Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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Was the Bosnian Crisis the trigger to WWI and not the assassination?

I've read that Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908, much to the dismay of the Serbs. Russia backed this action and was promised to have access to the Straits but were later denied. The ...
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How did Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor come to control part of Spain? [closed]

My history book is cited below. My book says that when Charles V abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor, he gave control of his territories in Spain to his son, Philip II. However, what territories did ...
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Why did Renaissance come first only in the Europe? [duplicate]

When we read about the history of Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment, we come to know that the roots of Scientific Revolution first started in Europe during the Renaissance. But can you ...
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Are there any remaining existant texts that describe the styles and techniques of Medieval European swordsmanship?

We have, in the modern day, no shortage of movies which feature characters from the Medieval period of European history engaged in combat, with swords, cavalry, and arrows. Do we have any historical ...
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Pre-1950s views of West European Socialist parties on the welfare state

The eminent Robert Paxton writes in a recent article, somewhat in passing: Continental European Marxists opposed piecemeal welfare measures as likely to dilute worker militancy without changing ...
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Did any major European country stay neutral during the Napoleonic Wars?

During World Wars I and II, many countries managed to stay neutral, like Spain and Switzerland. Was there any major country (e.g. not a city-state or a micronation) that did the same during the ...
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Was Swedish king Charles X Gustav's horse killed during Siege of Kraków (1655)?

My question is related to Siege of Kraków, which took place in 1655, between 25th of September and 13th of October, during Second Northern War, which is usually referred to as "Swedish Deluge" in ...
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Why are some Americans more religious than European counterparts? [closed]

What are some of the historical reasons for why certain Americans are more religious than similar Europeans? For example, there are pronounced differences in Church attendance; Extent of belief in god....
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What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? [duplicate]

What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? I know there were at least a few other European countries with some of the same advantages that Great Britain had (...
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Light cavalry in medieval western Europe?

What sorts of light cavalry were there in high (1300s) medieval western Europe (England and France)? I mean more like non ranged troops. I know that all soldiers likely owned a horse for transport, ...
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Which country ruled Flanders in the 16th century? [closed]

I am reading a novel, The Forty-Five Guardsmen written by Alexandre Dumas; it described a story happening after 1572 in which the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre took place. It mentioned a region ...
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What is the Holy Roman Empire? [closed]

What is the Holy Roman Empire? I have a little background knowledge and I read a little bit on Wikipedia, but I'm still not exactly sure what it is. I know that the states under the "Empire" were ...
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Why was there no concerted effort to end the Barbary pirate raids until the 1800's?

Barbary pirate raids on the Mediterranean coast led to widespread depopulation of the coasts from Venice to Malaga with the obvious exception of the larger cities. The pirate raids also seem to be the ...
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What are some of the influences of the Black Plague and its aftermath on the period of Renaissance? [closed]

The period of Renaissance in Europe kicked off after the Black Plague started disappearing. How did the the plague help in igniting the fire of rebirth?
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How much faster were the printing presses than hand writing?

How many times faster were the printing presses, which gave Europe an advantage over other continents in term of access to knowledge, compared to copying of books by hand?
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How was the first official geographical border established in Europe?

In this moment of history, geographic state borders are defined in official treaties between countries. These treaties determine where the territory of certain state ends and where the territory of ...
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How and when did Jews get to the shores of the Baltic?

How and when did Jews get to the shores of the Baltic?
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What was the attitude of the other European countries in the 1970s Cod War?

In the 1970s Britain and Iceland came close to a shooting war in the so called Cod War. Using these stats (admittedly from some decades later) as a guide, Norway, Denmark and Spain also have ...
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What sort of architecture existed in Catholic Eastern Europe around the late 1100's and very early 1200's?

What I'm really interested in most is building materials, but I'm pretty open to answers. Essentially, it sounds like the late 1100's in Eastern Europe were still pretty solidly Romanesque, with ...
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How long did it take for a diplomat to travel between Berlin and Vienna in the 1770's?

I was reading the Wikipedia entry for the War of the Bavarian Succession, and it said (my emphasis): For some historians, the War of the Bavarian Succession was the last of the old-style Cabinet ...
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How many tons of diamonds did European colonies take from Africa? [closed]

Last night I watched a movie & it said a London Diamond Company in 60s had more than 3 tons of diamonds. Are those all from Africa? What is the total amount of diamonds that Europeans took from ...
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When were the 'last' pagans in northern Europe converted to christianity? [closed]

I've always found it interesting that the Reformation 'began' in Norther Europe. It strikes me that most of the various Christian sects seemed to form within different ethnic groups. So, I'm ...
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What was the goal of Nicolas de Larmessin etched pictures of artisans?

Nicolas de Larmessin created etched pictures of many different artisans and skilled laborers. Does anyone know what the goal of this artwork was? They are very interesting and detailed images, but I ...
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Why were there “hussars” all across Europe?

From what I read, hussars are originally a cavalry forces in Medieval Hungary. But then it became a class of light cavalry that were in service in many European nations, and during the Napoleonic wars:...
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Writing month with roman numbers

I got an old wall clock. I'm not at all a clock expert and I would like to know more about its real age. It has a date engraved in its wood: 18/III 07. I assume that this is finishing-date and 18 is ...
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When, where and with what propagation through Europe did the idea of gypsies stealing children occur?

In light of the recent news kerfuffle regarding a child found in a Romani (gypsy) camp; it got me wondering: At what point in history did the idea1 of gypsies stealing children start? And from ...
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What are the scholarly opinions on the idea of the “European Civil War”?

On Wikipedia, I ran into an article talking about World War I to World War II and some of the adjacent wars before WWI as being a "European Civil War" or a "Second Thirty Years War". What is the ...
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Is this conversation factual?

In this article "Does Putin really need Nobel Peace Prize", it is claimed that the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Martti Ahtisaari had the following conversation with Serbian president Miloshevich during ...
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Why did pastorial people from central Asia migrate to Europe?

Alans, Huns, Magyars, Mongols. They were all pastoralists whose material culture and economic life seems more suited to the Asian steppes. Yet for some reason they migrated into the European land ...
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Diminishing powers of the Roman Catholic church in international matters

Before Enlightenment and Renaissance, Church or Pope had some powers which were almost same as what international organization may have. for example: After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, ...
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Based on historical experience what would happen if/when the USA/EU fell? [closed]

In this video the guy talking mentions that when empires fall. Governance tends to become more local and smallscale(warlords, feudal lords etc) because threats tend to become smallscale and local. And ...
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What might be the “Blue Storm Republic” mentioned by a Chinese history of Europe?

Today, when I read a book about the history of Europe ,when it comes to the European Union, it described as the following words "Main governing bodies of EU include:The Council of the European Union,.....
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Were natural resources a primary reason for invading Romania during the middle ages-present?

When I was in school in Romania I remember my history teacher saying that historically Romania has seen a lot of invaders (referring mainly from the middle ages-present) because it used to have a lot ...
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Which type of cursive is historically correct? [closed]

I learned cursive in Romania, and I encountered some discrepancies between how I learned and the American way of writing. The first row of letters in the picture is the way I learned, and in the ...
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Context for this 1871 humorous map of Europe?

The following map is from (circa) 1871, according to this source, and it was published in Bologna, Italy. Could you please provide some context for it? Parts of the map are self evident, as for ...
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What was the League of Sublime and Perfect Masters?

What was the League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters, created when the Congress of Viena was finished? What role did it play in Italian Reunification?
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Were the problems Fibonacci solved in his work “Flos” posed specifically for him?

According to Wikipedia, Fibonacci wrote "Flos", a work which contained solutions to problems posed by Johannes of Palermo. Did Johannes pose a challenge to all European mathematicians of the time, or ...
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When did ancient religions start to experience dropping numbers of adherents in Europe?

I am talking about ancient Greek, Roman and Norwegian religions. When did ancient religions start to lose ground to modern religions such as Catholicism in Europe?
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When did homosexuality become unacceptable in Europe?

In the ancient greek world male homosexuality was common and didn't attract the same scorn as it did even 100 years ago. So 2,000 years ago, it was acceptable, and 100 years ago it was unacceptable. ...
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What was it like for a coastal village to experience a Viking raid in around the tenth century?

Were fishing villages really completely at the mercy of these Vikings, or could they defend them selves? Did villagers have their own weapons? Could they expect any support from a Lord or Land Baron? ...
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Eastern and Southern Europe in the medieval time period?

What were Eastern and Southern Europe like in the medieval period? Did Southern and Eastern Europe have knights and castles like Western Europe? I've never heard for example of Italian knights in the ...
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Have the Romani people (gypsies) ever fought back violently against prejudice?

I've noted from my researches that the Romani people (gypsies) have always faced prejudice in Europe. Most countries since the 15th century have marginalized this people, and during the Nazi ...
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Which European countries did not have a revolution in the aftermath of the French Revolution and why?

The French Revolution of 1789 initiated revolutions in a number of European countries, replacing the idea of a monarchy with the idea of a republic built on enlightment ideals. Which European ...
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Did Joseph II introduce the presumption of innocence in his legal code?

The Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II has pushed through some important reforms. E.g. strongly reducing death penalty or abolishing serfdom. His legal code (Josephina) was in many ways revolutionary, one ...
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Why was the movement for Austro-German unity less successful than that of Italian unity? [closed]

Primarily, I am looking at the differences between say, the movements for German unity and that of Italian nationalists. The record shows that the people of Austria had accepted without much ...
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Was any pope imprisoned during his service to Catholic Church?

On 11 February 2013, the Vatican announced that Pope Benedict XVI would resign on 28 February, due to infirmity from advanced age. Earlier in the history, few popes resigned similar way, probably the ...
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Was Sofia really demolished by Bulgarians after 1878 and why?

I've heard many times that when Bulgaria became independent country in 1878, all the town was rebuilded from scratch. After the Russo-Turkish War, architects from Austria–Hungary were invited to shape ...
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Why has bidet use not spread to the northern countries of Europe? [closed]

As wikipedia states, the bidet is quite common in southern European countries (in Italy for example, it is found in 95% of households), in the Middle East and in East Asia. Conversely, bidets are ...

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