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Questions tagged [colonization]

The process of a country relocating some of its citizens to a territory under their purvey and asserting political, military and/or economic control over any native inhabitants who may already occupy said territory.

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8
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2answers
219 views

Are views in Thailand on axis powers influenced by colonization?

John Oliver talked on how nazi depictions are used commercially in Thailand. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Nqa4XKkXp4 However, Thailand regained land from the British and the French during WW2, ...
2
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1answer
66 views

When in 1775 was Anza in Culiacán?

Juan Bautista de Anza made an exploratory expedition to Alta California in 1774, then was sent again to take colonist families with him. As the expedition moved north, he recruited them in Culiacán, ...
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0answers
139 views

What was Rhodesia like before independence? [closed]

I have heard a lot about Robert Mugabe in my time, and he mostly seemed like a good example of how not to run a country. Now that he's died, I'm seeing a lot of articles talking about his supposed "...
32
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6answers
6k views

Did Pope Urban II issue the papal bull “terra nullius” in 1095?

Countless sources claim that the origin of the term terra nullius is from a papal bull issued by Pope Urban II in 1095 called "Terra nullius". Here are a two: Pramod K. Nayar, The Postcolonial ...
21
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1answer
4k views

Why didn't Britain or any other European power colonize Abyssinia/Ethiopia before 1936?

It is well mentioned while reading books on Africa or, the colonization or “scramble” for Africa, that two countries, Liberia and Ethiopia/Abyssinia, had retained their sovereignty as independent ...
3
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2answers
368 views

Why didn't Asian countries expand and trade with Europe? [closed]

There are questions why China didn't explore and discover Europe. The answer is that the Ming dynasty prohibits that. So the issue is that China is so centralized they can't do that. One king says no,...
2
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1answer
285 views

Can world systems theory apply to empires?

World systems theory categorizes the economic relationships of countries by placing them in a core or a periphery. In this model, core countries exploit resources in the peripheral countries. This ...
5
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1answer
367 views

Why was the duration of territorial contracts often 99 years?

This is based on this Reddit question, but I rectified its mistakes. For example, some European colonies in China were leased for 99 years, like German Kiautschou and the New Territories (but not ...
9
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2answers
181 views

Was Lampsacus a Phocaean or Milesian colony?

Lampsacus was an ancient Greek polis situated on the eastern side of the Hellespont (modern Dardanelles) . The English Wikipedia page describes the city as of Milesian AND Phocaean foundation, hinting ...
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0answers
77 views

Were there any Europeans in Algeria before 1830 and did they become a majority in Algiers after the conquest by the French?

Europeans in Algeria constituted a very considerable portion of the population from the conquest in 1830. Indeed, there were in fact more people from Spain and Portugal than from France it seems. ...
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1answer
184 views

Is it correct to label the Czech Republic as a colony in the years 1945–92? [closed]

The website Our World in Data codes the Czech Republic as having been a "colony" up to and including 1992 at this chart: When you click on the "Sources" tab, it is stated: If a country was ...
31
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10answers
12k views

Why was Germany not as successful as other Europeans in establishing overseas colonies?

French, British, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch.. they all had vast outreach across the globe on multiple continents. Why did Germans not have this much outreach?
1
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1answer
160 views

Why during the colonial era were Berber countries referred to as “Arab”?

I can cite an example: in Dumas’ “De Vicomte de Bragelonne”, Athos’ son (the Vicomte) decides to go to war in Algeria, where he fights against the Arabs: “The vicomte was summoned to surrender by ...
4
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3answers
926 views

Why weren't colonies accepted as part of their colonizing countries?

I'll use the British empire as an example, although in principle the same question could apply to every other colonial power. The British empire was ruled by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom ...
1
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1answer
144 views

Did Indigenous Australians burn land to get Europeans to move on, and did Europeans follow suit?

I was told by a guide that when European settlers originally arrived in Australia, Indigenous populations burnt their land to get the Europeans to move on. I am aware that the Indigenous did burn ...
8
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1answer
251 views

Did New Mexicans under Spain regard themselves as Mexican?

Mexico in its original sense is the homeland of the Mexica (Aztec) people and its principal city. The sense of the name broadened, presumably as people in the metropole spoke broadly about it, and ...
3
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1answer
398 views

What was the tonnage carried in the Triangle Trade?

I'm interested in metrics regarding trans-atlantic trade in the era of the sail. The specific timespan doesn't matter. The specific cargo also doesn't matter. I've searched but not found any ...
6
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2answers
362 views

Did Western “New Imperialism” actually free slaves in Muslim lands?

Slavery is fair game in mainstream/traditional Islam. I have heard various commentaries that abolishing of slavery in various Muslim-dominated countries actually coincided with the 2nd wave of Western ...
6
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1answer
202 views

Were the officers assigned to Kamchatka being punished?

The Russian Imperial army and navy had to build frontier outposts in very remote locations such as Kamchatka. During the Catherine the Great/Paul/Alexander period (1762-1825), the few ostrogs and ...
2
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1answer
272 views

Why did the French return all the Dutch Colonies to the Netherlands in Paris Treaty?

It seems to me that France helped Holland a lot in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. And also gave all Dutch colonies back to Holland in the 1783 Treaty of Paris? I was wondering why was that and what ...
4
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1answer
114 views

Immigrants to Mexican New Mexico

In its Mexican era California attracted immigrants, principally Anglo-Americans, who often worked as merchants and capitalists. English speakers like William Hartnell and Thomas Larkin dominated ...
2
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1answer
249 views

Did other American empires also fall to the Europeans?

Since forever, people have subjugated each other to demand labor or resources. A monarchic or centralized power that subjugates several other peoples is an empire. Half a dozen European empires ...
1
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1answer
600 views

Why did the Swedish colonies in America and Africa fail?

The Swedish empire controlled the Gold Coast in 1650-63 and New Sweden in present-day USA in 1638-55. Why did Sweden fail to hold these possession in the apex of its great power era?
4
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2answers
180 views

Did the Vatican punish France for rejecting Tordesillas?

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided up all new discoveries between Portugal and Castile, so establishing the position of Brazil. Pope Alexander VI's deal excluded the other Catholic states. ...
2
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1answer
184 views

Were the Spanish aware that American mainland existed after discovering the Caribbean?

After the Spanish (Castille) first discovered The Caribbean (Nowday Dominican Republic, Cuba ect.) in the late 1400s / Early 1500s were they aware / did they predict that mainland North and South ...
4
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1answer
114 views

Journeys from Gujarat in India to Dare es Salaam in what was then, Tanganyika in 1925 and 1948

I am researching a journey for a novel where my character travels from Gujarat in India to Dare es Salaam in what was then, Tanganyika. The journey happens in 1925 and then again in 1948. Does anyone ...
2
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1answer
106 views

What was the commandant of Okhotsk's involvement in Russian-American Company hiring?

The Russian-American Company was a privately funded concern which obtained a royal monopoly on exploration and settlement in America. It sponsored and managed the Russian presence from the Aleutians ...
2
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0answers
201 views

Did the United States colonize California?

Upper California was a province of Mexico from the 1820s to the 1840s (sometimes unified with Lower California). Near the end of this period it was overrun with Anglo-American men that lived apart ...
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1answer
176 views

What kind of training did Imperial military officers receive? [closed]

In the early modern period, European empires maintained their faraway colonies with great armies and navies. Many enlisted soldiers and sailors were barely trained; imperial officers were often ...
52
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3answers
8k views

Why didn't Portugal found universities in its colonies like Spain?

Imperial Spain and Portugal conquered and developed huge empires. Both monarchies were Catholic and seized huge amounts of land in the 1500s. Both European motherlands had numerous universities, but ...
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0answers
69 views

Who was the first Russian woman to live in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky?

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is a port city on the Pacific Ocean. The indigenes in its location were Itelmen (Kamchadals). Today its population was dominated by ethnic Russians, but in the mid-18th ...
2
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2answers
1k views

Why did Europeans and Asian countries develop much faster than African countries [closed]

There are numerous pages, papers and talks held about this topic. Then ideas conveyed revolved around the ideaology of African countries, varying cultures and most common factor, colonalism. As a ...
9
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4answers
649 views

Has there ever been a situation where the “motherland” treated its colonies well anywhere in the world?

Has there ever been a situation where the "motherland" treated its colonies well anywhere in the world? So being born in a former French protectorate, I've been taught about the horrendous treatment ...
4
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5answers
625 views

Is there a Russian Black Legend? (a dispute about the morality of Russia's colonial expansion)

In the early modern era several European nations dramatically expanded their territory through conquest. All of them used violence and coercion to push their frontiers forward. The notion that Spain'...
3
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1answer
123 views

New surnames for baptized natives

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries on remote frontiers around the world chose new Christian names for the natives they baptized. Apparently the monks who missionized Kamchatka also ...
12
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1answer
515 views

17th century Japanese colonies in Southeast Asia?

After a period of exposure to European interests, Japan secluded itself in the 1630s. George Lensen wrote in "The Russian Push Towards Japan": On the eve of her seclusion, Japan had begun to expand ...
0
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1answer
75 views

Cold War proxy countries views on nationalism or decolonization?

The Cold War countries like the US and USSR had interests in other regions of the world which often resulted in indirect proxy wars. I believe the funds were provided by the larger country and often ...
3
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2answers
3k views

What did the British Empire mean by “Free Trade” in reference to the colonies?

Background: This feels like sort of a silly question for me to be asking after reading about the Victorian Age and the British Empire for several months, but here goes. As I've read about the ...
3
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1answer
330 views

How did 19th century European nations arbitrate the process of colonization among themselves?

Background: During the 19th century the great powers of Europe colonized, and informally dominated, large portions areas of Asia, Africa, and (to a lesser extent) Central and South America. Often, as ...
0
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1answer
304 views

In the French Empire, what was the difference between french colonies éphémèras and comptoirs français?

Just a quick question I've been unable to google an answer to. I was looking at this map, to get a better idea of the progress of French colonialism in the 19th century. A couple of google and word ...
6
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1answer
5k views

Why has Nepal never been conquered or colonized?

Why has no country conquered or colonized Nepal? Nepal lost the Anglo-Nepalese War with East India Company but was not colonized.
7
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2answers
296 views

What was the Orthodox Church's role in Russian expansion?

Yuri Semyonov's The Conquest of Siberia says the main motivation for the Russian empire's eastwards expansion was the acquisition of furs (in the form of yasak, the fur tax assessed on native male ...
4
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3answers
1k views

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands?

Has Morocco ever claimed ownership of the Canary and Madeira islands? If no, then why not? How about the island countries Cabo Verde and São Tomé and their African continental neighbours?
7
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1answer
268 views

Most recently settled area habitable without modern technology

Among islands or archipelagos with a size, climate, and ecology suitable to sustain a healthy population of stone age technology humans, which one was settled most recently? Among "large" landmasses ...
1
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2answers
385 views

Which people resisted Russian expansion most fiercely?

The Russian Empire's expansion towards the east and south meant conquering lots of local tribes along the way (Buryats, Yakuts, etc.). These peoples unwillingly became ethnic minorities in Russia. ...
5
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2answers
222 views

Why would native women of the Russian Far East undergo Orthodox baptism?

Russian colonism of the Pacific Rim included religious missions which sought to perform baptisms. As an incentive to conversion, baptized native men were exempted from imperial fur tax (they then had ...
3
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3answers
960 views

Did Africans defeat Europeans in battle between 1850 and 1950?

The battle of Adwa was fought between Italians and Ethiopians in northern Ethiopia in 1896. The Italians were defeated and it was the greatest victory for Africans. Were there any other battles where ...
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0answers
59 views

Time frame of Rita Indiana's video “Da Pa' lo' Do'” (Dominican Republic)

This question is about the history of the Dominican Republic. Look at the uniform shown in the beginning of Rita Indiana's video "Da Pa' lo' Do'," which means "There's enough for both," where "both" ...
0
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1answer
942 views

What factors contributed to successful colonization of Asia & Africa? [closed]

What all factors contributed to successful colonization of Asia and Africa by European countries in 18th and 19th century? And, why England was more successful than the other European countries?
4
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1answer
2k views

What caused the shift from annexation of territory, to colonization of territory?

What caused the shift from annexation of territory, to colonization of territory? I've been thinking about this for some time, but can't come to any definite conclusions as my knowledge in history ...