Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [early-modern]

The Early Modern period is generally considered to start at the Renaissance and discovery of the New World (circa 1500) and end around the Age of Revolutions (circa 1800). It is the first part of the most recent of the three major ages of history (Classical, Medieval and Modern).

3
votes
1answer
174 views

Are there any histories of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe?

I have read brief accounts of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe in the wake of Columbus's arrival, including a family of Inuit who were brought to meet Elizabeth I but died shortly after ...
-4
votes
1answer
128 views

Are there any famous people who died from cancer before 1800? [closed]

Cancer was described by the ancient Egyptians by 1600 BC and, much later, by Hippocrates and then Celsus during the early empire. Cases were diagnosed but there is no mention of people who were famous....
41
votes
1answer
7k views

What led some people to (correctly) believe that there was no land under the ice cap at the North Pole?

In the 1595 Map of the Arctic, Mercator shows the North Pole as having a substantial landmass surrounding a rock. Source: Wikipedia A little over a hundred years later, Guillaume de L'Isle's 1714 ...
0
votes
0answers
86 views

For the French Army under Jean Martinet (d1672) how and why were cavalry used instead of infantry?

For France's army of the period of Jean Martinet (d1672) in the Early modern, how and why were cavalry used instead of infantry? In European warfare the default company is the infantry company. This ...
22
votes
4answers
2k views

Why did piracy thrive in the late 17th and early 18th centuries?

Why did piracy thrive in the late 17th and early 18th centuries? Was it because the sailors in the Royal Navy and privateers were not satisfied with their pay? Was it because since many wars were ...
9
votes
2answers
382 views

Aside from Henry VIII, did a king ever take part in a joust as an unknown knight (incognito)?

The unknown knight would seem to belong in the realm of fiction - witness Gareth in Le Morte d'Arthur and Wilfred in Ivanhoe, among others - but incognito knights fighting in jousts or melees were not ...
5
votes
2answers
194 views

Where can I find pictures of clothing of poor or common male European musicians between 1500 and 1700

Can anyone provide pictures or credible descriptions of clothing as a modest musician anywhere in Europe might have worn between 1500 and 1700? I realise that my question spans 200 years and many ...
19
votes
1answer
3k views

Who are the three men standing and what are they holding at this University of Paris Doctors' Meeting?

The image below is used on several sites but none of them give much information on this painting other than "Medieval Education in Europe: Meeting of Doctors in the University of Paris" and the source ...
21
votes
4answers
4k views

Has there ever been an archbishop or bishop younger than the 16-year-old James of Nicosia?

In 1456, King John II of Cyprus appointed his illegitimate son James as Latin Archbishop of Nicosia. James was just 16 at the time. James soon lost his position, being forced to flee the following ...
2
votes
1answer
383 views

Why did the Chinese not use military power to force out early Portuguese, Dutch and English trade encroachments?

From what I understand, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Chinese were more advanced in trade and warfare than the Portuguese and Dutch who tried to (and eventually succeeded in) take over ...
10
votes
2answers
443 views

How widespread was the consumption of rabbit meat by the poor in Medieval and Early-Modern Britain?

The Romans raised rabbits as livestock in Spain in the 2nd century BC and later brought them to Britain. French monks are believed to have domesticated them in the 5th century AD for their meat and ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Representative early Anglican hymns?

Are there any church hymns that would be in use in the early (16th to early 18th centuries) Anglican church, and would be distinctly Anglican? (In the kind of way in which Ein Feste Burg is distinctly ...
7
votes
1answer
342 views

What are these items in this 16th century plan of an English town?

This plan or picture map of Great Yarmouth is from the reign of Elizabeth I. According to the Norfolk Record Office (pdf), It shows the town’s defences at the time of the Spanish Armada in 1588. ...
9
votes
1answer
340 views

Which Kings of France visited England?

Every English King from Edward the Confessor (d. 1066) to Edward IV (d. 1483) was in France at some point during their lives, almost all during their reigns, and some were born there. These 'visits' ...
8
votes
2answers
492 views

How many languages did Leibniz speak?

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German polymath. I've found information that says he was a polyglot who wrote primarily in Latin, French and German, but I cannot find any specific info about the other ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Why did the people of Nantwich (Cheshire) wear holly to celebrate Parliament's victory there during the English Civil War?

The Battle of Nantwich (1644) during the English Civil War led to the lifting of the siege of the town by Royalist forces. In celebration, After the siege was lifted, in January 1644, the local ...
17
votes
2answers
914 views

How long did it take to get news of the sighting of the Spanish Armada from Land’s End to London?

When the Armada was sighted, fire beacons carried the warning from Land’s End (western tip of Cornwall) to the rest of the country (this link has some details on how the system worked). "Armada ...
11
votes
2answers
434 views

At the beginning of English Civil War, why did Parliament take a hard line with neutrals, thereby effectively helping Royalist recruitment?

In Cavaliers and Roundheads, Christopher Hibbert notes the problems King Charles I had recruiting men for his army. Even in late August 1642, he had “scarcely more than 1,000 men” and was greatly ...
4
votes
2answers
149 views

When, and where, was the word 'Anglican' first used in the context of the Protestant Church of England?

According to Wikipedia, "The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church." However, this usage referred to the ...
2
votes
1answer
263 views

Which European towns or cities are architecturally most similar today to how they would have been in 16C-17C?

Which European towns or cities are architecturally most similar today to how they would have been in the 16th and 17th centuries? A different way of asking the question: which contemporary European ...
1
vote
1answer
166 views

What is the history behind this English village well?

The thatched well (below) in the village of East Marden is a well-known attraction in the South Downs, not far from Chichester. The village is recorded in the Domesday Book (as Meredone) and St. Peter'...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

What was the origin and purpose of the “Montes”?

Reading History of the Popes, by von Ranke, the author mentions the creations of several Montes (one of them is Monte Pío). Does anyone know what is the date of the first Monte ever created and what ...
9
votes
1answer
499 views
+50

Can anyone explain why the Scottish flag on this map from 1504 has a red cross on a white background?

The section of the map below is from a nautical chart by the Portuguese cartographer Pedro Reinel (c.1462 – c.1542). On it, Scotland is shown with a red St. Andrew's Cross on a white background. Upon ...
19
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the silver object on the desk and what is 'Elizabeth I' doing with it?

Hollywood movies have never been known for their historical accuracy, which is often sacrificed in the pursuit of entertainment, and the plot & script of the 1939 film 'The Private Lives of ...
56
votes
11answers
15k views

Is it true that slavery was endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa previous to the establishment of the trans-Atlantic slave trade?

Stefan Molyneux claims in The Truth About The Crusades that: Islam dominated slave trade between the 7th and the 15th century, while the Christians entered the market of human flesh much later - ...
11
votes
3answers
759 views

Why did Ottoman Army use camels in the Siege of Vienna 1683?

I was reading up on Siege of Vienna 1529. I saw a rather curious image with camels in it: For full resolution image, click here. I was surprised to see Ottoman Empire using camels in the ...
8
votes
1answer
610 views

How did society regard identical twins in the 17th century in Europe?

How did society react about and approach identical twins in Europe, mainly around the 17th century?
5
votes
4answers
370 views

Could anybody identify the rank/regiment of this soldier?

Image of British soldier, probably taken in the late 1800s. Born in 1825, died in 1899. Could you help me identify his rank and regiment?
5
votes
0answers
73 views

Did sailors receive written testimonials in the British merchant navy around 1500-1750

I seem to remember reading that at the end of a voyage a sailor got a conduct report written by the captain along with his pay. These testimonials were then valuable in getting him his next job. It ...
4
votes
1answer
311 views

Livery and Barons

Circa 1495, would a baron have worn the livery of the Earl of his Palatinate county? For example, would Thomas Butler, Lord of Warrington, have been insulted if Thomas, the earl of Derby asked him to ...
10
votes
3answers
778 views

Why didn't early modern Christians object to pagan symbolism in art?

I've been to a couple European museums recently, and a question that has been nagging at me is how a society composed of devout Christians could have been so okay with the introduction of pagan gods ...
0
votes
3answers
457 views

Why was there never a tachanka-style cannon or crossbow?

There seems to be a clear line of progression for many weapons. For example, in the west, crossbows were mounted on carts by the Roman empire, while in the east, they were mounted on camels. The ...
2
votes
1answer
314 views

Death by candle [closed]

Many sources state that candles have been heavily used for light and timekeeping starting as early as 3000 BCE. Until electric lighting took over starting in the 19th century, candles and oil lamps ...
15
votes
3answers
6k views

Did Peter the Great promote rights for women? If so, how?

I read somewhere that Peter the Great wanted that women participated more actively in the society. But I can not find a reliable source to confirm this, nor why or how he did this. I think this is ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Why did the Mayflower leave so late in the year?

According to Wikipedia, the Mayflower began its voyage in July of 1620, was delayed while waiting for the Speedwell, and then ultimately left for America in September. This put them in America at the ...
4
votes
1answer
245 views

What was the range of people's social lives like, before the technology for long distance communications developed?

We know a lot about some famous people from letters they have written and received. It seems that a lot more communication with people who were important in their lives was written instead of face-to-...
9
votes
2answers
649 views

What reached Scandinavia/Northern Germany first: Muslims, or Islamic texts?

Years ago i had the chance to leaf through some Qur'an translations (Latin, German? some bilingual with Arabic text) in a library in northern Germany which are dated to 16th century and later. As we ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

What was the reaction to English monarchs using the title “King of France”?

After the Hundred Years War (or "wars") the English had been wiped off France, but English monarchs kept using their official title "King of France". As I understand, this was to legalize their claims ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

How and why did the Cavalry lance temporarily fall out of favour during the 16-18th centuries?

In the late middle ages, every knight or even his retainers and squires were armed with a spear or a lance. When heavy cavalry gave way to pike squares, we still see the lance still in use among the ...
16
votes
2answers
942 views

How did nobles upon the Grand Tour evade or mitigate the danger of banditry?

The era of the Grand Tour was rife with banditry; and yet the rite of passage remained popular amongst the aristocracy. What reported methods did nobles use to either evade banditry or mitigate the ...
3
votes
1answer
147 views

What was the judicial body in 16th century France called?

I was listening to a series of audio lectures on Religious wars in Europe. In the lecture on French wars of religion, there was a mention of a judicial authority in Paris. However, I couldn't catch ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

How did Newton support himself during his research? [duplicate]

It is said that Isaac Newton, at the age of 23, came home and made his famous discoveries. Who sponsored him? Or did he farm while doing his research?
10
votes
6answers
6k views

Early modern vs late modern vs post modern?

I frequently come across these three terms, but I haven't been able to find a source that explains the difference between all three of them precisely. Here's what I think I know now: The early ...
21
votes
6answers
25k views

What factors enabled Europe to conquer almost the whole world? [closed]

As we probably all know, after ancient and medieval times European countries traveled to almost every part of the Globe. Today's heritage are, among many others, Roman law and alphabet, Gregorian ...
9
votes
1answer
406 views

Were there any other systems which resemble the complex election procedure for the doge of Venice

I was fascinated by a passage in Thomas F. Madden's Venice: a New History describing the complex process used to elect the doge of Venice. This process is explained briefly here: Wikipedia: Doge of ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Did the Safavid rulers require all subjects to convert to Shi'a Islam?

On one hand I've read that Shi'a Islam was the only religion allowed in the Safavid empire. On the other hand, the empire contained parts of Armenia and Georgia, but Armenians and Georgians are ...
7
votes
1answer
657 views

Madness in the early modern era (pre-enlightenment, Habsburg monarchy)

I'd very much like to look deep into the history of mental ilnesses and the surrounding mentalities - i.e. how did the sane people interpret, treat, approach and deal with the mentally insane? To be ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

When were the heresy laws abolished in England?

We know that during the English Reformation several "heretics" were burnt at the stake. We also know that during the reign of Henry VIII both protestants and catholics were burnt or beheaded while ...
6
votes
4answers
497 views

Resources on the History of African Civilization

I was wondering if anyone might be aware of any good resources on the history and development of African civilizations? I will of course be seeking council from the Most Wise and Great God Google, ...
9
votes
2answers
383 views

Racism through History

Was there any racism in ancient times, or during the middle ages? I know that the ancient Greeks, for example, considered any non-Greek a barbarian. What I'm asking about is racism based on skin ...