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Questions tagged [diplomacy]

The process of developing relationships between two or more parties. In relation to nation states, this typically involves the development of networks of embassies established between states to facilitate trade, resolve conflicts, and collect information on foreign actors.

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When did the Allied war aims change?

At which point exactly did the aims of the allied powers in the Second World War change from what they were initially to the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and the other members of the Axis? ...
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Was Emperor Norton I recognised by Kamehameha V?

Emperor Norton I "reigned" as Emperor of the United States from 1859 to his death in 1880 – though he was mostly ignored by the de facto government of the time. Wikipedia makes the claim ...
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Are there some concrete examples of the pre-1962 Soviet complaints in re CORONA spy satellites?

According to Pat Norris' book Spies in the Sky (p. 111) until the first successful Zenit flight in summer 1962 the Soviets complained bitterly to America about the CORONA flights. However he does ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What were the goals of the lesser powers in the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815?

Going into the Congress of Vienna, the Great Powers (usually defined as Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) had many goals in mind of what they wanted out of the negotiations. In fact,...
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Were there written (draft) Soviet proposals that would have effectively restricted the US navy from (parts of) Europe?

I'm pretty sure that if one trawls the Soviet propaganda, one can find something asking Americans to bugger off from Europe altogether (ok, on a more serious note--Gorbatchev did propose the ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
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1 answer
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Did the Soviet Union protest against Italy building or acquiring submarines after WW2?

Article 59 of the 1947 Paris peace treaty prohibited Italy from having submarines or aircraft carriers. As far as I can tell, Italy acquired some US-made WW2-era submarines (Gato, Balao, and Tench ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
177 views

Where and when did the legend that the Auld Alliance dates back to 809 AD begin?

The Auld Alliance Apparently there is a legend that the treaty of 1295 named the Auld Alliance actually dates back to an agreement made between Achaius, a legendary king of Scots, and Charlemagne, ...
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When did the last (formal) declaration of war occur?

Background I have watched an interview where one participant argued that the world is experiencing less and less war compared to what it used to. To emphasize this idea, he said that declaring war is ...
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2 votes
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Are there examples of encrypted messages with deadlines?

I'm looking for historical records showing that parties using coded messages (from the Egyptians to the Romans to actors in the American Civil War, etc) would sometimes stipulate deadlines by which a ...
Fixee's user avatar
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Who was this US civil rights leader?

Back in my high school days (I'm 23 now) we learned about a lot of topics but the one that stood out to me was the period of heavy segregation, racism and important historical figures from that time ...
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Can anyone point me to an online version of the 1900 amendment to the Franco-Russian Military Convention 1892?

Incitement The Wikipedia article, France-Russia relations, linked in an answer to this question, has After France was humiliated by Britain in the Fashoda Incident of 1898, the French wanted the ...
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Was Wilhelm II aware of the Franco-Russian Military Convention 1892?

The second sentence of Article 1 of the Convention reads, If Russia is attacked by Germany, or by Austria supported by Germany, France shall employ all her available forces to attack Germany. ...
mjc's user avatar
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Has diplomatic immunity ever been ignored in modern times?

I know that after Pearl Harbor the Japanese diplomat Kurusu was interned until an exchange of diplomats could be arranged and then was able to return to Japan. I also recall that in the more distant ...
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Which country has been credited with the most regime changes, by historians, since 1900? [closed]

I recently discussed with an acquaintance of mine about the Russian interference in the USA presidential elections of 2016. Our discussion was more focus on the IT aspects of the saga but at one point ...
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Has the Federal Republic of Germany ever refused diplomatic credentials for foreign ambassadors?

The proposal of Douglas Macgregor as US ambassador for Germany has been criticized in Germany and it has been suggested that the Germany government should simply refuse his diplomatic credentials. ...
Martin Schröder's user avatar
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3k views

Why did the British think a 99-year lease on Hong Kong's New Territories was "as good as forever"?

I still don't get why Claude MacDonald wrote down 99 years. Why not play it safe and add more 9's? Why not write down 999? I know hindsight's 20/20, but it feels stupid for the British not to pick a ...
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Was Kamehameha I unique in elevating so many foreigners?

In the early 1800s, King Kamehameha I of Hawai'i made liberal use of foreigners as advisors and counselors. His favorites included John Young, an English boatswain, Francisco Paula de Marin, a Spanish ...
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Did the Japenese consider the atomic bomb no worse than any other bomb? [duplicate]

I read another article asserting that the US needlessly dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, but this one had a different spin: the Soviets had already defeated the Japanese. It basically lays out the ...
Machavity's user avatar
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Before the Civil War, did the USA ever offer something like a "5-year plan" for the South to abolish slavery?

Before the U.S. Civil War broke out, did the North ever offer any sort of gradual slavery abolishment deal to the South, instead of demanding that the South stop slavery immediately? I imagine the ...
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What does Deng Xiaoping mean by "Hide your capacities, bide your time '?

I came across this interesting quote by Deng Xiaoping: Hide your capacities and bide your time however I didn't find much about this quote on the Internet explaining the exact context and meaning ...
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3 answers
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Which Catholic priests were given diplomatic missions?

Fernández de San Vicente was a high-ranking priest appointed by Mexico's government for a diplomatic mission to the Californias in 1822. Despite being nominally in the same country¸ the isolation of ...
Aaron Brick's user avatar
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46 votes
7 answers
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Was there ever a treaty between 2 entities with significantly different translations to the detriment of one party?

Inspired by an answer to When translating the law, who ensures that the wording does not change the meaning of the law? When 2 different entities that speak different languages have a treaty, there ...
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8 votes
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Was Nixon's "Madman Theory" effective?

Definition of "Madman Theory": The madman theory is a political theory commonly associated with U.S. President Richard Nixon's foreign policy. He and his administration tried to make the ...
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Was there a revised English version of General Order 1 re: the division of Korea?

I stumbled upon this document (in Russian, use Google Translate). It seems to be a translation of the beginning of General Order No. 1 (Wikipedia, Wikisource). I noticed 2 peculiar differences in ...
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4 votes
2 answers
364 views

How did Qing China keep in contact with other places?

Imperial China received diplomatic missions from other places whenever those places decide to send a mission (for example: Japanese missions to Imperial China). These missions were irregular, and were ...
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After the Japanese declaration of War, what happened to the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC? [duplicate]

The Japanese Declaration of War against the UK and USA was given on 1941 Dec 7. This happened in Washington DC via the Japanese Embassy. I would like to know what happened to that embassy and the ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Did people ever pour drinks on the floor to reject a toast or indicate an end to civilities?

In a fantasy book called "Jack of Shadows" by Roger Zelazny I read this: A disgraced member of a ruling party is being forced to ceremonially drink to the coronation of the new king, but instead ...
Jack's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
196 views

Do there exist or have there ever existed "gang war referees"?

In the game, "Assassin's Creed Syndicate", a gang war mission starts with a man in a top hat telling you that a gang war has been declared, and seemingly acting as a neutral referee. ...
Fluidized Pigeon Reactor's user avatar
18 votes
6 answers
9k views

What other one word responses have been made to military ultimatums besides "Nuts!", "Mokusatsu" and "If"?

I am aware of three well known circumstances where a one word response was given to a military ultimatum: The Japanese government responded “mokusatsu” to the Potsdam Declaration prior to the ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why do foreign dignitaries inspect guards of honour upon arrival?

I've been watching videos of various dignitaries (heads of state, heads of government, important officials, etc.) arriving for state visits in foreign countries. I noticed that upon disembarking from ...
Flux's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
233 views

Have map projections and distortions ever affected treaties?

Has there ever been a case of an unfair treaty occur anytime through history due to use of biased map projections, either accidentally or deliberately?
Shrey Joshi's user avatar
29 votes
2 answers
5k views

Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
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3 votes
1 answer
215 views

Why did Iturbide choose Fernández for the mission to California?

After Mexican independence, Emperor Agustín I took power. During his short reign he understandably sent a representative to the Californias to procure and check on their loyalty. The representative, a ...
Aaron Brick's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
240 views

Did the Dominion of Newfoundland establish diplomatic missions?

Before 1949 Newfoundland was a separate country from Canada and both Newfoundland and Canada were "dominions". In Canada the status of a "dominion" meant that it was an independent country except that ...
Michael Hardy's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
821 views

How did recognition by Morocco influence the history of the USA?

In my personal experience when having studied the early history of the American Republic, I learned about The Treaty of Marrakech in my U.S. Diplomatic History Graduate course. Prior to that time, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Why did Thomas Larkin write his biographical sketches?

Thomas Larkin, wealthy merchant of Monterey, California in the 1840s, was the consul of the United States. He was also a secret agent for President Buchanan who sent to Washington 78 microbiographies ...
Aaron Brick's user avatar
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10 votes
3 answers
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Why did the Roberts Treaty of 1833 have a Portuguese translation annexed to it?

According to Wikipedia, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Siam and the United States (or Roberts Treaty of 1833) was written in Thai and English, together with translations in Portuguese and ...
José Carlos Santos's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
1k views

What was the Catholic Church's opinion of Diệm's South Vietnam?

I've started watching The Vietnam War, and would like to know something incidental to the early stages of this conflict. Ngo Dinh Diem led an increasingly brutal and unashamedly pro-Catholic ...
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3 votes
2 answers
295 views

British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races

Reportedly (from a source I cannot recall) the British had a very "interesting" guide about the Balkans. It had a sort of cheat sheet to the peoples around that area, with the stereotypical ...
Johnny's user avatar
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1 answer
421 views

How did 19th century European nations arbitrate the process of colonization among themselves?

Background: During the 19th century the great powers of Europe colonized, and informally dominated, large portions areas of Asia, Africa, and (to a lesser extent) Central and South America. Often, as ...
Random's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
610 views

Was the treatment of US diplomats in Germany after the declaration of war during WW2 typical? [duplicate]

Wikipedia describes the way the US ambassador and other members of the diplomatic corps were treated. Ultimately they were exchanged for German prisoners. Is that usual to exchange diplomats for other ...
Jeff's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
813 views

What happened to Caesar's hostages in Gaul?

I am reading Caesar's Gallic wars, and there is a repetitive pattern to much of it. Caesar shows up The natives either sue for peace and surrender their weapons and give hostages, or The natives ...
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5 votes
1 answer
365 views

What is the first known instance of gift-giving backfiring across cultures?

What is the first time known that two cultures, unfamiliar to each other, exchanged gifts in good faith, only to find that the other interpreted it differently? In other words, when did gifts first ...
user12390879's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
979 views

Did Spain and the Republic of China (Kuomintang) have diplomatic relations between 1931 and 1939? Were they friendly or unfriendly?

The Republic of China and the Kingdom of Spain had relations before 1931 (link). Did they maintain these relations after the Second Spanish Republic was established? After 1945, the Spanish State ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
380 views

Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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2 votes
1 answer
497 views

Why was Colonel Bill Eddy kneeling in front of FDR and King Saud?

Amidst the WW2, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Saudi King Ibn Saud met aboard USS Quincy after the Yalta conference. Colonel Bill Eddy played the role of interpreter. It however strikes as ...
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8 votes
2 answers
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How was Switzerland able to stay neutral during WWI and WWII?

It is amazing Switzerland was able to stay neutral. It is not just a matter of choice and only up to Switzerland. Each side of the warring faction can take this hard stand "If you are not for me, then ...
curious's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
535 views

Why did Theodore Roosevelt send his daughter Alice with Taft on a diplomatic mission to Asia?

I understand the idea of medieval monarchies using the relatives of the monarch for diplomacy, as blood ties and closeness to the throne indicated political position and thus the reliability of any ...
DVK's user avatar
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5 votes
4 answers
533 views

Was there ever an occurrence of diplomatic communication using food?

Is there an example in history where two leaders, or even just foreign travelers, who could not understand each other's spoken language, communicated by food? I am not talking about very specific ...
Jeremy H's user avatar
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19 votes
1 answer
3k views

What were the “passports” that diplomats requested when declaring war?

From Andrew Roberts’ Napoleon: A Life, on the 1803 outbreak of war between Britain and France, after Britain demanded Malta and Napoleon then wanted to know whether this demand was an ultimatum ...
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