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Questions tagged [communism]

An ideology derived from socialist theory of the nineteenth century. Communism defines a condition in which socialist development has lead to the virtual elimination of economic class. This is ultimately achieved by worker ownership and control of the means of production (defined as the tools & ...

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What were the policies of the Sammarinese communist party?

I've heard of things not going very well for many socialist countries in the 20th and 21st centuries with problems such as famine, civil war and genocide. However in contrast to states like the USSR ...
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295 views

During the Great Depression in America, was there an increase in popularity of Communism?

During the Great Depression, was there an increase in the popularity of Communism among the everyday American and if so, was this due to a longing for better living conditions?
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What was the logic behind Stalin's brutality?

In this article Stalin's behaviour is argued to be the result of a calculated and fanatical strategy. Stephen Kotkin's book 'Stalin' is referenced, and the suggestion is that criticism of Stalin as ...
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Why did Romanian Communism become more authoritarian while Russian Communism became less? [closed]

During the Cold War the Socialist Republic of Romania was aligned with the USSR. What appears odd is that while Russian Communism slowly liberalised after Stalin's death, Romania went the other way. ...
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Is this a true quote of Engels about vague Russian leaders and their vague followers?

In the recent movie "The Young Karl Marx", Engels refers to Russian communist leaders being confused and finding confused followers. Is this a true quote and if yes, whom did he mean?
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At what point was Josip Broz Tito most popular? [closed]

I would take into consideration both elites and rest of the public. Period I'm interested in is from the end of the World War Two to his death.
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225 views

Why did Shock Therapy fail so badly?

Why did shock therapy fail during perestroika? Has shock therapy ever worked in other situations? Was it responsible for the creation of the nomenclature and oligarchs? Are there any authors who ...
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243 views

Ideological differences between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

As I understand from this brief explanation, the main doctrinal difference was that the Bolsheviks were more radical (class struggle) while the Mensheviks were more in favor of class cooperation and ...
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472 views

Can anyone find a picture of NSDAP & KPD Workers eating lunch together in 1932 during Berlin Transit Workers Strike?

A few months back I saw a picture on the web of NSDAP and KPD strikers eating lunch together during the November, 1932, Berlin Transit Workers strike. The picture showed strikers of both parties ...
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Was Nikolai Bukharin told at trial his job was “to confess and repent, not to argue”?

A recent Economist article claims: As Nikolai Bukharin, a close Lenin ally, was told during his own trial, his job was “to confess and repent, not to argue”. I've searched without success for a ...
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137 views

How did Lenin secure his regime? [closed]

As we know, Bolsheviks seemed to overthow Provisional Government easily in November Revolution. Many political parties are inspired and feel like taking over the same way. War Communism also ...
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Are there biographies on Boris Shumyatsky that included his history before 1921?

Zhang Guotao in his memoir recounted his meeting with Shumyatsky in 1921. The then King of Siberia was very busy but managed to treat Zhang with a private dinner in his home. After the dinner, Zhang ...
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How does Louise Bryant's assessment of how the Soviet Union would fall hold up at the beginning of the 21st century?

Louise Bryant, an American bohemian spent six months in Russia during the turbulent times that presaged the October Revolution - and which she wrote up as Six Red Months in Russia. In her conclusion ...
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482 views

What good came from the Great Leap Forward?

I'm currently reading the book "Mao's Great Famine" by Frank Dikötter. It's a very harrowing book covering the unimaginable waste and destruction of resources, environment and life that occurred ...
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237 views

Were there any long-term benefits from sending Lenin back to Russia [closed]

Sending Lenin back to Russia to start a revolution is usually touted as a good idea by the Germans, since it helped to knock Russia out of the war. But the Great War was still lost for Germany, the ...
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119 views

Is there a biography of Pavel Mif?

Pavel Mif by all Chinese accounts was a ruthless scheming Napoleon (the one in animal farm). Fortunate to the Chinese, Mif was later purged by Stalin. I wonder what sort of family he was from; where ...
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What was the Chinese Communist Party's organizational hierarchy in the two weeks between 15JUL1927 and 01Aug1927?

According to Zhang Guotao, Nanchang Upgrising (01Aug1927) was Li Lisan's initiative inaugurated and proposed by Zhou Enlai to Zhang GuoTao. The decision to go ahead was made between Zhou Enlai and ...
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Does anyone know the name of the student who died during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956? If not, why not?

I'm reading up on the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and it seems that if that one student hadn't died, the revolution never would have started. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which ...
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Why was most of Europe against communism right from the start?

In "Dark Continent" by M. Mazower, I read the following with regards to the 1920s: In the first place, democracy’s international backers were less supportive as time passed. Woodrow Wilson’s legacy ...
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195 views

What measures were taken by the Bolsheviks to consolidate their position? [closed]

What are four measures taken by the Bolsheviks before December of 1917 to suppress threats to their position? I know that: 1)They promised elections to the assembly to be held in November 1917. ...
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510 views

What was the program of the Mensheviks in their later years? How did they hope to achieve it?

The Mensheviks were an important force in Russia during the February Revolution of 1917. Within Russia proper, they were gradually sidelined after the Bolshevik October Revolution. The Menshevik ...
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150 views

Would there have been racially mixed student bodies in schools in communist Bulgaria?

For example, would a high schooler in Bulgaria in the 80s had the occasion to go to school with Arabs or Africans... either exchange students, immigrants, children of diplomats, etc? I'm assuming yes ...
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Did Mao Zedong and Chinese communists collude with the Japanese during the Sino-Japanese War?

Whilst answering another question on in which the CCP was militarily involved in the Sino-Japanese War, To what extent did the CPC avoid fighting with the Japanese? I came across groundbreaking and ...
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What was the basic structure of power in the CPSU and how were the politicians at each level chosen?

I'm aware of the very-basics like the General Secretary, the Politburo and Central Commitee, but could someone give me a simple rundown of the lower levels to the bottom? Also, I'm particularly ...
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Why didn't the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia use the military to suppress the protests during the Velvet Revolution?

I've been reading a bit about the fairly peaceful transition of power in Czechoslovokia through the protests throughout the country, but I'm wondering, why didn't the ruling party attempt to bring the ...
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156 views

How many languages did Zhang Shenfu speak?

Zhang Shenfu (Chinese: 张申府; 1893–1986) was a founder and quitter of the Chinese Communist Party, a philosopher, and a political activist.
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150 views

What was the Jiangxi Soviet's language of operation between 1931 and 1934?

Gong Chu (龔楚) in his Memoir mentioned that the Chinese Communists in Jinggangshan soviet district between 1931 and 1934 had a shortage of representatives in a Cantonese unit of the red army because ...
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What do Marxists mean by “class basis of law”? As seen in linked article

R. Judson Mitchell's article The Brezhnev Doctrine and Communist Ideology uses the term "class basis of law". I'm not sure but I think: Because this concept almost always appears hand in hand with "...
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250 views

Who made those 1:50,000 maps in 1930's China

Gong Chu in his Memoir mentioned several times Red Army officers poring over 1:50,000 maps of the most backward areas of China in early 1930s. I wonder who could possibly make those maps.
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133 views

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka before 1921? [closed]

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka (USSR secret police) before 1921? Does that have any historical precedent? If not, 1926. Either former Czarist agents, or spies working for other ...
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1answer
192 views

Why was the US table tennis team sent to communist China even after a difference in ideology? [closed]

The USA had an embargo in place with China, due to having fought the Chinese in Korea during the Korean war. For 20 years no American set foot in PRC territory. At last though, the American table ...
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How much impact did US Policy of containment have?

This will border dangerously close to a discussion rather than question/answer, but I would like to know whether there exists any consensus regarding the effects of the United States' policy of ...
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475 views

How was Germany involved in the Russian Civil War after the Paris Peace Conference?

What was Germany's involvement in the Russian Civil War after the Paris Peace Conference? After signing the Treaty of Versailles, Germany's economy was pretty much in ruins, but which side of the ...
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614 views

The allure of totalitarianism/ communism/ fascism [closed]

In the 1930s there was a rise of totalitarianism whether fascism or communism such as Hitler's Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and Stalin's Soviet Union What would've been the allure of totalitarianism ...
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56 views

Looking for a (preferably digital) collection of McCarthy speeches (transcripts)

I am analysing the history of demagogy and it's rhetoric using modern data science. I have acquired some collections of speeches dating back to George Washington, but unfortunately I have not been ...
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How many Bolsheviks were Jewish?

There is an old canard to the effect that Bolshevism was a Jewish phenomenon (the Nazis, for example, referred to it as Judeo-Bolshevism), and there are still many people today who stress the ...
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754 views

What were the limitations on possession of wealth in Soviet Russia and how were they enforced?

Specifically: How were workers compensated, was wage equal everywhere? If not - what affected the variations? What were the limitations of possession of money and/or assets? How were they enforced? ...
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231 views

was communism a weaponized idea deployed against Imperial Russia? [closed]

I remember a lecture by a historian praising Imperial Germany for defeating Imperial Russia by both political (financing and "deploying" Lenin) and military means, a feat that both Napoleon and Hitler ...
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691 views

Lenin Jacket Picture: What's the story?

What is the story behind this photo? When was this photo taken? Who are the models? This photo, in many places on the internet, even in this article on "Chinese wikipedia", is shown as an example of ...
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Was the population of Moscow wildly overstated during the Cold War?

The science fiction author Robert Heinlein was a socialist in his youth, but became a strident anticommunist during the Cold War. In 1960, he and his wife Virginia went as tourists to the USSR, and he ...
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136 views

Was Fascism capitalist or communist or as many say, was it a “third type” of ideology? [closed]

Was Fascism capitalist or communist or as many say, was it a "third type" of ideology? I have searched wikipedia and other sources but due to different opinions, I am confused.
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160 views

Why did Bierut threaten to murder families of those who did not join him?

My knowledge is very small on this. Boleslaw Bierut was a Polish Communist leader who became the President of Poland after the Soviet takeover of the country, in the aftermath of WW2 as Wikipedia says....
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Did Amadeo Bordiga tell off Stalin this way?

I read somewhere that Amadeo Bordiga, Italian Communist, said something along these lines to Stalin's face: If the Soviet Union is the homeland of all proletarians and the revolution, then let it ...
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2answers
424 views

How much resemblance did the industrialization of the Soviet Union bear to those of the rest of the world?

I was thinking about the industrialization of the Soviet Union, most notably the death toll involved. The policies (such as forced-labour, prison camps for those who under performed, extremely poor ...
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324 views

Why is communism hated by some ppl? [closed]

Communists ideologies are against Capitalism and Privatization...Well it seemed a good thought in Marx's era...he was fighting against the "gap" what so called a "class" b/w rich and poor sections of ...
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McCarthy's speech: Where is “When a great democracy is destroyed…” from?

During the Wheeling speech in 1950, McCarthy said : As one of our outstanding historical figures once said, “When a great democracy is destroyed, it will not be from enemies from without, but ...
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305 views

Did Farmers Survive Communist Famines?

Reference on mass killings, some of which include famines (this from Reason). Also, this site has an interesting question about the famines and Soviet leadership keeping it a secret. Is there any ...
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2k views

Were there any westerners who entered the soviet bloc to escape capitalism? [closed]

It is a well known fact that many people from the soviet bloc fled to the west to escape communism, and that during the entire soviet time frame, from the beginning of the Russian civil war in 1918 ...
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618 views

How did the KPD relate to the German state during the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact?

Between August 1939 and June 1941, Germany and the USSR had the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. During this time, many USSR-oriented communist parties in Europe and North America were (forced to be) rather ...
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562 views

Why is Marx more prominent than Engels?

Both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels coauthored the Communist Manifesto. However, the philosophies described in the book are commonly referred to as Marxism. Also, Marx is a much more common name found ...