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Questions tagged [diplomacy]

The process of developing relationships between two or more parties. In relation to nation states, this typically involves the development of networks of embassies established between states to facilitate trade, resolve conflicts, and collect information on foreign actors.

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After the Japanese declaration of War, what happened to the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC? [duplicate]

The Japanese Declaration of War against the UK and USA was given on 1941 Dec 7. This happened in Washington DC via the Japanese Embassy. I would like to know what happened to that embassy and the ...
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Did people ever pour drinks on the floor to reject a toast or indicate an end to civilities?

In a fantasy book called "Jack of Shadows" by Roger Zelazny I read this: A disgraced member of a ruling party is being forced to ceremonially drink to the coronation of the new king, but instead ...
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Does there exist/Have there ever existed “Gang War Referees”

In the game, "Assassin's Creed Syndicate", a gang war mission starts with a man in a top hat telling you that a gang war has been declared, and seemingly acting as a neutral referee. Similarly, in "...
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What other one word responses have been made to military ultimatums besides “Nuts!”, “Mokusatsu” and “If”?

I am aware of three well known circumstances where a one word response was given to a military ultimatum: The Japanese government responded “mokusatsu” to the Potsdam Declaration prior to the ...
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Why do foreign dignitaries inspect guards of honour upon arrival?

I've been watching videos of various dignitaries (heads of state, heads of government, important officials, etc.) arriving for state visits in foreign countries. I noticed that upon disembarking from ...
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Have map projections and distortions ever affected treaties?

Has there ever been a case of an unfair treaty occur anytime through history due to use of biased map projections, either accidentally or deliberately?
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Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
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Why did Iturbide choose Fernández for the mission to California?

After Mexican independence, Emperor Agustín I took power. During his short reign he understandably sent a representative to the Californias to procure and check on their loyalty. The representative, a ...
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Did the Dominion of Newfoundland establish diplomatic missions?

Before 1949 Newfoundland was a separate country from Canada and both Newfoundland and Canada were "dominions". In Canada the status of a "dominion" meant that it was an independent country except that ...
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58 views

Why did Thomas Larkin write his biographical sketches?

Thomas Larkin, wealthy merchant of Monterey, California in the 1840s, was the consul of the United States. He was also a secret agent for President Buchanan who sent to Washington 78 microbiographies ...
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427 views

What was the Catholic Church's opinion of Diệm's South Vietnam?

I've started watching The Vietnam War, and would like to know something incidental to the early stages of this conflict. Ngo Dinh Diem led an increasingly brutal and unashamedly pro-Catholic ...
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British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races

Reportedly (from a source I cannot recall) the British had a very "interesting" guide about the Balkans. It had a sort of cheat sheet to the peoples around that area, with the stereotypical ...
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How did 19th century European nations arbitrate the process of colonization among themselves?

Background: During the 19th century the great powers of Europe colonized, and informally dominated, large portions areas of Asia, Africa, and (to a lesser extent) Central and South America. Often, as ...
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407 views

Was the treatment of US diplomats in Germany after the declaration of war during WW2 typical? [duplicate]

Wikipedia describes the way the US ambassador and other members of the diplomatic corps were treated. Ultimately they were exchanged for German prisoners. Is that usual to exchange diplomats for other ...
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What happened to Caesar's hostages in Gaul?

I am reading Caesar's Gallic wars, and there is a repetitive pattern to much of it. Caesar shows up The natives either sue for peace and surrender their weapons and give hostages, or The natives ...
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What is the first known instance of gift-giving backfiring across cultures?

What is the first time known that two cultures, unfamiliar to each other, exchanged gifts in good faith, only to find that the other interpreted it differently? In other words, when did gifts first ...
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Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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Why was Colonel Bill Eddy kneeling in front of FDR and King Saud?

Amidst the WW2, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Saudi King Ibn Saud met aboard USS Quincy after the Yalta conference. Colonel Bill Eddy played the role of interpreter. It however strikes as ...
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How was Switzerland able to stay neutral during WWI and WWII?

It is amazing Switzerland was able to stay neutral. It is not just a matter of choice and only up to Switzerland. Each side of the warring faction can take this hard stand "If you are not for me, then ...
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Why did Theodore Roosevelt send his daughter Alice with Taft on a diplomatic mission to Asia?

I understand the idea of medieval monarchies using the relatives of the monarch for diplomacy, as blood ties and closeness to the throne indicated political position and thus the reliability of any ...
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Was there ever an occurrence of diplomatic communication using food?

Is there an example in history where two leaders, or even just foreign travelers, who could not understand each other's spoken language, communicated by food? I am not talking about very specific ...
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What were the “passports” that diplomats requested when declaring war?

From Andrew Roberts’ Napoleon: A Life, on the 1803 outbreak of war between Britain and France, after Britain demanded Malta and Napoleon then wanted to know whether this demand was an ultimatum ...
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How did Germany claim self-defense in WW1?

WW1 broke out after a series of ultimatums and warnings against each other. However, I understand that every power claimed that the other powers were acting against its interests, and it was ...
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How did marrying off one's daughter help secure an alliance, in early medieval Europe?

Marriage between royal family was often a way to secure / strengthen an alliance between two monarchs. For example, according to Wikipedia Marriage between dynasties could serve to initiate, ...
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359 views

What was the contemporary popular opinion of the Anglo-Irish Treaty?

After the Irish War of Independence (also known as The [Black and] Tan War), the Irish and British signed a treaty in 1921, which created the Irish Free State and started the process of gradual ...
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Which of the participant states was benefited in the long run by the Congress of Vienna?

Congress of Vienna took place in 1814-1815 aiming to restore stability in Europe after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Each state/kingdom sent their diplomat(s) to the congress in order to ...
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Were boycotts, divestment, and sanctions effective against apartheid?

In the 1980s there was a movement to use boycotts, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) to apply pressure on the apartheid regime in South Africa. These efforts included sports boycotts, refusal of some ...
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181 views

Codes:Hardest Code Ever [closed]

Which is the strongest/code that is unbreakable and exists? I have recently been reading a book called: The Code Book" by Simon Singh and It doesn't specify what was/is the most unbreakable code ever ...
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610 views

What responsibility did Golda Meir have for the Yom Kippur war?

I read in the book "The Iron Wall" by Avi Shlaim, there was a description of the Yom Kippur war that happened due to Golda Meir's insistence on keeping parts of Sinai and not trading them to Egypt ...
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659 views

How were 19th century American diplomats paid?

I just came across this line in H.W. Brands' Andrew Jackson biography, explaining why Jackson was initially uninterested in the presidency: "The pay was good, but the expenses of the office ate up the ...
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What was unreasonable about Austria's ultimatum to Serbia?

There are actually three questions. First Question: It is often stated, especially in English-speaking media, that the terms of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia 1914 were unreasonable. Sometimes the ...
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388 views

What's the earliest example of a permanent embassy?

In all the accounts I've read, when the great empires of the ancient Mediterranean needed to talk to each other, they sent an ambassador or a messenger. As in, someone from Country A brought a ...
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Why did the assasination of Franz Ferdinand trigger WW1? [closed]

I understand that there were also other reasons other than the assassination, but this is widely considered the trigger for WW1. Why? And why did the whole world get involved with this one ...
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Which forts did the British keep in the Northwest Territory after the American Revolution?

At the end of the American Revolution, Britain ceded the Northwest Territory to the US as one of the terms of the Treaty of Paris. I stumbled across a very interesting statement on Wikipedia that ...
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Did Perry's Black Ships attack Edo harbour during his expedition to Japan?

Matthew C. Perry commanded the U.S. Navy expedition that forced Japan to abandon its policy of isolation, triggering the eventual overthrow of the Shogunate's and the Meiji Restoration. Perry arrived ...
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What was (if at all) Hitler's Plan B if Molotov-Ribbentrop had not worked out?

As we know, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union amicably agreed to attack Poland and to share it between themselves. Did Hitler and his staff have a detailed or formal contingency plan in case the Nazi-...
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Are there wars still going on, but officially ended? (found two) [closed]

I am curious if are there any wars still going on because of anomalies of diplomacy like the following examples: Rome vs. Carthage, 264BC - 1985AD, Since Carthage was destroyed, there were no ...
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What became of Nazi Germany's embassies in neutral countries?

This picture shows the German embassy in Stockholm very near the end of World War II (with the flag lowered to mark Hitler's death). Germany surrendered on the 8th May 1945. The Flensburg government ...
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Effects of the successful defense of the Soviet Union against Germany on the opening of the western front in WW2

I remember reading somewhere that the Allies (USA/UK) was not really keen on opening a second front to help the Soviet Union until the Soviets started to make progress in defeating Germany around 1942,...
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Was Casablanca a “safe” place for the Allies to hold a global conference in January, 1943?

In January 1943, America's President Roosevelt and Britain's Winston Churchill held a conference in Casablanca, Morocco. Russia's Stalin declined to attend (citing the fighting at Stalingrad). One "...
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Did Palmerston contribute to Louis Philippe's downfall?

I am reading this book and have come across a slightly puzzling passage on p. 154: [Palmerston] kept on good terms with Louis Philippe of France until he felt, in 1846, that Louis was taking an ...
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How were diplomats and their staffs treated when World War II was declared?

This could be a large and varied subject so I will restrict it to the 20th century and give two instances. In Sept 39, after Poland was invaded, the British diplomat in Berlin handed a note to the ...
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How long did it take for a diplomat to travel between Berlin and Vienna in the 1770's?

I was reading the Wikipedia entry for the War of the Bavarian Succession, and it said (my emphasis): For some historians, the War of the Bavarian Succession was the last of the old-style Cabinet ...
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Why did former Yugoslav republics dispute the legal successor of Yugoslavia?

In Wikipedia's article for Yugoslavia: One of the seven successor states was also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) until 2003. The FRY aspired to be a sole legal successor to ...
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What did contemporary countries in Europe call the Ottoman Empire?

In present texts, it is common to call it "the Ottoman Empire", although the name refers to the ruling dynasty rather than the nation, people or the region. This is not the case with other ...
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How did Churchill and Stalin intend to translate the percentages in the “Percentages agreement”?

In "percentages agreement", Stalin and Churchill allegedly divided Southeastern Europe to sphere of influences of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. According to Churchill's account quoted by ...
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When did the practice of formal declaration of war start?

Up to World War 2, formal declarations of war was the standard way to start a war, at least between major powers. When did this practice start and why? Since when did it become the norm?
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What are the French gains after the American Revolutionary War

Did France gain anything significant (territories or other concessions) at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War? I tried to look up for it, but what I found were very minor (Senegal in ...
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Was the UN critically involved in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Is there any evidence to show that the Cuban Missile Crisis was scaled back because of the actions of UN personnel acting in their UN role? The topic came up recently about precedent for UN having ...
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Instances of the UN defusing serious crises

One of the reasons why the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis did not escalate into a war was due to the diplomacy of Adlai Stevenson in the UN. Are there other instances where the defusing of a serious crisis ...