Questions tagged [diplomacy]

The process of developing relationships between two or more parties. In relation to nation states, this typically involves the development of networks of embassies established between states to facilitate trade, resolve conflicts, and collect information on foreign actors.

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Was there ever a treaty between 2 entities with significantly different translations to the detriment of one party?

Inspired by an answer to When translating the law, who ensures that the wording does not change the meaning of the law? When 2 different entities that speak different languages have a treaty, there ...
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When did the practice of formally "declaring war" cease and why?

Here's a detailed description of ambassador Neville Henderson being received by the foreign ministry in Berlin in 1939. Perhaps the most famous example. He came in looking very serious, shook hands, ...
Tea Drinker's user avatar
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29 votes
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Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
user69715's user avatar
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28 votes
1 answer
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What became of Nazi Germany's embassies in neutral countries?

This picture shows the German embassy in Stockholm very near the end of World War II (with the flag lowered to mark Hitler's death). Germany surrendered on the 8th May 1945. The Flensburg government ...
Tea Drinker's user avatar
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26 votes
4 answers
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How were diplomats and their staffs treated when World War II was declared?

This could be a large and varied subject so I will restrict it to the 20th century and give two instances. In Sept 39, after Poland was invaded, the British diplomat in Berlin handed a note to the ...
PurplePilot's user avatar
25 votes
3 answers
31k views

Why did Mozambique join the British Commonwealth?

In short, the Commonwealth originated in the British Empire, as an association of Britain and its former colonies. Why did Mozambique (a former Portuguese colony) join?
Joe's user avatar
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24 votes
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How long did it take for a diplomat to travel between Berlin and Vienna in the 1770's?

I was reading the Wikipedia entry for the War of the Bavarian Succession, and it said (my emphasis): For some historians, the War of the Bavarian Succession was the last of the old-style Cabinet ...
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What is the earliest evidence of contact between Ireland and Egypt?

There is a folk tale of an Egyptian princess in Ireland around 1700 BC. Is there credible evidence of early contact between the two places?
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2 answers
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Has any foreign embassy ever been entered without permission?

I was just looking at this article: UK 'threatens' to raid Ecuador embassy over Assange "Today we've received a threat by the United Kingdom, a clear and written threat that they could storm our ...
going's user avatar
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2 answers
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Did King George III turn his back on John Adams and Thomas Jefferson?

After the resolution of the Revolutionary War, John Adams and (later) Thomas Jefferson were diplomatic agents in London. John Adams had been there a while and had previously met the King, apparently ...
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19 votes
1 answer
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What were the “passports” that diplomats requested when declaring war?

From Andrew Roberts’ Napoleon: A Life, on the 1803 outbreak of war between Britain and France, after Britain demanded Malta and Napoleon then wanted to know whether this demand was an ultimatum ...
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3 answers
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Has a foreign power ever sought to compel another country to abide by international law by means of that country's internal judiciary?

Suppose there are two countries which have a treaty or convention between them. One country thinks the other has infringed upon it. Have there been any instances where the first country filed a suit ...
Anixx's user avatar
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18 votes
6 answers
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What other one word responses have been made to military ultimatums besides "Nuts!", "Mokusatsu" and "If"?

I am aware of three well known circumstances where a one word response was given to a military ultimatum: The Japanese government responded “mokusatsu” to the Potsdam Declaration prior to the ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
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Did the Soviet Union protest against Italy building or acquiring submarines after WW2?

Article 59 of the 1947 Paris peace treaty prohibited Italy from having submarines or aircraft carriers. As far as I can tell, Italy acquired some US-made WW2-era submarines (Gato, Balao, and Tench ...
the gods from engineering's user avatar
17 votes
5 answers
21k views

Was the Zimmerman Telegram a ruse on the US or a way of Germany to incite Mexico to declare war on the US?

Prior to America's entry into WWI the Zimmerman Telegram was one incident that helped push America to declare war against Germany and join the Allies. While Mexico never fought against the US, so was ...
MichaelF's user avatar
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15 votes
3 answers
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What was unreasonable about Austria's ultimatum to Serbia?

There are actually three questions. First Question: It is often stated, especially in English-speaking media, that the terms of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia 1914 were unreasonable. Sometimes the ...
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When did the practice of formal declaration of war start?

Up to World War 2, formal declarations of war was the standard way to start a war, at least between major powers. When did this practice start and why? Since when did it become the norm?
Louis Rhys's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
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What did contemporary countries in Europe call the Ottoman Empire?

In present texts, it is common to call it "the Ottoman Empire", although the name refers to the ruling dynasty rather than the nation, people or the region. This is not the case with other ...
Louis Rhys's user avatar
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How did Churchill and Stalin intend to translate the percentages in the "Percentages agreement"?

In "percentages agreement", Stalin and Churchill allegedly divided Southeastern Europe to sphere of influences of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. According to Churchill's account quoted by ...
Louis Rhys's user avatar
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13 votes
3 answers
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What was (if at all) Hitler's Plan B if Molotov-Ribbentrop had not worked out?

As we know, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union amicably agreed to attack Poland and to share it between themselves. Did Hitler and his staff have a detailed or formal contingency plan in case the Nazi-...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar
13 votes
5 answers
10k views

What are the French gains after the American Revolutionary War

Did France gain anything significant (territories or other concessions) at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War? I tried to look up for it, but what I found were very minor (Senegal in ...
Louis Rhys's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
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How were 19th century American diplomats paid?

I just came across this line in H.W. Brands' Andrew Jackson biography, explaining why Jackson was initially uninterested in the presidency: "The pay was good, but the expenses of the office ate up the ...
two sheds's user avatar
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What was the Catholic Church's opinion of Diệm's South Vietnam?

I've started watching The Vietnam War, and would like to know something incidental to the early stages of this conflict. Ngo Dinh Diem led an increasingly brutal and unashamedly pro-Catholic ...
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12 votes
2 answers
970 views

Did Spain and the Republic of China (Kuomintang) have diplomatic relations between 1931 and 1939? Were they friendly or unfriendly?

The Republic of China and the Kingdom of Spain had relations before 1931 (link). Did they maintain these relations after the Second Spanish Republic was established? After 1945, the Spanish State ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
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How did diplomats of the Axis powers travel and communicate among themselves in World War II

In World War II, Japan and the European Axis powers had to communicate over strategy and other things. Also, their diplomats must have had to go to their own countries sometimes. After the USSR ...
Arani's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
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Why did the British think a 99-year lease on Hong Kong's New Territories was "as good as forever"?

I still don't get why Claude MacDonald wrote down 99 years. Why not play it safe and add more 9's? Why not write down 999? I know hindsight's 20/20, but it feels stupid for the British not to pick a ...
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11 votes
2 answers
3k views

Did Perry's Black Ships attack Edo harbour during his expedition to Japan?

Matthew C. Perry commanded the U.S. Navy expedition that forced Japan to abandon its policy of isolation, triggering the eventual overthrow of the Shogunate's and the Meiji Restoration. Perry arrived ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
235 views

Was there any connection between the Ottonians and Benedictines?

The Ottonians and Benedictines were expanding across Europe around the same time. However, other than in Rome they didn't have much overlap. I've heard references in some history and medieval ...
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10 votes
3 answers
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Why did the Roberts Treaty of 1833 have a Portuguese translation annexed to it?

According to Wikipedia, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Siam and the United States (or Roberts Treaty of 1833) was written in Thai and English, together with translations in Portuguese and ...
José Carlos Santos's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
5k views

How did Germany claim self-defense in WW1?

WW1 broke out after a series of ultimatums and warnings against each other. However, I understand that every power claimed that the other powers were acting against its interests, and it was ...
taninamdar's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
799 views

What happened to Caesar's hostages in Gaul?

I am reading Caesar's Gallic wars, and there is a repetitive pattern to much of it. Caesar shows up The natives either sue for peace and surrender their weapons and give hostages, or The natives ...
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10 votes
1 answer
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Argentina's involvement with the League of Nations

Argentina was a founding member of the League of Nations. However, Argentina left in 1921 when an Argentine resolution was rejected. Why, and through what procedure (if any), was Argentina allowed to ...
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10 votes
1 answer
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Why do foreign dignitaries inspect guards of honour upon arrival?

I've been watching videos of various dignitaries (heads of state, heads of government, important officials, etc.) arriving for state visits in foreign countries. I noticed that upon disembarking from ...
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9 votes
4 answers
4k views

How did marrying off one's daughter help secure an alliance, in early medieval Europe?

Marriage between royal family was often a way to secure / strengthen an alliance between two monarchs. For example, according to Wikipedia Marriage between dynasties could serve to initiate, ...
user69715's user avatar
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9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Which Catholic priests were given diplomatic missions?

Fernández de San Vicente was a high-ranking priest appointed by Mexico's government for a diplomatic mission to the Californias in 1822. Despite being nominally in the same country¸ the isolation of ...
Aaron Brick's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
820 views

How did recognition by Morocco influence the history of the USA?

In my personal experience when having studied the early history of the American Republic, I learned about The Treaty of Marrakech in my U.S. Diplomatic History Graduate course. Prior to that time, ...
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9 votes
1 answer
5k views

Was the UN critically involved in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Is there any evidence to show that the Cuban Missile Crisis was scaled back because of the actions of UN personnel acting in their UN role? The topic came up recently about precedent for UN having ...
New Alexandria's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
123 views

Can anyone point me to an online version of the 1900 amendment to the Franco-Russian Military Convention 1892?

Incitement The Wikipedia article, France-Russia relations, linked in an answer to this question, has After France was humiliated by Britain in the Fashoda Incident of 1898, the French wanted the ...
mjc's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
353 views

Did Palmerston contribute to Louis Philippe's downfall?

I am reading this book and have come across a slightly puzzling passage on p. 154: [Palmerston] kept on good terms with Louis Philippe of France until he felt, in 1846, that Louis was taking an ...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
6k views

Did Germany have treaties imposed upon it after WWII that mirrored the weight of the Treaty of Versailles?

After WWI, the treaty of Versailles became the rallying cry for more extreme political forces in Germany, as it's terms were blamed for the countries hardships, and as an insult to the country itself. ...
md nth's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
10k views

How was Switzerland able to stay neutral during WWI and WWII?

It is amazing Switzerland was able to stay neutral. It is not just a matter of choice and only up to Switzerland. Each side of the warring faction can take this hard stand "If you are not for me, then ...
curious's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
531 views

Why did Theodore Roosevelt send his daughter Alice with Taft on a diplomatic mission to Asia?

I understand the idea of medieval monarchies using the relatives of the monarch for diplomacy, as blood ties and closeness to the throne indicated political position and thus the reliability of any ...
DVK's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
951 views

Was Casablanca a "safe" place for the Allies to hold a global conference in January, 1943?

In January 1943, America's President Roosevelt and Britain's Winston Churchill held a conference in Casablanca, Morocco. Russia's Stalin declined to attend (citing the fighting at Stalingrad). One "...
Tom Au's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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Was Nixon's "Madman Theory" effective?

Definition of "Madman Theory": The madman theory is a political theory commonly associated with U.S. President Richard Nixon's foreign policy. He and his administration tried to make the ...
David D's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

What's the earliest example of a permanent embassy?

In all the accounts I've read, when the great empires of the ancient Mediterranean needed to talk to each other, they sent an ambassador or a messenger. As in, someone from Country A brought a ...
Nerrolken's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
310 views

How does a country give "aid" to another?

This may not be historical because it's a contemporary event. However, it's been going on for a while. Suharto said, "No to your aids" (or something like that). For instance. Say US gives aid to ...
user4951's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
394 views

What is the Macedonian naming dispute really about?

I was reading the wikipedia article on Macedonia naming dispute. As a reasonable human being, I can't believe that just by debating how a territory should be called, these people hindered economic and ...
siamii's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
677 views

Were boycotts, divestment, and sanctions effective against apartheid?

In the 1980s there was a movement to use boycotts, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) to apply pressure on the apartheid regime in South Africa. These efforts included sports boycotts, refusal of some ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
241 views

Instances of the UN defusing serious crises

One of the reasons why the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis did not escalate into a war was due to the diplomacy of Adlai Stevenson in the UN. Are there other instances where the defusing of a serious crisis ...
coleopterist's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
233 views

Have map projections and distortions ever affected treaties?

Has there ever been a case of an unfair treaty occur anytime through history due to use of biased map projections, either accidentally or deliberately?
Shrey Joshi's user avatar