Questions tagged [england]

For questions relating to the historic Kingdom of England prior to 1707, or the country of England within the modern United Kingdom that is one of Britain's Home Nations.

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6
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0answers
89 views

Which English king voided noble land claims after a certain date?

If my memory holds, a medieval English king ruled that noble lands were falsely held and should be returned to the crown. Parliament, of course, rejected this seizure. King and parliament compromised ...
8
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1answer
1k views

What was the motivation for the Church of England to begin recording births, marriages and deaths in 1538?

I have heard that Thomas Cromwell convinced Henry VIII to institute the keeping of these registers, after seeing the practice during a tour of Europe. It took many parishes a long time (and the ...
5
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1answer
636 views

What are the “blue books” of Mr. Balfour?

In the book The Balfour declaration by Jonathan Schneer p133 there is a critic of prime minister Arthur Balfour that reads "Critics accused him of laziness because he could not be bothered to ...
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76 views

How many barons did Magna Carta apply to? [closed]

How many barons had their rights improved by Magna Carta when it was signed in 1215? And how did this number evolve later? The supervising council consisted of 25 barons, but I presume more barons ...
10
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2answers
2k views

Was the name 'Valerie' used during the Regency Era (1811-1836)?

I am working on a novel that takes place in England during the Regency Era (1811-1836, the era right before the Victorian Era). I was wondering if you know if the name 'Valerie' or 'Valeria' existed ...
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0answers
52 views

Where does Edmund Burke explain aristocratic eccentricity as a reaction to the influx of non-titled country gentlemen?

I am looking for the source of a notion of Edmund Burke’s that the English aristocracy turned to eccentric behavior in order to distinguish themselves from the “new men” who were acquiring estates in ...
3
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0answers
86 views

Is there any evidence of naval ramming in the 9th and 10th century North Sea?

In Bernard Cornwell's 'Sword of the Kings', his main character uses the tactic of ramming to sink an enemy ship before engaging in hand-to-hand combat with surviving ships which get leashed together. ...
7
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0answers
76 views

Are there 15th or 16th century English sources that exemplify Empress Matilda as an impediment to having a Queen Regnant?

I'm reading Alison Weir's 'Elizabeth of York', and she makes claims as to why Elizabeth of York couldn't succeed to the throne after Richard III which are not supported by evidence. Legally, there ...
7
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2answers
441 views

Are there recorded incidents of the Gentlemen Pensioners protecting the monarch in the 16th century?

The Gentlemen Pensioners were the forerunner to the modern Her Majesty's Body Guards. Henry VIII instated it in 1509, disbanded it in 1515/16, and re-created the unit in 1539. They are described as ...
11
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3answers
2k views

What received constitutional understandings did Pitt break in 1784?

An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution was first published in 1885, but I quote the 1915 8 edn. p. 260 of this transcribed online PDF. Here's scan of original. I don't ...
7
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1answer
274 views

Was there a contemporary understanding that 1706 was an exceptionally poor year?

This relates to the numerous (British) news items which seem to have overnight turned the present virus-induced economic downturn into a 'historic downturn'. While there are opinion-based aspects that ...
3
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1answer
134 views

How was St Edwards Crown fixed after Blood flattened it?

In 1671 Thomas Blood tried to steal the crown jewels. To do this he flattened the crown with a mallet. There are many sources that said he did flatten it but I cannot find anything about the aftermath....
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1answer
133 views

What did typical mid-18th century housing look like in English villages?

There seems to be a plethora of resources available that describe what mid-18th / early 19th century housing looked like in major English cities, particularly London. But, I cannot find much ...
2
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1answer
196 views

What were English 'rules restricting marriage'?

I am reading the book by Steven LeBlanc and Katherine Register, Constant battles, (2003). It is about history of warfare, but on p. 165 I found the mysterious sentence: For example, rules can be ...
5
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2answers
494 views

Why don't Americans claim English ancestry? [closed]

Through a lot of American Movies and TV shows, and also my personal experiences of interacting with people in America, I know that most White Americans are informed of their European ancestry, and are ...
8
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0answers
203 views

Did Henrietta Maria leave any writings in which she described her thoughts with respect to Charles I's afterlife?

Henrietta Maria, Charles I's queen consort, was a famously strident Roman Catholic. She outraged her husband's subjects by praying publicly under the gallows at Tyburn, where many Roman Catholics had ...
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2answers
179 views

How would “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England fit with the fact that all knights must be of noble birth?

I've read recently about “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England started by Henry III but I found it very strange indeed. This law forced all rich people who has 40 £ or more to be knighted ...
1
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1answer
174 views

Did anyone in England in the 1680's wear a beard?

I'm trying to find any examples of beards in England during the 1680s. I know they weren't popular but that doesn't mean they didn't exist at all. A picture would be ideal, although I appreciate this ...
6
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2answers
498 views

Why does the name “England” hold no reference to the Saxons?

Something that has always surprised me was that originally Saxon kings were referred to as kings of the Angles or kings of the English when they conquered or reconquered the Germanic parts of the ...
35
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6answers
8k views

What was the point of horse armour?

From my knowledge (and please correct me if I'm wrong), horse armour wasn't very thick (0.4mm-1.9mm) according to the paper in the link: How thick was late medieval horse armor? Even without ...
0
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0answers
72 views

Were there farms in the early 19th century in England, which only focused on agriculture?

I think back in the day most farms consisted of both agriculture and livestock, but I think, there must have been exceptions. I'm also especially interested in small-scale family-based farms. The ...
5
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1answer
568 views

What was the relationship between Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; and the Vikings? [closed]

I'm reading Seamus Heaney's translation of Beowulf and I cannot get my head around how Angles, Saxons, and Jutes relate to the Geats, Danes, and/or the Vikings and/or the Scandinavians generally. ...
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1answer
82 views

Why is “Jonathan Wild” spelt “Ionathan Wild” in this ticket to his 1725 hanging?

The ticket: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Wild#/media/File:Ticket_to_the_hanging_of_Jonathan_Wild.jpg I was thinking it might be to indicate the etymology of the word from some language, but ...
2
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2answers
331 views

Is it true that Christian English monks adopted Norse hairstyles before the start of the Viking age?

I remember a documentary suggesting that Vikings traded a lot with English monks, before the Viking Age started, and that the monks ended up adopting their hairstyles. They mentioned a senior monk or ...
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0answers
102 views

Is there a known origin for the Beaufort motto “Mutare vel Timere Sperno”?

The House of Beaufort (and cadet branch the House of Somerset) use the motto "Mutare vel timere sperno" ("I scorn to change or to fear"). I assume it references the Beaufort loyalty to and support ...
2
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1answer
440 views

Why did Oliver Cromwell ban Christmas in 1644? [closed]

I am aware of the religious conflicts between Catholics and Protestants during and after the reign of King Henry VIII, but can't imagine why Cromwell would ban Christmas. I read this in an article ...
2
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1answer
111 views

Did Robert Devereux's monopoly on sweet wine encroach upon Sir Christopher Hatton's monopoly on wine?

I know that Robert Devereux was given a monopoly on sweet wine following the death of Robert Dudley, his step-father and the previous holder of this monopoly, but I recently read that Sir Christopher ...
5
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1answer
731 views

What does “two ells within the selvages” mean in the Magna Carta?

Clause 35 of the Magna Carta defines some standard weights and measures to be used throughout the realm. The first part is straightforward: the standard weight/mass used for wine, ale and corn is the ...
8
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2answers
267 views

Why did the coins of England minted under Richard I and John bear the name of Henry?

From the middle Anglo-Saxon period until the reign of Edward I, England's coinage mainly comprised silver pennies bearing the monarch's portrait and name on the obverse side. These were frequently ...
0
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5answers
967 views

Were there any monarchs of England or the United Kingdom who were not technically first in the line of succession? [closed]

Pretty self-explanatory. Who (if anyone) became an English/UK monarch without being the actual heir to the previous monarch (due to wars, coups, etc.)? Bonus points for circumstances.
6
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1answer
599 views

Is The King (2019) historically realistic? [closed]

The King (2019) by Netflix is about king Henry V. A few aspects of the movie struck me as either unbelievable, or contradicting what little even I know about history. In no particular order: The ...
9
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2answers
598 views

What is the meaning of the hand gesture performed by King James II in the portrait by Peter Lely?

This portrait by Peter Lely is one of the most well-known images of James II of England (aka James VII of Scotland). It is used to illustrate his Wikipedia article. Is there some meaning behind the ...
9
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1answer
865 views

How close would a peasant from middle ages England ever come to interacting with the king?

Presuming we have a peasant who works on land owned by a "common" lord (sorry, here I don't know the terminology. I mean a landowner who is not a royal), how close would that person ever get to ...
9
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3answers
565 views

How many people died in the British Isles from religious persecution between 1532 and 1791?

The English Reformation was "a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church". It involved the ...
11
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1answer
1k views

How was ownership of property managed during the Black Death, when so many original owners had died?

Historically, in the UK if a property owner died intestate with no heirs, the property ownership went to the Crown under an escheat. During the Black Death, in the 12th century, the population of ...
5
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2answers
275 views

Does anyone know anything about this poem

My near 80 year old mother remembers having this poem recited to her by her mother as a young girl. She remembers a great deal but there are some gaps. Is anyone able to place it in context or ...
3
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1answer
250 views

Where did poor London women give birth in the latter half of the 19th century?

I have a personal reason for asking this question. I'm researching my family tree and I have some ancestors who lived in Mile End Old Town, London between 1850 and 1900, but gave birth in Mile End New ...
9
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1answer
268 views

Can anyone find an image of Henry Bolingbroke's Sovereygne Feather Seal?

Henry IV of England used a "remarkable seal" with two tall feathers (around the shield, helm and crest), each entwined with a garter which had his "favorite and significant" motto "SOVEREYGNE" written ...
71
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1answer
13k views

What drugs were used in England during the High Middle Ages?

It's well known that alcohol was brewed and drunk throughout the Middle ages in England, but I wonder what is known from archaeological evidence and contemporary sources about what other drugs were ...
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0answers
110 views

Why were Law Lords created peers of different ranks?

I cross-referenced the men below with List of law life peerages to check that these Law Lords were created life peers, and didn't inherit peerage. Most Law Lords are created as Barons, but note the ...
18
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2answers
6k views

What is a “staved” town, like in “Staverton”?

I'm researching Staverton, Northampton(shire), England. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it is called Stavertone. According to wikipedia, the meaning of the town name is 'staved" town. I've looked up ...
16
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2answers
527 views

Why did the negotiations between Henry V of England and France fail?

Before Henry V of England resumed the Hundred Years War against France, he and the French government acting for Charles VI who was mentally ill were negotiating for a peace treaty where Henry V would ...
1
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1answer
638 views

What was the relation of Barons to Counts/Dukes/Earls in England during the medieval ages? [closed]

Barons from what I gather, were under direct obligation to the king. What was the position of counts or dukes? Was their position that of viceroy? As in the barons in the area under the county/duchy ...
13
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5answers
1k views

What profession(s) would have used this folding 'ruler'?

This ruler was originally handed down to an aunt on my (English) mother's side of the family. One side is a standard ruler in inches but, curiously, the other side is unlike anything I've been able to ...
8
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2answers
356 views

Why, apart from religious reasons, might someone in thirteenth century England give land to a Church?

In 1285 the following grant of land was made: Be it known that I, Robert son of Alan de Waley have given for the salvation of my soul and of my ancestors and successors to God and the Blessed Mary ...
7
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1answer
856 views

Seeking explanation about Leicester's “mechanical dolphin” of 1575

Greenblatt's Will in the World describes elaborate festivities that the Earl of Leicester staged in 1575 for the visiting Queen Elizabeth I: In the single most extravagant entertainment Leicester ...
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0answers
100 views

What percentage of first births were illegitimate in 19th century England?

One peculiarity of Victorian England is the rather very high number of illegitimate births and premarital conceptions relative to the periods before it. Illegitimate births and premarital conceptions ...
17
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2answers
2k views

When did England stop being a Papal fief?

In 1213, King John surrendered England to the papacy making it a Papal fief where the Pope would be paid annual tribute. However King Edward I did not act as a vassal to the Pope because he got into ...
1
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1answer
312 views

Chancery vs Common Pleas vs Exchequer vs King's Bench

Please explain with simple words. I'm interested only in their jurisdictions and functions: How did these 4 main courts' differ? What did the King's Bench cover? Parliament.uk distinguishes only ...
3
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1answer
309 views

Why weren't the Barons of the Court of Exchequer Barons as peers?

The first sentence at Chief Baron of the Exchequer The Chief Baron of the Exchequer was the first "baron" (i.e., judge) of the English Exchequer of Pleas. bemused me: Why were these judges were ...

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