Questions tagged [england]

For questions relating to the historic Kingdom of England prior to 1707, or the country of England within the modern United Kingdom that is one of Britain's Home Nations.

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15
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3answers
5k views

Did the Huns contribute to the Great Migration of Germanic Peoples into the Western Empire?

I just listed to this episode of the British History Podcast (which is excellent I might add). During the podcast, the podcaster states that climate change was a major contributor to the Anglo Saxons ...
23
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3answers
4k views

How did succession in Anglo Saxon England work?

I heard that the Witan would elect an Ætheling to be King after the previous King died and it typically followed primogeniture. Was primogeniture a requirement for succession or did the Witan have the ...
3
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1answer
159 views

How was St Edwards Crown fixed after Blood flattened it?

In 1671 Thomas Blood tried to steal the crown jewels. To do this he flattened the crown with a mallet. There are many sources that said he did flatten it but I cannot find anything about the aftermath....
0
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1answer
226 views

What did typical mid-18th century housing look like in English villages?

There seems to be a plethora of resources available that describe what mid-18th / early 19th century housing looked like in major English cities, particularly London. But, I cannot find much ...
36
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6answers
8k views

What was the point of horse armour?

From my knowledge (and please correct me if I'm wrong), horse armour wasn't very thick (0.4mm-1.9mm) according to the paper in the link: How thick was late medieval horse armor? Even without ...
2
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1answer
200 views

What were English 'rules restricting marriage'?

I am reading the book by Steven LeBlanc and Katherine Register, Constant battles, (2003). It is about history of warfare, but on p. 165 I found the mysterious sentence: For example, rules can be ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Why don't Americans claim English ancestry? [closed]

Through a lot of American Movies and TV shows, and also my personal experiences of interacting with people in America, I know that most White Americans are informed of their European ancestry, and are ...
6
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1answer
611 views

Is The King (2019) historically realistic? [closed]

The King (2019) by Netflix is about king Henry V. A few aspects of the movie struck me as either unbelievable, or contradicting what little even I know about history. In no particular order: The ...
1
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1answer
182 views

Did anyone in England in the 1680's wear a beard?

I'm trying to find any examples of beards in England during the 1680s. I know they weren't popular but that doesn't mean they didn't exist at all. A picture would be ideal, although I appreciate this ...
8
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9answers
5k views

What caused the turning point in Hundred Years' War?

At school I have learned that the English had upper hand in the war until Joan of Arc convinced the French king to give an army under her command to besiege Orléans and since then, the French forced ...
0
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0answers
78 views

Were there farms in the early 19th century in England, which only focused on agriculture?

I think back in the day most farms consisted of both agriculture and livestock, but I think, there must have been exceptions. I'm also especially interested in small-scale family-based farms. The ...
5
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1answer
876 views

What was the relationship between Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; and the Vikings? [closed]

I'm reading Seamus Heaney's translation of Beowulf and I cannot get my head around how Angles, Saxons, and Jutes relate to the Geats, Danes, and/or the Vikings and/or the Scandinavians generally. ...
14
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4answers
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Why was the swordsman of Calais chosen as Anne Boleyn's executioner?

Anne Boleyn was executed on May 19, 1536. Displaying an act of "mercy", King Henry VIII dispatched a skilled executioner to perform the execution by sword rather than by axe or being burned at the ...
-2
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1answer
89 views

Why is “Jonathan Wild” spelt “Ionathan Wild” in this ticket to his 1725 hanging?

The ticket: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Wild#/media/File:Ticket_to_the_hanging_of_Jonathan_Wild.jpg I was thinking it might be to indicate the etymology of the word from some language, but ...
6
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1answer
311 views

What does King Henry III have on his lap in this illustration from a Matthew Paris chronicle?

In Abbreviatio chronicorum Angliae, the chronicler Matthew Paris (d. 1259) included drawings of the Norman and Plantagenet kings up to Henry III. The image below shows from L-R, top-bottom: Henry II, ...
8
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1answer
310 views

Were there records kept of French nobility before the invasion of England in 1066?

I can trace my family name (Chance) back to the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Were any records kept (do they survive?) of French nobility around or before this time? Or is it a known dead end for ...
1
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0answers
269 views

Is there a known origin for the Beaufort motto “Mutare vel Timere Sperno”?

The House of Beaufort (and cadet branch the House of Somerset) use the motto "Mutare vel timere sperno" ("I scorn to change or to fear"). I assume it references the Beaufort loyalty to and support ...
13
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5answers
1k views

What profession(s) would have used this folding 'ruler'?

This ruler was originally handed down to an aunt on my (English) mother's side of the family. One side is a standard ruler in inches but, curiously, the other side is unlike anything I've been able to ...
5
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1answer
791 views

What does “two ells within the selvages” mean in the Magna Carta?

Clause 35 of the Magna Carta defines some standard weights and measures to be used throughout the realm. The first part is straightforward: the standard weight/mass used for wine, ale and corn is the ...
2
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1answer
500 views

Why did Oliver Cromwell ban Christmas in 1644? [closed]

I am aware of the religious conflicts between Catholics and Protestants during and after the reign of King Henry VIII, but can't imagine why Cromwell would ban Christmas. I read this in an article ...
2
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1answer
169 views

Did Robert Devereux's monopoly on sweet wine encroach upon Sir Christopher Hatton's monopoly on wine?

I know that Robert Devereux was given a monopoly on sweet wine following the death of Robert Dudley, his step-father and the previous holder of this monopoly, but I recently read that Sir Christopher ...
9
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2answers
1k views

What is the meaning of the hand gesture performed by King James II in the portrait by Peter Lely?

This portrait by Peter Lely is one of the most well-known images of James II of England (aka James VII of Scotland). It is used to illustrate his Wikipedia article. Is there some meaning behind the ...
8
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1answer
492 views

What are these items in this 16th century plan of an English town?

This plan or picture map of Great Yarmouth is from the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). According to the Norfolk Record Office (pdf), It shows the town’s defences at the time of the Spanish Armada ...
27
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3answers
3k views

Were there Muslims in 12th century England?

Ever since the 1984 ITV adaptation of Robin Hood, the addition of a Muslim warrior to the band of Merry Men has been a staple of the mythology. From a storytelling perspective, the benefits are clear: ...
8
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2answers
313 views

Why did the coins of England minted under Richard I and John bear the name of Henry?

From the middle Anglo-Saxon period until the reign of Edward I, England's coinage mainly comprised silver pennies bearing the monarch's portrait and name on the obverse side. These were frequently ...
1
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1answer
250 views

How have terms of English governance of Ireland been viewed in history?

The following Treaty of Mellifont, made with Hugh O'Neill, England's most hard-core opponent, is reasonably representative. Under the treaty, after the Irish lost a war, were the following key terms: ...
4
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1answer
488 views

What is the earliest reference to King Arthur being raised by Sir Ector?

Thomas Malory's book "Le Morte D'Arthur" is the most famous account of King Arthur's life. It begins with the story of how Arthur's father Uther Pendragon desired Igrayne, the wife of the Duke of ...
11
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1answer
753 views

When was King John of England given the name 'Dollheart', and who first used it?

As if being called 'Lackland' (by his father, Henry II) and 'Softsword' (by "some English chroniclers") was not bad enough, King John also acquired the very unflattering-sounding nickname of Dollheart....
3
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1answer
379 views

Who governed London during the Great Plague?

I am writing a story for a game and I want to try to make it as accurate as possible. To this end, I would like to find who governed London, England, during the time of the Great Plague, but I can't ...
3
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1answer
328 views

Who lived on Golden Square in London in the 18th century?

Is there a database or an archive where I could find a list of the inhabitants of Golden Square in London in the 18th century? I know that a famous musician of that time was living on that square, ...
2
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1answer
317 views

Where did poor London women give birth in the latter half of the 19th century?

I have a personal reason for asking this question. I'm researching my family tree and I have some ancestors who lived in Mile End Old Town, London between 1850 and 1900, but gave birth in Mile End New ...
9
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1answer
1k views

How close would a peasant from middle ages England ever come to interacting with the king?

Presuming we have a peasant who works on land owned by a "common" lord (sorry, here I don't know the terminology. I mean a landowner who is not a royal), how close would that person ever get to ...
11
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1answer
1k views

How was ownership of property managed during the Black Death, when so many original owners had died?

Historically, in the UK if a property owner died intestate with no heirs, the property ownership went to the Crown under an escheat. During the Black Death, in the 12th century, the population of ...
73
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1answer
15k views

What drugs were used in England during the High Middle Ages?

It's well known that alcohol was brewed and drunk throughout the Middle ages in England, but I wonder what is known from archaeological evidence and contemporary sources about what other drugs were ...
5
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2answers
277 views

Does anyone know anything about this poem

My near 80 year old mother remembers having this poem recited to her by her mother as a young girl. She remembers a great deal but there are some gaps. Is anyone able to place it in context or ...
9
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1answer
274 views

Can anyone find an image of Henry Bolingbroke's Sovereygne Feather Seal?

Henry IV of England used a "remarkable seal" with two tall feathers (around the shield, helm and crest), each entwined with a garter which had his "favorite and significant" motto "SOVEREYGNE" written ...
29
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2answers
8k views

When did challenging to a duel cease to be a practice in English culture?

In the Aubrey Maturin series of novels, there are at least two scenes where the protagonists are challenged to a duel: Post-Captain - Aubrey and Maturin about Aubrey's reputation with the Admiralty ...
13
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2answers
3k views

How was King Henry VIII able to get syphilis?

How did King Henry VIII get this disease when syphilis was a disease originating from the Americas?
1
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0answers
113 views

Why were Law Lords created peers of different ranks?

I cross-referenced the men below with List of law life peerages to check that these Law Lords were created life peers, and didn't inherit peerage. Most Law Lords are created as Barons, but note the ...
18
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2answers
6k views

What is a “staved” town, like in “Staverton”?

I'm researching Staverton, Northampton(shire), England. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it is called Stavertone. According to wikipedia, the meaning of the town name is 'staved" town. I've looked up ...
16
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2answers
590 views

Why did the negotiations between Henry V of England and France fail?

Before Henry V of England resumed the Hundred Years War against France, he and the French government acting for Charles VI who was mentally ill were negotiating for a peace treaty where Henry V would ...
1
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1answer
1k views

What was the relation of Barons to Counts/Dukes/Earls in England during the medieval ages? [closed]

Barons from what I gather, were under direct obligation to the king. What was the position of counts or dukes? Was their position that of viceroy? As in the barons in the area under the county/duchy ...
8
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2answers
359 views

Why, apart from religious reasons, might someone in thirteenth century England give land to a Church?

In 1285 the following grant of land was made: Be it known that I, Robert son of Alan de Waley have given for the salvation of my soul and of my ancestors and successors to God and the Blessed Mary ...
3
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1answer
430 views

What expenses did a village have?

I'm trying to research the incomes and expenditures of a small village in medieval England. The village occupies a formerly abandoned settlement situated against an abandoned castle. The village is a ...
7
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1answer
857 views

Seeking explanation about Leicester's “mechanical dolphin” of 1575

Greenblatt's Will in the World describes elaborate festivities that the Earl of Leicester staged in 1575 for the visiting Queen Elizabeth I: In the single most extravagant entertainment Leicester ...
7
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1answer
14k views

How were peasant houses constructed in medieval England?

What was the typical construction material and process for a house in medieval England? Specifically, for a typical farming serf, operating a few acres of land. This question is meant as a more-...
12
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2answers
1k views

Why are Vikings singled out for raids in Britain and Ireland when records may indicate most raids were by local rulers?

The main (original) sources for the evidence cited here were written by monks and priests who have usually been cited by modern historians as being biased against Vikings. However, recent research ...
5
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1answer
262 views

What was the rate of premarital conceptions in England from 1850 to 1890?

Much research has been done on the topic of prenuptially conceived births within England from the 1540s to 1830s, but I have yet to come across anything resembling a statistic for the period from ...
1
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0answers
109 views

What percentage of first births were illegitimate in 19th century England?

One peculiarity of Victorian England is the rather very high number of illegitimate births and premarital conceptions relative to the periods before it. Illegitimate births and premarital conceptions ...
17
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2answers
3k views

When did England stop being a Papal fief?

In 1213, King John surrendered England to the papacy making it a Papal fief where the Pope would be paid annual tribute. However King Edward I did not act as a vassal to the Pope because he got into ...

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