Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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4
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2answers
214 views

Star of the Allies

Which alliance is this? The picture is from a hand stitched post card around the time of WWI. Can't figure out when these five nations (assuming the black/yellow is some form of Germany), would have ...
16
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1answer
1k views

Has Catholic excommunication ever caused the dethronement of any king?

Wikipedia has a list of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church, with a little explanation of the causes for each case, but (understandably) none of the effects. I'm curious if this measure has ...
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4answers
822 views

Did Jewish families feel Nazi oppression was exceptional?

I'm trying to compare the treatment of Jews in Europe before the rise of the Nazis with their treatment under the Nazis (before the concentration camps). Did Jewish communities feel that their ...
7
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2answers
355 views

Westernmost and easternmost locations that Charles V visited in his empire?

Charles V (1500 – 1558) famously was ruler over an "empire on which the sun never set". It included large parts of Europe and also colonies in the new world. Charles V was born in the Low Countries ...
7
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1answer
180 views

Proportion of population that works in agriculture (1000 - today)

I wonder what was the proportion of people that worked in agriculture (growing food and raising livestock, not processing food in a factory plant) throughout the past centuries in Europe and also, to ...
5
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1answer
663 views

Why did former Yugoslav republics dispute the legal successor of Yugoslavia?

In Wikipedia's article for Yugoslavia: One of the seven successor states was also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) until 2003. The FRY aspired to be a sole legal successor to ...
12
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3answers
2k views

Were there any battles in Continental Europe that were decided by “peasants with pitchforks?”

I can think of one such battle in the British Isles; the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 in Scotland. In that battle, a 14,000-man English army despoiled a bunch of "homeless" vagrants on their way to ...
21
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1answer
3k views

Why did the Merovingians and Pippinids adopt Christianity so fervently?

The Western Church was generally in decline from, say, 400 to 700 AD. Yet, Clovis converted, and more to the point, so did many other dukes. In the end, the Pippinids conducted various wars with the ...
10
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2answers
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Was the Minoan civilization warlike?

Generally, it is believed that the Minoan civilization on Crete was peaceful and their culture was more like a culture of peace than a culture of war. But I've read an article lately that suggests ...
4
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3answers
2k views

Why and how did some Germans choose to join the Stasi (Staatssicherheit)?

I'm wondering; What motivated some Germans to join the Stasi or to support the Stasi? Were there any common backgrounds among those who did so apart from living or being from the East? Why did so ...
0
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1answer
254 views

The end of swords as infantrymen sidearms [duplicate]

When did infantrymen of Western armies cease to be issued of swords as sidearms (and backup weapons), on a general basis? PS, Swords were rather common stuff for infantrymen even in 19th century (...
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1answer
234 views

How large could king Arthur's kingdom have realistically been? [closed]

I fully understand that most what is written about king Arthur is shrouded in myth, many stories having been written several centuries after his time period. Most material I found focuses on the ...
5
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1answer
409 views

How was real estate from Germans expelled after WWII redistributed?

After World War II, tens of millions of ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern Europe were forcibly expelled into Allied-occupied Germany and Austria. What happened to all the homes they left behind?...
21
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16answers
26k views

Why does Europe have so few skyscrapers compared to East Asia?

The European Union has virtually no skyscrapers except the newly built 'The Shard' in London. There are also a series of newly-built state-funded skyscrapers in Moscow. On the other hand if you look ...
4
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1answer
456 views

Comparing Percentage Of Spanish Nobility Migrating To Latin America To Percentage Of Pan-European Nobility Migrating To USA And Canada

My question is whether the percentage of nobility migrating from Spain to Latin America is higher than the percentage of nobility migrating from Pan-European nations to the USA and Canada. The time ...
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3answers
1k views

Why were the Normans such good builders?

The Normans are a bunch of Vikings that settled in northern France, and within a century they were Christians speaking French. By 1066 they had become very experienced at fighting wars between ...
-3
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1answer
438 views

ِWhen did sexual life outside marriage became popular in Europe? and why? [closed]

In Christianity sexual life outside marriage is banned and for ages it was like that in Europe and the Western world, I want to know at which age this start to became popular that people will have ...
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4answers
1k views

Purple in Roman History

Recently, I was reading articles of ancient clothing (more specifically Roman and Chinese) and while I was reading there wa countless references that only a Roman Emperor could wear a complete toga of ...
6
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2answers
506 views

What level of knowledge was required to enter medieval universities?

According to this answer, students at university in the medieval period were generally paying their own way and were independently rich or were selected by the crown or the church, the latter making ...
41
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1answer
4k views

What were the acceptance criteria in universities of medieval Europe?

Did they have entrance tests? Were certain groups officially banned from entering? How much did one have to pay? Did they have scholarships for talented studends? How these criteria differed between ...
8
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1answer
930 views

Why did Austria cede Venetia at the end of the Third Italian War of Independence?

Looking at the wikipedia articles, they seemed to be winning (the Battle of Custoza and the naval battle of Lissa), and the war against Prussia was already finished. So why did it still cede Venetia ...
10
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4answers
2k views

Why did France make an alliance with the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in the 1850's?

It is clear why Cavour wanted the alliance, but what benefits would France have from allying itself to a relatively weak (as far as I know) kingdom?
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3answers
4k views

Did medieval commanders exchange words before battle?

Random question for anyone who reads accounts of medieval battles. Was it customary for European medieval commanders to exchange words before battle, not merely for diplomatic reasons but more out of ...
7
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5answers
677 views

Non Altered European Castles

I recently paid a visit to Leed's castle, and was disappointed by the extent to which the manor had been refurbished and modernized. Importantly: What castles in Europe are accessible to the public ...
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5answers
829 views

Is the EU the world's first supranational political union? [closed]

Is the EU the world's first supranational political union?
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2answers
159 views

Was Karst (Kras) first region that was man-made reforested?

We know that for centuries trees from Karst were used as a foundations where Venice was build. So presumably, in 17th and 18th century, Karst was a stony desert. We also know that Karst or Kras (...
22
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5answers
18k views

What were shoe soles made from in previous ages?

Today, nearly all commercial footwear has a sole made of either rubber or plastic with rubber-like qualities. It's a great material for the job, but it comes from a tree that's native to the Americas,...
30
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3answers
24k views

How did Europeans first acquire gunpowder?

I know that gunpowder was first invented in China around the 10th century, and it seems that gunpowder likely made its way to Europe via the "Silk Road." However, there doesn't seem to be a ton of ...
7
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1answer
218 views

Were there any elections in the First French Empire?

I know Napoleon's senate was appointed, but what about the lower house? Were there political factions like in the first republic?
7
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4answers
7k views

Why did the US getting involved in the European theater in WW2?

From this question: World War II - Have Historians Envisioned How The Axis Powers Might Have Won? I understand that it is unlikely that Germany with its allies could have won WW2 even if they had ...
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2answers
2k views

Why did silver gain prominence in trade over gold in Early Medieval Europe?

After the Roman Empire's slow decline, and its withdrawal from much of northern Europe (France, Germany, Britain), gold coin use seems to have declined to the point where it would be a rare to see any....
27
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1answer
6k views

What was the Seven Years War called at first?

When the Seven Years War broke out, obviously they had no idea how long it would last. What did Europeans call this war at first? I know that in the North American Theater, it was called the French ...
20
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4answers
15k views

How long would the average sword last in the middle ages?

Assuming normal wear and tear, how long before a knight had to replace his sword?
5
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1answer
186 views

What were the largest European Treasuries, in gold and silver, at the end of the Seven Years War?

From a related question, I'm now looking to compare the size of European Treasuries as they existed at the end of the Seven Years War (1763). I'm only interested in gold and silver that existed in ...
9
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1answer
885 views

Who was Balavignus?

I was reading up on some history on the Black Death and came across the name "Balavignus". He was a Jewish doctor who urged people to apply hygienic measures, based on some biblical verses in ...
5
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0answers
243 views

German - Yugoslav partisan negotiations 1943 and Churchill? [closed]

Negotiations between Tito's partisans and Germans in 1943 are well known. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German%E2%80%93Yugoslav_Partisan_negotiations "Đilas and Velebit were passed through the ...
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2answers
2k views

Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch's strange title

The title of Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch, seems odd to me. It was acquired by his father Jean II de Grailly (so it was passed down from father to son like other titles of nobility): Jean ...
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2answers
598 views

Exactly when was the country of Andorra founded?

Founding origin myths of Andorra claim that Charlemagne the Great (King of France and Holy Roman Emperor) granted the people of Andorra independence in 800 AD. I'm doubtful of this claim as no written ...
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1answer
351 views

Why did the Arab spring and Iranian Green movement failed for the most part, but the European revolution did not? [closed]

Why did the Arab spring back a few years ago failed for the most part, the Iranian green movement didn't get the result it wanted, but the European revolutions (such as the French revolution, ...
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3answers
1k views

What exactly happened with beer and Leeuwarden in 1487?

On the history page for the day July 24th at Wikipedia, one of the events listed as happening that day is: 1487 – Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against a ban on foreign beer. This claim ...
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2answers
583 views

Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? [closed]

This is one question that perplexes me: Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? I understand that Catalonia was developed out of the Frankish counties of the Marca Hispania, but it still seems disputed ...
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4answers
2k views

Why was East Asia more religiously tolerant than Europe in medieval time?

In medieval time, different religions coexisted in China, Japan and Korea, but only Christianity was allowed in Europe. What factors made medieval East Asia more religiously tolerant than medieval ...
8
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3answers
495 views

What happens if a vassal inherits not under the control of their sovereign?

For example, suppose some count in France inherits a county in the Holy Roman Empire. Does the count become a vassal of both the King of France and the HRE? What if said Count inherited a whole ...
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3answers
9k views

Did people use to marry much younger during the last millennium?

I've frequently heard it stated that "people used to marry at much younger ages" historically. Recently, these kinds of statements have tended to show up in sociological discussions about young ...
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0answers
139 views

Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
4
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0answers
103 views

Are the traditions of Ground Hog Day connected to those of Candlemas Day in Europe? [closed]

Today, the 2nd February was Ground Hog Day. In Europe it was also Candlemas Day (the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple). Now there is a tradition in America that if the humble ground ...
41
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7answers
12k views

Why aren't there major cities on the Atlantic coast of France?

I see Bordeaux and Nantes, but they are a short ways inland. The U.S. has several like New York, Boston, Miami, Charleston.
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1answer
2k views

Why was Bulgaria at war with both the Allied and the Axis at the end of WWII?

Bulgaria entered the WWII after signing the The Tripartite Pact (1 March 1941) which subsequently resulted in a long list1 of war declarations, unilaterally or mutually initiated, against Western ...
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3answers
3k views

Why was France given such a lenient peace after Napoleon was defeated?

For two decades revolutionary France had attacked and conquered many nations in Europe. Millions were killed. But when the allies finally defeated France, the peace was very lenient. France didn't ...
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3answers
1k views

What's the last record of pagan believers in Europe?

When was the last group of pagans wiped out? I'm interested in mainland Europe and the British isles, not fringe areas like Greenland. Edit: I am talking about authentic, contiguous, non Abrahamic ...