Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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24
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9answers
4k views

Who taught Russian in Eastern-bloc satellite countries?

After the USSR gained many satellites countries in central/eastern Europe in 1945, Russian became obligatory at school. It seems those Russian courses were highly unpopular and only a small minority ...
6
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2answers
746 views

How economically profitable for Nazi Germany were the occupied countries in Western Europe?

Despite the invasions costs, there were at least short-term economic gains as a result of plundering and the confiscation / taking over of resources and factories. Were those benefits so evident in ...
5
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1answer
2k views

How long would it take a Victorian to travel from central Germany to the UK?

Specifically from Lauscha in 1862, does anyone know how extensive railways were then?
3
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5answers
596 views

Why was most of Europe against communism right from the start?

In "Dark Continent" by M. Mazower, I read the following with regards to the 1920s: In the first place, democracy’s international backers were less supportive as time passed. Woodrow Wilson’s legacy ...
10
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4answers
806 views

Who were the first people to get divorced in Western* Christendom?

*By Western Christendom I mean non-Orthodox, non pagan, non-schismatic, non-Muslim controlled societies. So everywhere from Lagos to Lapland. By divorce, I mean that the law recognises that two ...
20
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1answer
4k views

In medieval Europe, were children born in an annulled marriage automatically illegitimate?

I know that under modern laws (even within the Catholic Church), children born in a marriage that is later annulled are still considered legitimate, because they were born of a putative marriage. Was ...
13
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3answers
838 views

What, if any, celebrations or commemorations were done in 1000 AD?

By the 9th century, the Anno Domini system was the most widespread year numbering in medieval Europe. Humans like patterns. Surely people must have thought it significant when "999 AD" became "1000 ...
7
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3answers
549 views

Under European feudalism, were the distribution of armies (vassals and fiefdoms) based on a coherent idea?

The context is High Medieval, (c. 1001—1300). The concept of feudalism is as understood in Europe. I'm not looking for an answer to cover all European empires or dynasties during this period -- which ...
12
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2answers
2k views

Did the Romans see Africa as a black continent? Was there a perception of a divide between Africa and Europe?

Nowadays the Western world perceives Africa as the continent of the black people and hence a standard African person as a black individual. How did the people in the Roman empire perceive the African ...
6
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3answers
321 views

Early counterparts of scholarly journals

If I'm not mistaken, universities in Europe originated in the middle ages. Today, the way of making new discoveries known to the learned community is publication in scholarly journals, or more ...
14
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4answers
4k views

In what European countries did non-hereditary nobility exist? (XVII-XIX centuries)

In Imperial Russia a person of simple birth could be granted "personal nobility"(non-hereditary), by state service or even by some noble deeds out of it (traders got it this way). The whole system ...
15
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2answers
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What was the cultural background of Burgundians?

In the Middle Ages there was a big country in Europe between France and German kingdoms, Burgundy. What language did they speak there? Were they more German or French in origin?
6
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4answers
515 views

How do I differentiate ancient ceramic from today's junk?

I've been to London's River Thames, a famous place where it is relatively easy to find ceramics and other relics of the past. I found something but I have no idea how to distinguish ancient stuff ...
4
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1answer
361 views

Was a Žaltys a real snake?

The Wikipedia article on Žaltys says (in its entirety): A žaltys is a household spirit in the Lithuanian mythology. As sacred animal of the sun goddess Saulė, it is a guardian of the home and a ...
32
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6answers
14k views

Where does the name of the country “Belarus” come from?

I've read the German and English Wikipedia on this topic as well as the translated Belarussian version and some sites I googled. They all seem to argue that the 'Rus' part stems from the Region called ...
4
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3answers
354 views

Were the Pechenegs at some point Manicheans?

I've seen it hinted in some places the Pechenegs were at some point Manicheans, often contrasting against the Bogomils in the Balkans, Paulicians in Armenia and other Manicheans in Central Asia, ...
11
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7answers
3k views

How close were the living standards of India compared to England during the medieval period?

India, China and the African continent today are mostly associated with poverty in Europe, the US and so on. Looking at India specifically, did it during the medieval era share a similar standard of ...
2
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2answers
234 views

Earliest use of Renaissance Era innovations in Islamic countries & culture?

Though the title may be vaguely broad, I have two specific things in mind I wanted to ask about. While I was recently considering the cultural and technological advancements of Europeans in the ...
2
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1answer
217 views

Trying to understand the idea of a totalitarian administration from the pages of history

I'm a student of science and new to History StackExchange. I'm trying to understand the idea and meaning of a totalitarian administration through historical examples. Can someone provide me with ...
9
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1answer
498 views

Did any European monarch execute their sister or other direct female relative?

In my search, I found examples of kings/queens having their wives and brothers executed, but I cannot seem to locate any example for sisters, mothers, and fathers.
9
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2answers
788 views

What reached Scandinavia/Northern Germany first: Muslims, or Islamic texts?

Years ago i had the chance to leaf through some Qur'an translations (Latin, German? some bilingual with Arabic text) in a library in northern Germany which are dated to 16th century and later. As we ...
13
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6answers
4k views

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of Medieval Europe?

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of the Medieval Europe? I'm quite sure that personal calendars weren't a thing back then... but I could be wrong... If they had a ...
4
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2answers
936 views

What is the strongest alcoholic drink that existed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

What is the strongest alcoholic drink that was drank within the European nations during the Middle Ages (5th to the 15th century)?
2
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1answer
535 views

Hunting in Armour in Medieval Europe?

Someone has told me that all nobility, when they hunted animals, it is in armour. They are further convinced that depictions of normally clothes hunters, are either not nobles, or they are wearing ...
9
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2answers
7k views

Are many Russians descended from Varangian Vikings? [closed]

Are many Russians descended from Varangian Vikings? Some historians say yes, but some do not. There had been archaeological diggings in Saint-Petersburg and the Novgorod region, as seen in one rare ...
14
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5answers
16k views

Lion in European monarchies' coats of arms

I recently found out that most European monarchies have the same kind of lion in their coats of arms. As you can see, it is a lion with a strange long tongue: Netherlands United Kingdom Prince of ...
2
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1answer
209 views

How did European monarchies become nation states? [closed]

I have a pretty specific question. How did European monarchies become nation states? Can someone give me some good examples? My history book is kind of vague.
6
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2answers
408 views

Novgorod means “New city”. Given such name, what were the old cities in the region? [closed]

"Novgorod" means "New city". Given such name, what were the old cities in the region at the time of its foundation?
9
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2answers
812 views

Was African slave trade ever directed towards Europe? If not, why?

The capture, shipping and sale of African slaves was most famously directed towards the colonies of European empires in the Americas, where they were put to work on plantations and other harsh, labor-...
3
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0answers
144 views

Why were so very similar names chosen for the European Council and Council of the European Union?

There are two official EU institutions which have very similar names but do very different things: The European Council, which is a strategic body comprised of the heads of state or government of the ...
4
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1answer
680 views

What is the source for the Arabic name of the penguin and when it is first used?

During Vasco da Gama's trip to the south of Africa, they discovered birds never seen by European eyes before which became named as penguins in most of the European languages. But in the Arabic ...
2
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3answers
737 views

Why was being divided a boon for Europeans, but not for anyone else?

I often see the thesis that European nations became good at warfare because they never united, and improved their technology and skill at warfare due to competition between one another. Compared to, ...
3
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2answers
292 views

When the king was away, did their queens sign Acts of Parliament on their behalf?

I'm actually referring to a circumstance in the event that they are joint sovereigns. Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain, and William III and Mary II ...
3
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0answers
349 views

Was there any restriction on private citizens owning cannons and other large weaponry in 17th, 18th and 19th century Europe? [closed]

Were there laws limiting what kind of guns a private citizen in Europe could own? Could John Doe go to a shop and commission a cannon to be made for his own personal use?
12
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3answers
2k views

What was the official language used across European monarchies in the XII century?

I have been reading about European history in the XII century and I am finding out that several of the modern day languages hadn't yet evolved to what they are now: Langue d'oïl was still being used ...
6
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1answer
286 views

Is there any evidence of improved sanitation in the years following the Black Death?

I've been reading up on the Black Death and surprisingly have not found any evidence of improved sanitation in the years immediately following the event. Was there any improvement? Were people aware ...
2
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1answer
947 views

Why the Black Death took longer to appear in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe

As above, can someone hypothesize why?
-1
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1answer
146 views

Eastern Europeans integration in the USA politics

How successful were and are the Eastern Europeans and their descendants in the USA politics? Are they pretty well (according to the percent they represent in the USA demographics) represented in ...
6
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1answer
432 views

What kept 19th century Europe's workers going?

If the salary of an industrial worker was so low that they barely survived and couldn't even dream of ascending to upper classes¹, what kept them from revolting all the time? One could argue that ...
5
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1answer
626 views

What was the death rate of Germans outside Germany's post war border after World War 2?

In 1945, how many Germans were living in areas of eastern and central Europe outside Germany's post 1945 border? How many of them died an 'unnatural' death (i.e. by murder, starvation, disease, ...
20
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7answers
6k views

Why were bloody religious wars so incredibly frequent in Europe in the century following the Reformation? [closed]

Beginning in 1520, right after Martin Luther's Reformation, bloody religious wars began that kept recurring almost yearly for over a century. The Reformation's rapid spread drew battle lines accross ...
21
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6answers
6k views

Which was the last major war in which horse mounted cavalry actually participated in active fighting?

Which was the last major war in which horses were used for frequent fighting? Why were these horses used, and about how many were there? This is not a duplicate of the question (When was the last ...
1
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1answer
367 views

Why did the Capetian kings of France come into conflict with the Roman church?

Beginning around 1250, the monarchs of France slowly rolled toward severe conflict with the Church of Rome; this culminated in 1300 with Pope Boniface being arrested by King Philip. France, however, ...
16
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2answers
1k views

What were the thoughts of the Celts, Romans and other ancient European people about the standing stones which survive from prehistoric times?

All over Europe, there are monuments of stone such as stonehenge, although many are not so grand as stonehenge is. Contra Asterix, the Celts didn't carve out menhirs and things like that. The stones ...
2
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1answer
597 views

How did silk manufacturing become a major industry in medieval Europe?

In the beginning of the Middle Ages, silk in Europe was known only as the expensive fabric imported from Asia. But by the end of The Middle Ages, silk had become one of Europe's major industries. How ...
-5
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1answer
116 views

The begining of Judaism [closed]

Did Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), also known as Rambam, write the 5 books of Moses, known in Christianity as the Pentateuch?
10
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1answer
993 views

Raising children in Europe in the Middle Ages

This question might be a little broad, but I would like to know about child rearing practices in Mediaeval Europe. To narrow this down, the time and place that I am particularly interested in are ...
3
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2answers
342 views

When did most European countries limit citizens’ rights to possess weaponry? [closed]

In medieval times, the nobility had the right to freely posses arms, and actually it almost had to, since fighting was part of its duties. When firearms where introduced, AFAIK they were not ...
7
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2answers
210 views

Linen doublets around 1380-1410, middle and eastern Europe

Most people agree that doublets and hose were made with wool on the outside and linen on the inside. Are there any evidence that confirm such belief? Any guild documents, findings, etc? Do we have ...
15
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2answers
10k views

What did men wear at night in the Middle Ages in Europe?

The question: I'd like to know how did people, especially males, used to dress while sleeping in the Middle Ages in Europe. I suppose the nightwear changes both according to the exact time period and ...

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