Questions tagged [england]

For questions relating to the historic Kingdom of England prior to 1707, or the country of England within the modern United Kingdom that is one of Britain's Home Nations.

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65 views

Question about pilgrims [closed]

I wanted to ask a pretty silly question about the English colonization of America. This book that I read said that the puritans were immigrating away from England to America for religious reasons, ...
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2answers
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What is the corruption that John Winthrop mentions in “Reasons for the Plantation in New England” (1628)

In John Winthrop's "Reasons for the Plantation in New England", we read: The fountains of learning and religion are so corrupted that most children (besides the unsupportable charge of ...
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1answer
231 views

How did the Church of England view the local legend and festivities surrounding Gog and Magog?

From multiple sources I've read of legends regarding one or two giants, Gogmagog or Gog and Magog. It appears in Irish and English folklore, as well as other regional tales. Gogmagog was a legendary ...
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1answer
788 views

Is 'quartodecimo omnium sanctorum' the same as 'Nov XIV' on this Latin grave inscription?

I have been translating the Latin inscription on a 19th century tomb in the parish churchyard, Mitcham, south west London, UK. I'm using a Latin dictionary and a 'Latin Made Simple' book I bought many ...
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1answer
162 views

Why did King Charles II cede New Amsterdam / New York to his brother James, Duke of York, in 1664?

On Wikipedia we read: In 1664, King Charles II of England ceded to his brother, the Duke of York, later King James II, a large tract of land that included all of New Netherland. This came at a period ...
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217 views

What became of the Richard III infidelity surprise?

Back when Richard III of England's grave was discovered, a paper published in Nature Communications reported that while his identity was confirmed through a direct-female descendent of his sister, Y-...
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1answer
123 views

How many 'pubs' (alehouses, inns and taverns) were there in England in 1577?

I came across an interesting bit of demographic information while listening to a lecture: From early times people had rented out space in their houses for travellers, but by the thirteenth century ...
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2answers
247 views

Why was Edward I of England the first Edward?

Why is Edward I of England given the numeration "I", when he was preceded by Edward the Confessor and Edward the Martyr. Did numerations only begin with William I?
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4answers
5k views

How much would 300 pounds (money value) weigh in Medieval England?

I remember reading a Robin Hood story as a child where the Sheriff of Nottingham rode though Sherwood forest, as I remember foolishly going alone, and Robin Hood robbed him of 300 pounds. And I ...
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1answer
172 views

Where did the South Dublin/“D4” accent come from?

I've lived in Ireland for a decade in Dublin and outside Co. Dublin. I've noticed that many of the accents sound similar with the exception of the South Dublin accent. It sounds entirely different ...
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1answer
145 views

Were titles in the British Peerage ever connected to land grants, and if so, when did they stop being connected to land?

I have been trying to understand the peerage systems of Britain as of late, and I have a number of questions. Let's assume we're in the middle ages. A baron-in-chief, Thomas Smith, holds a number of ...
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1answer
155 views

Was Ireland really England's first colony? [closed]

I have a vaguely decent knowledge of Irish history, but I know relatively little of the history of England. I've often heard Ireland spoken of as England's first colony, but surely that 'title' would ...
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1answer
184 views

How did changes in the balance of land versus naval balance of power prevent England from being successfully invaded by foreign powers after 1066?

The last successful invasion of England was that by the Normans in 1066. Prior to that, England had been successfully invaded by waves of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from the Continent, and before that, ...
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1answer
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Why did life expectancy decline sharply in 16th century England?

I was checking historical life expectancy and found the chart shown below in Roser, Ortiz-Ospina, Ritchie, 2013. What was the reason for such a dramatic decline in life expectancy in England in the ...
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1answer
270 views

What mining feature is this?

In a former lead mining region of Derbyshire (Just North of Wirksworth) there's this bank of earth running across the side of a hill, with a small "valley" alongside it: It's about 15-20m ...
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1answer
214 views

Did the Celts come to England from France and Belgium?

I apologize for this ridiculous question. I have little knowledge of European history. The following is a passage from Charles Dickens' A Child's History of England: "But the Phoenicians, sailing ...
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1answer
168 views

Did James I link the divine right of kings to apostolic succession in his writings? If so, where?

According to a Wikipedia article, King James VI of Scotland (later King James I of England) justified the theory of the divine right of kings in his famous essay The True Law of Free Monarchies by ...
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1answer
471 views

Did Victorian parents raise their children “sexless” to prolong innocence?

I was reading the (albeit not very historical) Chatelaine article "Can You Actually Raise A Baby Free From Gender?" and came across the statement: The notion that a boy should have short ...
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1answer
117 views

How to find the population and mortality in London during the period 1760-1834?

I have to reconstruct the graph showing death rates from infectious diseases and from all causes in London. But I have trouble with finding the data for the period 1760-1834. In the graph are shown ...
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104 views

What does an English Liberty-shaded lamp look like?

The London Venture by Michael Arlen several times mentions a woman with dark hair given a blue sheen as she sits under a Liberty-shaded lamp. Any idea what this lamp looked like? Illustrator: Michel ...
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58 views

Was the Protectorate's Instrument of Government influenced by other near-contemporary European constitutions?

John Lambert drafted the Instrument of Government, the constitution of the Protectorate, in 1653. How much was Lambert influenced by—or even aware of—the relatively recent near-contemporary European ...
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100 views

Was the term 'sir' or 'sire' in use in England in the 13th century? [closed]

A supposed ancestor of mine, one 'Sir' Henry Kymbold (born 1280 in Hitcham, Suffolk) appears in a list of direct ancestors. Would 'sir' have even been in use in this period, or does this reflect ...
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3answers
4k views

Why didn't pre-Norman English kings build stone town walls?

This question is about defensive city walls, not longer walls such as the Great Wall of China or Hadrian's wall. After the Norman conquest, many defensive city walls were built by Norman kings in ...
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1answer
293 views

How likely was an enlisted man to have fought at both Falkirk and Bannockburn?

A heroic Scottish song begins, "Scots who have with Wallace bled, Scots whom Bruce has often led..." William Wallace's most famous battle was Falkirk (1298). Robert Bruce's was Bannockburn (...
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1answer
246 views

How did 15th century royals identify themselves in England/Spain?

I'm studying the customs of medieval Europe to gather information for a novel I'm writing and a question has arisen about how the nobles, especially the royal family, identified themselves. Did they ...
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196 views

How hard did they beat up Henry II after the murder of Thomas Becket?

The story of the murder of Thomas Becket was one I learned at school and it's stuck with me. I was doing a little reading tonight and was surprised to find this paragraph on Wikipedia: The king ...
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Which English king voided noble land claims after a certain date?

If my memory holds, a medieval English king ruled that noble lands were falsely held and should be returned to the crown. Parliament, of course, rejected this seizure. King and parliament compromised ...
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1answer
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What was the motivation for the Church of England to begin recording births, marriages and deaths in 1538?

I have heard that Thomas Cromwell convinced Henry VIII to institute the keeping of these registers, after seeing the practice during a tour of Europe. It took many parishes a long time (and the ...
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1answer
651 views

What are the “blue books” of Mr. Balfour?

In the book The Balfour declaration by Jonathan Schneer p133 there is a critic of prime minister Arthur Balfour that reads "Critics accused him of laziness because he could not be bothered to ...
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79 views

How many barons did Magna Carta apply to? [closed]

How many barons had their rights improved by Magna Carta when it was signed in 1215? And how did this number evolve later? The supervising council consisted of 25 barons, but I presume more barons ...
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2answers
2k views

Was the name 'Valerie' used during the Regency Era (1811-1836)?

I am working on a novel that takes place in England during the Regency Era (1811-1836, the era right before the Victorian Era). I was wondering if you know if the name 'Valerie' or 'Valeria' existed ...
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Where does Edmund Burke explain aristocratic eccentricity as a reaction to the influx of non-titled country gentlemen?

I am looking for the source of a notion of Edmund Burke’s that the English aristocracy turned to eccentric behavior in order to distinguish themselves from the “new men” who were acquiring estates in ...
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Is there any evidence of naval ramming in the 9th and 10th century North Sea?

In Bernard Cornwell's 'Sword of the Kings', his main character uses the tactic of ramming to sink an enemy ship before engaging in hand-to-hand combat with surviving ships which get leashed together. ...
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90 views

Are there 15th or 16th century English sources that exemplify Empress Matilda as an impediment to having a Queen Regnant?

I'm reading Alison Weir's 'Elizabeth of York', and she makes claims as to why Elizabeth of York couldn't succeed to the throne after Richard III which are not supported by evidence. Legally, there ...
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3answers
546 views

Are there recorded incidents of the Gentlemen Pensioners protecting the monarch in the 16th century?

The Gentlemen Pensioners were the forerunner to the modern Her Majesty's Body Guards. Henry VIII instated it in 1509, disbanded it in 1515/16, and re-created the unit in 1539. They are described as ...
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3answers
2k views

What received constitutional understandings did Pitt break in 1784?

An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution was first published in 1885, but I quote the 1915 8 edn. p. 260 of this transcribed online PDF. Here's scan of original. I don't ...
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1answer
506 views

Was there a contemporary understanding that 1706 was an exceptionally poor year?

This relates to the numerous (British) news items which seem to have overnight turned the present virus-induced economic downturn into a 'historic downturn'. While there are opinion-based aspects that ...
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1answer
277 views

Was Queen Henrietta Maria (of England) known for scratching her initials into things?

C. S. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength contains the following passage: “Look out! Look out!” said a dozen voices at once as a splintering of glass became audible and a shower of stones fell onto ...
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1answer
166 views

How was St Edwards Crown fixed after Blood flattened it?

In 1671 Thomas Blood tried to steal the crown jewels. To do this he flattened the crown with a mallet. There are many sources that said he did flatten it but I cannot find anything about the aftermath....
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1answer
253 views

What did typical mid-18th century housing look like in English villages?

There seems to be a plethora of resources available that describe what mid-18th / early 19th century housing looked like in major English cities, particularly London. But, I cannot find much ...
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1answer
207 views

What were English 'rules restricting marriage'?

I am reading the book by Steven LeBlanc and Katherine Register, Constant battles, (2003). It is about history of warfare, but on p. 165 I found the mysterious sentence: For example, rules can be ...
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2answers
1k views

Why don't Americans claim English ancestry? [closed]

Through a lot of American Movies and TV shows, and also my personal experiences of interacting with people in America, I know that most White Americans are informed of their European ancestry, and are ...
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212 views

Did Henrietta Maria leave any writings in which she described her thoughts with respect to Charles I's afterlife?

Henrietta Maria, Charles I's queen consort, was a famously strident Roman Catholic. She outraged her husband's subjects by praying publicly under the gallows at Tyburn, where many Roman Catholics had ...
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2answers
242 views

How would “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England fit with the fact that all knights must be of noble birth?

I've read recently about “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England started by Henry III but I found it very strange indeed. This law forced all rich people who has 40 £ or more to be knighted ...
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1answer
188 views

Did anyone in England in the 1680's wear a beard?

I'm trying to find any examples of beards in England during the 1680s. I know they weren't popular but that doesn't mean they didn't exist at all. A picture would be ideal, although I appreciate this ...
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2answers
680 views

Why does the name “England” hold no reference to the Saxons?

Something that has always surprised me was that originally Saxon kings were referred to as kings of the Angles or kings of the English when they conquered or reconquered the Germanic parts of the ...
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6answers
8k views

What was the point of horse armour?

From my knowledge (and please correct me if I'm wrong), horse armour wasn't very thick (0.4mm-1.9mm) according to the paper in the link: How thick was late medieval horse armor? Even without ...
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78 views

Were there farms in the early 19th century in England, which only focused on agriculture?

I think back in the day most farms consisted of both agriculture and livestock, but I think, there must have been exceptions. I'm also especially interested in small-scale family-based farms. The ...
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1answer
916 views

What was the relationship between Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; and the Vikings? [closed]

I'm reading Seamus Heaney's translation of Beowulf and I cannot get my head around how Angles, Saxons, and Jutes relate to the Geats, Danes, and/or the Vikings and/or the Scandinavians generally. ...
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1answer
90 views

Why is “Jonathan Wild” spelt “Ionathan Wild” in this ticket to his 1725 hanging?

The ticket: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Wild#/media/File:Ticket_to_the_hanging_of_Jonathan_Wild.jpg I was thinking it might be to indicate the etymology of the word from some language, but ...

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