Questions tagged [england]

For questions relating to the historic Kingdom of England prior to 1707, or the country of England within the modern United Kingdom that is one of Britain's Home Nations.

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In Mughal India, which factors determined which countries were allowed forts?

I'm roughly halfway through this excellent extensive book: Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company. One of the more memorable sections to me was the account of how the first gestures ...
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1 vote
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155 views

Is there an English translation of Nicolas de la Mare's 1722 work "Traité de la Police"?

Most places on the Internet (or maybe just the sites with the best SEO) put the origins of Western policing with Scotland Yard. For example, this article says policing came to the U.S. via England, ...
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Was there a family relationship between Guy Underwood and George Allen Underwood?

Guy Underwood (1883-1964) was the English former solicitor who lived in Stratford-on-Avon and wrote about earth energy, archaeology, and freemasonry in his book The Pattern of the Past, published in ...
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4 votes
1 answer
267 views

How many people were executed during the reign of Henry VIII?

I've read something from a few online sources that I don't quite trust (probably because I'm British), but I suspect the reality of the suggestion is in fact highly likely. Going on the data we have ...
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28 votes
3 answers
7k views

Why is Lady Jane Grey called Lady instead of Queen?

Lady Jane Grey claimed the English throne 19 July 1553, nine days later she was replaced by Queen Mary. To history she is always called Lady instead of Queen. I just wonder why? Its true she had no ...
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1 answer
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How many visits did the Mitford sisters or Oswald Mosley make to Nazi Germany?

The youngest Mitford sister, Unity, first met Hitler in Munich 1934, who invites her older sister Diana over to meet him in April 1935. Sometime in 1935 Unity delivers the televised speech at ...
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1 vote
3 answers
417 views

Why were French maids apparently so common outside France?

Wikipedia article doesn't help at all. It's surprisingly thin and essentially doesn't explain anything. It's only vaguely implied that this was a thing outside of France. Why exactly did so many ...
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1 vote
1 answer
240 views

What was the role of Scotland during the Hundred years war?

Scotland was the enemy of England, as they had just won independence. It made sense for them to join hands with the French forces. And I heard something like that in an Extra Credits video. But can ...
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Were any prominent people exiled from France during the Hundred years war? Especially between 1390-1397

Were any notable figures (such as noblemen, or mercenaries, politician [idk what they called them back then] etc. ) that were exiled from France during Hundred Years War between 1390 to 1397. Or any ...
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9 votes
1 answer
1k views

What does it mean to grant a church to a priory?

I am trying to piece together the early history of Eversholt Church in Bedfordshire, UK. The earliest record found so far is in The Cartulary of Newnham Priory from 1166. Simon [II] de Beauchamp, who ...
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9 votes
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How to understand the gift of tithes to a priory in 1166 [closed]

I am trying to piece together the early history of Eversholt Church in Bedfordshire, UK. The earliest record found so far is in The Cartulary of Newnham Priory from 1166. Simon [II] de Beauchamp, who ...
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8 votes
1 answer
336 views

What did 'bookseller' cover as an occupation on British census documents during Victorian times?

I have been researching some of my husband's ancestors who lived in the poorest parts of Liverpool during the second part of the 19th century. Two of his female relatives who had been widowed turned ...
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3 votes
2 answers
552 views

How did the United Kingdom government come to be responsible for defence of the Channel Islands?

The government of the United Kingdom is responsible for the defence of, and foreign relations of, the Channel Islands. How did this arrangement come about? Was there a specific agreement/decision/...
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Question about pilgrims [closed]

I wanted to ask a pretty silly question about the English colonization of America. This book that I read said that the puritans were immigrating away from England to America for religious reasons, ...
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11 votes
2 answers
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What is the corruption that John Winthrop mentions in "Reasons for the Plantation in New England" (1628)

In John Winthrop's "Reasons for the Plantation in New England", we read: The fountains of learning and religion are so corrupted that most children (besides the unsupportable charge of ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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How did the Church of England view the local legend and festivities surrounding Gog and Magog?

From multiple sources I've read of legends regarding one or two giants, Gogmagog or Gog and Magog. It appears in Irish and English folklore, as well as other regional tales. Gogmagog was a legendary ...
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17 votes
1 answer
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Is 'quartodecimo omnium sanctorum' the same as 'Nov XIV' on this Latin grave inscription?

I have been translating the Latin inscription on a 19th century tomb in the parish churchyard, Mitcham, south west London, UK. I'm using a Latin dictionary and a 'Latin Made Simple' book I bought many ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why did King Charles II cede New Amsterdam / New York to his brother James, Duke of York, in 1664?

On Wikipedia we read: In 1664, King Charles II of England ceded to his brother, the Duke of York, later King James II, a large tract of land that included all of New Netherland. This came at a period ...
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3 votes
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What became of the Richard III infidelity surprise?

Back when Richard III of England's grave was discovered, a paper published in Nature Communications reported that while his identity was confirmed through a direct-female descendent of his sister, Y-...
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5 votes
1 answer
152 views

How many 'pubs' (alehouses, inns and taverns) were there in England in 1577?

I came across an interesting bit of demographic information while listening to a lecture: From early times people had rented out space in their houses for travellers, but by the thirteenth century ...
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2 answers
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Why was Edward I of England the first Edward?

Why is Edward I of England given the numeration "I", when he was preceded by Edward the Confessor and Edward the Martyr. Did numerations only begin with William I?
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32 votes
4 answers
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How much would 300 pounds (money value) weigh in Medieval England?

I remember reading a Robin Hood story as a child where the Sheriff of Nottingham rode though Sherwood forest, as I remember foolishly going alone, and Robin Hood robbed him of 300 pounds. And I ...
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Where did the South Dublin/"D4" accent come from?

I've lived in Ireland for a decade in Dublin and outside Co. Dublin. I've noticed that many of the accents sound similar with the exception of the South Dublin accent. It sounds entirely different ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Were titles in the British Peerage ever connected to land grants, and if so, when did they stop being connected to land?

I have been trying to understand the peerage systems of Britain as of late, and I have a number of questions. Let's assume we're in the middle ages. A baron-in-chief, Thomas Smith, holds a number of ...
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Was Ireland really England's first colony? [closed]

I have a vaguely decent knowledge of Irish history, but I know relatively little of the history of England. I've often heard Ireland spoken of as England's first colony, but surely that 'title' would ...
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1 vote
1 answer
202 views

How did changes in the balance of land versus naval balance of power prevent England from being successfully invaded by foreign powers after 1066?

The last successful invasion of England was that by the Normans in 1066. Prior to that, England had been successfully invaded by waves of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from the Continent, and before that, ...
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34 votes
1 answer
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Why did life expectancy decline sharply in 16th century England?

I was checking historical life expectancy and found the chart shown below in Roser, Ortiz-Ospina, Ritchie, 2013. What was the reason for such a dramatic decline in life expectancy in England in the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
272 views

What mining feature is this?

In a former lead mining region of Derbyshire (Just North of Wirksworth) there's this bank of earth running across the side of a hill, with a small "valley" alongside it: It's about 15-20m ...
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2 votes
2 answers
399 views

Did the Celts come to England from France and Belgium?

I apologize for this ridiculous question. I have little knowledge of European history. The following is a passage from Charles Dickens' A Child's History of England: "But the Phoenicians, sailing ...
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10 votes
1 answer
194 views

Did James I link the divine right of kings to apostolic succession in his writings? If so, where?

According to a Wikipedia article, King James VI of Scotland (later King James I of England) justified the theory of the divine right of kings in his famous essay The True Law of Free Monarchies by ...
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11 votes
3 answers
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Did Victorian parents raise their children "sexless" to prolong innocence?

I was reading the (albeit not very historical) Chatelaine article "Can You Actually Raise A Baby Free From Gender?" and came across the statement: The notion that a boy should have short ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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How to find the population and mortality in London during the period 1760-1834?

I have to reconstruct the graph showing death rates from infectious diseases and from all causes in London. But I have trouble with finding the data for the period 1760-1834. In the graph are shown ...
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What does an English Liberty-shaded lamp look like?

The London Venture by Michael Arlen several times mentions a woman with dark hair given a blue sheen as she sits under a Liberty-shaded lamp. Any idea what this lamp looked like? Illustrator: Michel ...
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5 votes
0 answers
61 views

Was the Protectorate's Instrument of Government influenced by other near-contemporary European constitutions?

John Lambert drafted the Instrument of Government, the constitution of the Protectorate, in 1653. How much was Lambert influenced by—or even aware of—the relatively recent near-contemporary European ...
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1 vote
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Was the term 'sir' or 'sire' in use in England in the 13th century? [closed]

A supposed ancestor of mine, one 'Sir' Henry Kymbold (born 1280 in Hitcham, Suffolk) appears in a list of direct ancestors. Would 'sir' have even been in use in this period, or does this reflect ...
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23 votes
3 answers
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Why didn't pre-Norman English kings build stone town walls?

This question is about defensive city walls, not longer walls such as the Great Wall of China or Hadrian's wall. After the Norman conquest, many defensive city walls were built by Norman kings in ...
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12 votes
1 answer
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How likely was an enlisted man to have fought at both Falkirk and Bannockburn?

A heroic Scottish song begins, "Scots who have with Wallace bled, Scots whom Bruce has often led..." William Wallace's most famous battle was Falkirk (1298). Robert Bruce's was Bannockburn (...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How did 15th century royals identify themselves in England/Spain?

I'm studying the customs of medieval Europe to gather information for a novel I'm writing and a question has arisen about how the nobles, especially the royal family, identified themselves. Did they ...
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0 votes
1 answer
255 views

How hard did they beat up Henry II after the murder of Thomas Becket?

The story of the murder of Thomas Becket was one I learned at school and it's stuck with me. I was doing a little reading tonight and was surprised to find this paragraph on Wikipedia: The king ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Which English king voided noble land claims after a certain date?

If my memory holds, a medieval English king ruled that noble lands were falsely held and should be returned to the crown. Parliament, of course, rejected this seizure. King and parliament compromised ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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What was the motivation for the Church of England to begin recording births, marriages and deaths in 1538?

I have heard that Thomas Cromwell convinced Henry VIII to institute the keeping of these registers, after seeing the practice during a tour of Europe. It took many parishes a long time (and the ...
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5 votes
1 answer
667 views

What are the "blue books" of Mr. Balfour?

In the book The Balfour declaration by Jonathan Schneer p133 there is a critic of prime minister Arthur Balfour that reads "Critics accused him of laziness because he could not be bothered to ...
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1 vote
0 answers
85 views

How many barons did Magna Carta apply to? [closed]

How many barons had their rights improved by Magna Carta when it was signed in 1215? And how did this number evolve later? The supervising council consisted of 25 barons, but I presume more barons ...
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10 votes
2 answers
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Was the name 'Valerie' used during the Regency Era (1811-1836)?

I am working on a novel that takes place in England during the Regency Era (1811-1836, the era right before the Victorian Era). I was wondering if you know if the name 'Valerie' or 'Valeria' existed ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Where does Edmund Burke explain aristocratic eccentricity as a reaction to the influx of non-titled country gentlemen?

I am looking for the source of a notion of Edmund Burke’s that the English aristocracy turned to eccentric behavior in order to distinguish themselves from the “new men” who were acquiring estates in ...
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4 votes
0 answers
126 views

Is there any evidence of naval ramming in the 9th and 10th century North Sea?

In Bernard Cornwell's 'Sword of the Kings', his main character uses the tactic of ramming to sink an enemy ship before engaging in hand-to-hand combat with surviving ships which get leashed together. ...
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7 votes
0 answers
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Are there 15th or 16th century English sources that exemplify Empress Matilda as an impediment to having a Queen Regnant?

I'm reading Alison Weir's 'Elizabeth of York', and she makes claims as to why Elizabeth of York couldn't succeed to the throne after Richard III which are not supported by evidence. Legally, there ...
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10 votes
3 answers
577 views

Are there recorded incidents of the Gentlemen Pensioners protecting the monarch in the 16th century?

The Gentlemen Pensioners were the forerunner to the modern Her Majesty's Body Guards. Henry VIII instated it in 1509, disbanded it in 1515/16, and re-created the unit in 1539. They are described as ...
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11 votes
3 answers
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What received constitutional understandings did Pitt break in 1784?

An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution was first published in 1885, but I quote the 1915 8 edn. p. 260 of this transcribed online PDF. Here's scan of original. I don't ...
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7 votes
1 answer
521 views

Was there a contemporary understanding that 1706 was an exceptionally poor year?

This relates to the numerous (British) news items which seem to have overnight turned the present virus-induced economic downturn into a 'historic downturn'. While there are opinion-based aspects that ...
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