering which historical empire was the most long lived, largest, most populous, and represented the largest percentage of world population. Who controlled the ...
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1answer
317 views

Were the Spanish aware that American mainland existed after discovering the Caribbean?

After the Spanish (Castille) first discovered The Caribbean (Nowday Dominican Republic, Cuba ect.) in the late 1400s / Early 1500s were they aware / did they predict that mainland North and South ...
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How accurate or supported is Jared Diamond's “Guns, Germs, and Steel”?

Jared Diamond wrote a fascinating book that purports to explain, in a very broad way, the development of civilization. It has several explanations for the development of Eurasian civilization rather ...
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2answers
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Is there a quote that expresses Mill's opposition to Indian democracy?

I heard in a talk that John Stuart Mill was in favor of democracy in his own country but against democracy in India, I read the following in a paper - Mill’s support of British imperialism may seem ...
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Is there a correlation between the colonial power and the stability/success of the post colonial state?

Looking at the history of Ghana relative to many post-colonial African states, it appears to be quite a successful and stable nation-state, both politically and economically, compared to many other ...
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Why have some Sahrawis become Moroccan citizens while others ended up in refugee camps?

Quoting from this article, The Sahrawis who did not flee have been given Moroccan citizenship. Is this all there is to the story? Much of the literature on the Western Sahara conflict overlooks why ...
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1answer
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Why has the Congo ended up French-speaking but not Flemish-speaking? [closed]

Why is there hardly any Flemish linguistic heritage in the former Belgian colonies, at least at the institutional level? EDIT (Evidence of prior research): Neither the Democratic Republic of the Congo ...
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Why did Native Americans die from European diseases while Europeans didn't catch serious diseases from the New World?

Why did Native Americans die of European diseases while Europeans didn't have serious diseases from the New World? I read that most Native American victims of colonization in the new world died of ...
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1answer
401 views

Can world systems theory apply to empires?

World systems theory categorizes the economic relationships of countries by placing them in a core or a periphery. In this model, core countries exploit resources in the peripheral countries. This ...
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Was any object from Anza's expeditions conserved?

In the 1770s, Juan Bautista de Anza led two overland expeditions from Sinaloa to Alta California. The first was for reconnaissance and the second, larger and better known, for the purpose of ...
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1answer
462 views

What was the tonnage carried in the Triangle Trade?

I'm interested in metrics regarding trans-atlantic trade in the era of the sail. The specific timespan doesn't matter. The specific cargo also doesn't matter. I've searched but not found any ...
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5answers
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Why did the Dutch, French & British acquire minor colonies in South America?

We know that South America was partitioned between Spain and Portugal in the early days of empire when Spain and Portugal were the major powers. Later, in the 19th century, when Spain and Portugal ...
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1answer
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Why did United Kingdom not keep the colonies after Napoleon's defeat?

During the Napoleonic Wars the British occupied some French, Dutch and Danish colonies mainly in the Caribbean like: Dutch Surinam, Danish West Indies, French Martinique. I have 2 questions: Why ...
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8answers
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What were the main causes of successful take over of India by Britain?

The East India Company ruled an entire country of huge size for 101 years (1757–1858). During this time they did almost everything they wanted to do and won almost every battle in India. What was ...
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1answer
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How large were the East India Company armed forces?

The British East India Company maintained an armed force large and competent enough to subdue and control Mughal India, but just how large was it? How comparable was it to contemporary national ...
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1answer
276 views

Did New Mexicans under Spain regard themselves as Mexican?

Mexico, in its original sense, is the homeland of the Mexica (Aztec) people and its principal city. The sense of the name broadened, presumably as people in the metropole spoke broadly about it, and ...
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4answers
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Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands?

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands? If no, then why not? How about the island countries Cabo Verde and São Tomé and their African continental neighbours?
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Are views in Thailand on Axis powers influenced by colonization?

John Oliver talked on how Nazi depictions are used commercially in Thailand. However, Thailand regained land from the British and the French during WW2, which maybe could be partially attributed to ...
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4answers
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Why could China keep most of the lands it conquered after 17th century but European powers could not?

If we look at the map of Ming dynasty, we see a much smaller China. Most of the northern and western part of today's China was conquered during Qing dynasty. In contrast, many European powers have ...
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1answer
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Did Industrial Revolution economic systems rely on colonies? [closed]

I have read in the Economic Nobel's prize Thomas Piketty's book the following sentence (translation is mine): "The Enlightenment movement and the Industrial Revolution were partially based on the ...
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1answer
74 views

Is individual level data from British India censuses (1881 - 1941) available?

If not, was there ever a record of this available? What happened to these records? If available, where can I find them?
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Did Western “New Imperialism” actually free slaves in Muslim lands?

Slavery is fair game in mainstream/traditional Islam. I have heard various commentaries that abolishing of slavery in various Muslim-dominated countries actually coincided with the 2nd wave of Western ...
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1answer
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Why has Nepal never been conquered or colonized?

Why has no country conquered or colonized Nepal? Nepal lost the Anglo-Nepalese War with East India Company but was not colonized.
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1answer
772 views

How many Dutch lived in Indonesia during the colonial era vs native population?

In Indonesian education, it is often emphasized that the Dutch took advantage of "divide and conquer" tactics (and superior technology) to keep ruling Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies) despite ...
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Why did the East India Company accept the Government of India Act 1858?

In 1858, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act which contained provisions of liquidation of the Company and transfer of assets and governance to the British Crown. The Act was ...
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1answer
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When in 1775 was Anza in Culiacán?

Juan Bautista de Anza made an exploratory expedition to Alta California in 1774, then was sent again to take colonist families with him. As the expedition moved north, he recruited them in Culiacán, ...
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6answers
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Did Pope Urban II issue the papal bull “terra nullius” in 1095?

Countless sources claim that the origin of the term terra nullius is from a papal bull issued by Pope Urban II in 1095 called "Terra nullius". Here are a two: Pramod K. Nayar, The Postcolonial ...
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What was Rhodesia like before independence? [closed]

I have heard a lot about Robert Mugabe in my time, and he mostly seemed like a good example of how not to run a country. Now that he's died, I'm seeing a lot of articles talking about his supposed "...