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Questions tagged [diplomacy]

The process of developing relationships between two or more parties. In relation to nation states, this typically involves the development of networks of embassies established between states to facilitate trade, resolve conflicts, and collect information on foreign actors.

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3 answers
382 views

When did the Allied war aims change?

At which point exactly did the aims of the allied powers in the Second World War change from what they were initially to the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and the other members of the Axis? ...
5 votes
1 answer
177 views

Where and when did the legend that the Auld Alliance dates back to 809 AD begin?

The Auld Alliance Apparently there is a legend that the treaty of 1295 named the Auld Alliance actually dates back to an agreement made between Achaius, a legendary king of Scots, and Charlemagne, ...
26 votes
4 answers
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How were diplomats and their staffs treated when World War II was declared?

This could be a large and varied subject so I will restrict it to the 20th century and give two instances. In Sept 39, after Poland was invaded, the British diplomat in Berlin handed a note to the ...
10 votes
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Why did the Roberts Treaty of 1833 have a Portuguese translation annexed to it?

According to Wikipedia, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Siam and the United States (or Roberts Treaty of 1833) was written in Thai and English, together with translations in Portuguese and ...
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351 views

Was Emperor Norton I recognised by Kamehameha V?

Emperor Norton I "reigned" as Emperor of the United States from 1859 to his death in 1880 – though he was mostly ignored by the de facto government of the time. Wikipedia makes the claim ...
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1 answer
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Are there some concrete examples of the pre-1962 Soviet complaints in re CORONA spy satellites?

According to Pat Norris' book Spies in the Sky (p. 111) until the first successful Zenit flight in summer 1962 the Soviets complained bitterly to America about the CORONA flights. However he does ...
1 vote
1 answer
207 views

What were the goals of the lesser powers in the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815?

Going into the Congress of Vienna, the Great Powers (usually defined as Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) had many goals in mind of what they wanted out of the negotiations. In fact,...
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Were there written (draft) Soviet proposals that would have effectively restricted the US navy from (parts of) Europe?

I'm pretty sure that if one trawls the Soviet propaganda, one can find something asking Americans to bugger off from Europe altogether (ok, on a more serious note--Gorbatchev did propose the ...
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What does Deng Xiaoping mean by "Hide your capacities, bide your time '?

I came across this interesting quote by Deng Xiaoping: Hide your capacities and bide your time however I didn't find much about this quote on the Internet explaining the exact context and meaning ...
18 votes
1 answer
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Did the Soviet Union protest against Italy building or acquiring submarines after WW2?

Article 59 of the 1947 Paris peace treaty prohibited Italy from having submarines or aircraft carriers. As far as I can tell, Italy acquired some US-made WW2-era submarines (Gato, Balao, and Tench ...
12 votes
2 answers
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How did diplomats of the Axis powers travel and communicate among themselves in World War II

In World War II, Japan and the European Axis powers had to communicate over strategy and other things. Also, their diplomats must have had to go to their own countries sometimes. After the USSR ...
5 votes
4 answers
533 views

Was there ever an occurrence of diplomatic communication using food?

Is there an example in history where two leaders, or even just foreign travelers, who could not understand each other's spoken language, communicated by food? I am not talking about very specific ...
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What is the earliest evidence of contact between Ireland and Egypt?

There is a folk tale of an Egyptian princess in Ireland around 1700 BC. Is there credible evidence of early contact between the two places?
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2 answers
364 views

How did Qing China keep in contact with other places?

Imperial China received diplomatic missions from other places whenever those places decide to send a mission (for example: Japanese missions to Imperial China). These missions were irregular, and were ...
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When did the last (formal) declaration of war occur?

Background I have watched an interview where one participant argued that the world is experiencing less and less war compared to what it used to. To emphasize this idea, he said that declaring war is ...
2 votes
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124 views

Are there examples of encrypted messages with deadlines?

I'm looking for historical records showing that parties using coded messages (from the Egyptians to the Romans to actors in the American Civil War, etc) would sometimes stipulate deadlines by which a ...
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95 views

Who was this US civil rights leader?

Back in my high school days (I'm 23 now) we learned about a lot of topics but the one that stood out to me was the period of heavy segregation, racism and important historical figures from that time ...
11 votes
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Why did the British think a 99-year lease on Hong Kong's New Territories was "as good as forever"?

I still don't get why Claude MacDonald wrote down 99 years. Why not play it safe and add more 9's? Why not write down 999? I know hindsight's 20/20, but it feels stupid for the British not to pick a ...
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Has the Federal Republic of Germany ever refused diplomatic credentials for foreign ambassadors?

The proposal of Douglas Macgregor as US ambassador for Germany has been criticized in Germany and it has been suggested that the Germany government should simply refuse his diplomatic credentials. ...
9 votes
1 answer
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Can anyone point me to an online version of the 1900 amendment to the Franco-Russian Military Convention 1892?

Incitement The Wikipedia article, France-Russia relations, linked in an answer to this question, has After France was humiliated by Britain in the Fashoda Incident of 1898, the French wanted the ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Was Wilhelm II aware of the Franco-Russian Military Convention 1892?

The second sentence of Article 1 of the Convention reads, If Russia is attacked by Germany, or by Austria supported by Germany, France shall employ all her available forces to attack Germany. ...
3 votes
4 answers
631 views

Has diplomatic immunity ever been ignored in modern times?

I know that after Pearl Harbor the Japanese diplomat Kurusu was interned until an exchange of diplomats could be arranged and then was able to return to Japan. I also recall that in the more distant ...
2 votes
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Which country has been credited with the most regime changes, by historians, since 1900? [closed]

I recently discussed with an acquaintance of mine about the Russian interference in the USA presidential elections of 2016. Our discussion was more focus on the IT aspects of the saga but at one point ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Why did Iturbide choose Fernández for the mission to California?

After Mexican independence, Emperor Agustín I took power. During his short reign he understandably sent a representative to the Californias to procure and check on their loyalty. The representative, a ...
9 votes
2 answers
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How did recognition by Morocco influence the history of the USA?

In my personal experience when having studied the early history of the American Republic, I learned about The Treaty of Marrakech in my U.S. Diplomatic History Graduate course. Prior to that time, ...
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1 answer
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Do there exist or have there ever existed "gang war referees"?

In the game, "Assassin's Creed Syndicate", a gang war mission starts with a man in a top hat telling you that a gang war has been declared, and seemingly acting as a neutral referee. ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Was Kamehameha I unique in elevating so many foreigners?

In the early 1800s, King Kamehameha I of Hawai'i made liberal use of foreigners as advisors and counselors. His favorites included John Young, an English boatswain, Francisco Paula de Marin, a Spanish ...
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1 answer
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Was Nixon's "Madman Theory" effective?

Definition of "Madman Theory": The madman theory is a political theory commonly associated with U.S. President Richard Nixon's foreign policy. He and his administration tried to make the ...
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812 views

What happened to Caesar's hostages in Gaul?

I am reading Caesar's Gallic wars, and there is a repetitive pattern to much of it. Caesar shows up The natives either sue for peace and surrender their weapons and give hostages, or The natives ...
2 votes
0 answers
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Did the Japenese consider the atomic bomb no worse than any other bomb? [duplicate]

I read another article asserting that the US needlessly dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, but this one had a different spin: the Soviets had already defeated the Japanese. It basically lays out the ...
8 votes
1 answer
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Was Casablanca a "safe" place for the Allies to hold a global conference in January, 1943?

In January 1943, America's President Roosevelt and Britain's Winston Churchill held a conference in Casablanca, Morocco. Russia's Stalin declined to attend (citing the fighting at Stalingrad). One "...
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1 answer
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What responsibility did Golda Meir have for the Yom Kippur war?

I read in the book "The Iron Wall" by Avi Shlaim, there was a description of the Yom Kippur war that happened due to Golda Meir's insistence on keeping parts of Sinai and not trading them to Egypt ...
46 votes
7 answers
7k views

Was there ever a treaty between 2 entities with significantly different translations to the detriment of one party?

Inspired by an answer to When translating the law, who ensures that the wording does not change the meaning of the law? When 2 different entities that speak different languages have a treaty, there ...
1 vote
2 answers
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Before the Civil War, did the USA ever offer something like a "5-year plan" for the South to abolish slavery?

Before the U.S. Civil War broke out, did the North ever offer any sort of gradual slavery abolishment deal to the South, instead of demanding that the South stop slavery immediately? I imagine the ...
9 votes
3 answers
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Which Catholic priests were given diplomatic missions?

Fernández de San Vicente was a high-ranking priest appointed by Mexico's government for a diplomatic mission to the Californias in 1822. Despite being nominally in the same country¸ the isolation of ...
17 votes
5 answers
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Was the Zimmerman Telegram a ruse on the US or a way of Germany to incite Mexico to declare war on the US?

Prior to America's entry into WWI the Zimmerman Telegram was one incident that helped push America to declare war against Germany and join the Allies. While Mexico never fought against the US, so was ...
4 votes
2 answers
380 views

Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
7 votes
2 answers
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What's the earliest example of a permanent embassy?

In all the accounts I've read, when the great empires of the ancient Mediterranean needed to talk to each other, they sent an ambassador or a messenger. As in, someone from Country A brought a ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Was there a revised English version of General Order 1 re: the division of Korea?

I stumbled upon this document (in Russian, use Google Translate). It seems to be a translation of the beginning of General Order No. 1 (Wikipedia, Wikisource). I noticed 2 peculiar differences in ...
12 votes
2 answers
977 views

Did Spain and the Republic of China (Kuomintang) have diplomatic relations between 1931 and 1939? Were they friendly or unfriendly?

The Republic of China and the Kingdom of Spain had relations before 1931 (link). Did they maintain these relations after the Second Spanish Republic was established? After 1945, the Spanish State ...
25 votes
3 answers
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Why did Mozambique join the British Commonwealth?

In short, the Commonwealth originated in the British Empire, as an association of Britain and its former colonies. Why did Mozambique (a former Portuguese colony) join?
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6 answers
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What other one word responses have been made to military ultimatums besides "Nuts!", "Mokusatsu" and "If"?

I am aware of three well known circumstances where a one word response was given to a military ultimatum: The Japanese government responded “mokusatsu” to the Potsdam Declaration prior to the ...
9 votes
4 answers
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How did marrying off one's daughter help secure an alliance, in early medieval Europe?

Marriage between royal family was often a way to secure / strengthen an alliance between two monarchs. For example, according to Wikipedia Marriage between dynasties could serve to initiate, ...
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After the Japanese declaration of War, what happened to the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC? [duplicate]

The Japanese Declaration of War against the UK and USA was given on 1941 Dec 7. This happened in Washington DC via the Japanese Embassy. I would like to know what happened to that embassy and the ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Did people ever pour drinks on the floor to reject a toast or indicate an end to civilities?

In a fantasy book called "Jack of Shadows" by Roger Zelazny I read this: A disgraced member of a ruling party is being forced to ceremonially drink to the coronation of the new king, but instead ...
3 votes
2 answers
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British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races

Reportedly (from a source I cannot recall) the British had a very "interesting" guide about the Balkans. It had a sort of cheat sheet to the peoples around that area, with the stereotypical ...
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1 answer
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Why do foreign dignitaries inspect guards of honour upon arrival?

I've been watching videos of various dignitaries (heads of state, heads of government, important officials, etc.) arriving for state visits in foreign countries. I noticed that upon disembarking from ...
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2 answers
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What was the Catholic Church's opinion of Diệm's South Vietnam?

I've started watching The Vietnam War, and would like to know something incidental to the early stages of this conflict. Ngo Dinh Diem led an increasingly brutal and unashamedly pro-Catholic ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Have map projections and distortions ever affected treaties?

Has there ever been a case of an unfair treaty occur anytime through history due to use of biased map projections, either accidentally or deliberately?
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Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...