Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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11
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2answers
1k views

How were political borders marked during the Middle Ages?

I have a very specific question regarding borderlands: between 500-1500, how were the political borders identified? Was it a mere furrow on the ground? Did we have any signs? In other words, were such ...
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1answer
471 views

Who was the oldest woman to give birth in the Middle Ages in Europe that we know of?

In 1166, Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Henry II of England, gave birth to the future King John when she was at least 42 years old (it is more likely she was 43 or 44). Eleanor of Castile, wife of ...
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1answer
194 views

How many people were killed by Protestant Inquisition style tribunals? Asking for references/estimates

It's relatively easy to find estimates for the number of people killed the Catholic Inquisition; one just needs to check the Wikipedia page, regardless of the doubts on the true numbers. However, ...
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2answers
211 views

Who was the Holy Roman Emperor that was a travelling adventurer?

I recall reading about a medieval Holy Roman Emperor, or heir apparent, that didn't get to rule over the kingdom. He was the last in line from a major dynasty, and held a high amount of prestige. He ...
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What was this major foreign policy reversal by the Vatican in the Middle Ages?

I made a note about something, but now I can't find it. It was a major shift in the political situation of Europe in the late Middle Ages. Initially one country was the hegemon and the pope organized ...
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1answer
208 views

Education during World War 2

I'm currently working on a research paper for my World War II class and I've decided that I wanted to pursue the topic of education in Nazi occupied Europe during WWII. However, after doing loads of ...
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2answers
591 views

How likely would it have been for a rural Bohemian to encounter someone with darker skin?

Recently a new video game was released called Kingdom Come: Deliverance, claiming to be a somewhat authentic representation of life in medieval Bohemia. However at the same time the game has courted ...
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1answer
431 views

What 17C protocol left a princess standing whilst commoners sat?

I am reading WILLIAM AND MARY by John Van Der Kiste 2008, 2011, in which he relates William III's reluctant plans to remarry after Mary II's death. This was to ensure the Protestant succession after ...
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1answer
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Did the Soviets cooperate with the Americans in catching criminals in post-war Vienna?

I'm writing a novel that is set in Vienna during the period when it was occupied by, among others, the Americans and the Soviets (1945-1955). The central district (grey in the image below) belonged to ...
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1answer
439 views

What was the role of the Catholic church with regard to the Holocaust?

I'm wondering how historians look at the role of the Catholic church during world war II with regard to the Holocaust. I've tried to look for reliable sources on the subject but I can't find much. The ...
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1answer
305 views

Which European towns or cities are architecturally most similar today to how they would have been in 16C-17C?

Which European towns or cities are architecturally most similar today to how they would have been in the 16th and 17th centuries? A different way of asking the question: which contemporary European ...
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1answer
508 views

Were groups (or 'companies') of dogs used to attack enemy armies in medieval battles?

In Dogs in warfare and The Dogs of War, a number of examples are given where dogs were used in battle in ancient times. Polyaenus, in ‘Stratagems’, also gives a clear example (late 7th century BC): ...
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What was the life expectancy of a Medieval European monarch?

Inspired by Who is the longest lived European monarch of the middle ages?. What was the life expectancy of monarchs during the middle ages in Europe? Preliminary research showed According to ...
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7answers
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Who was the longest lived European monarch of the middle ages?

After a lot of googling, I'm still not sure about this. Finding the longest reigning monarchs is easy enough, but I'm less sure about the one who lived the longest. A good candidate would appear to ...
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1answer
741 views

What are these “Papal States” in Germany after 1648?

I don't usually watch this person's videos, but I couldn't find another one. What do the "Papal States" in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia represent? I especially want to know what affected the ...
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1answer
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What was the biggest shipbuilding centre in Europe during the Second Industrial Revolution?

I'm specifically interested in the United Kingdom, though I'd love to get a comparison between countries. I would like any answer to cite records of number or tonnage of ships built. I'm interested ...
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Did the Pope's crossbow and archery bans have any effect?

One of the more famous and certainly curious decisions at the Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 was a ban on using missile troops against Christians. Specifically, Canon 29 states that: We ...
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1answer
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Were Cypriots able to pay their bills during the “bail in” of March 2013?

During the Cypriot financial crisis, it seems that a "bank holiday" was announced on March 16 and lasted until March 26, during which time ATM withdrawals were impossible or at least tightly ...
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Is there evidence of people moving east to Europe?

We know that the Inuits moved from present-day Alaska to Greenland, but did they move any farther east? At least to Iceland or the other Nordic countries? They would have to cross the Atlantic which ...
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1answer
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Was rape common in Europe during the Middle Ages?

I recently read an article (in Norwegian), claiming that rape was much less common in the Middle Ages than what is commonly believed, and more specifically that it was much less common than what is ...
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381 views

Typology and the cause of difference between European medieval kingship?

Western Medieval Catholic kings and nobility in Britain, France, Spain and Portugal, Italy, Germany and Austria share certain distinctive common features that can be summed under the term of vassalage ...
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5answers
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Was the Dutch State independent when the Dutch East India Company was founded?

How were The Dutch able to build a successful trading empire by 1602 (with The Dutch East India Company) if the Dutch State gained independence after the Thirty Year's War in 1648? The war ends in ...
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How was financial profit viewed in Medieval Europe?

What was the attitude of people in Medieval Europe towards earning money, making a profit etc. I know that in some places Jews were well established as merchants because, from the point of the view of ...
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Why did few French and no Dutch pilots (but many Poles and Czechs) take part in the Battle of Britain?

Among the non-British pilots, at least 141 were Polish, 84 Czech and 28 Belgian, but only 13 were French and none were Dutch, Norwegian or Danish. The reasons why there were many Polish, Czech and ...
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Political opposition groups in the Russian revolution?

Ok, so I do understand that there were the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. In school we learned that Soviets consisted of the peasantry, the industrial workers, and the soldiers. But later on, the ...
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What impact did the migration of Germanic tribes have on languages in the rest of Europe?

I am currently looking for information about the migration of the Germanic tribes, and especially it's effects on European languages, or other languages. Google Search provided me information about ...
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1answer
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How did people apply for university in the 18th century?

Universities have been around for a while. I am reading a book called Frankenstein. One of the main characters, Victor Frankenstein, attends the University of Ingolstadt in Germany. Now, it makes ...
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607 views

Why did Stephen II of Blois (father of King Stephen of England) abandon the First Crusade in 1098 knowing how much he would lose by doing so?

Having taken the crusader’s vow and raised an army of thousands, why did Stephen II of Blois forsake the enormous prestige associated with crusading and risk shame and accusations of cowardice by ...
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1answer
567 views

What was Pope Innocent III's response to the Children's crusade led by Stephan of Cloyes?

In 1212, two groups involving children embarked on crusades to the Holy Land. They are generally lumped together and known as the Children's Cruade. They were not true crusades in the sense that the ...
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4answers
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Why did so many ruling European families hold on to Catholicism during the Reformation?

If Protestantism favored secular power over religious authority, why did the Habsburgs, the Valois, and other secular ruling families hold on to Catholicism? Was it a matter of faith?
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1answer
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Did monasteries hold land and collect rent in medieval Europe?

In Ken Follett's series of books about the fictional town of Kingsbridge, the monastery essentially acts as lord over the surrounding area. They collect rent on lands they own, hear cases between the ...
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Could the warriors of the Tollense battlefield be considered the world's first standing army?

Slaughter at the bridge: Uncovering a colossal Bronze Age battle - from Science Mag (2016) Apparently an amateur archaeologist discovered this site in 1996 and there were thousands of warriors ...
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Did Muslim states hire Western European knights as mercenaries before the Crusades?

In the book Hattin by John France the following claim is made: The fighting qualities of western knights were widely recognized in the Mediterranean lands, and they were often employed even by ...
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3answers
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Before it was “the Balkans”

I'm working on a project set in the 15th century as the Ottoman Turks made forays into the West. I'm looking for an appropriate term for the region bordered by Anatolia, Romania and Bulgaria to the ...
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1answer
263 views

The history of toys: Who invented the first porcelain dolls?

I've been reading about the history of toys online, as part of a personal project. One thing that surprised me was that every article I've found lists porcelain toys as having been invented by ...
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1answer
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Who are the people on the cover of James Joll's Europe since 1870?

I see Hitler, Churchill, Marx, Queen Victoria, a well-known photograph of a newsboy after France, England, New Zealand and Australia declared war on Germany on 3 Sept. 1939. That's as far as I get...
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Why was the Scout movement so successful?

I find it amazing how fast the scout movement spread after its creation. What I got from Wikipedia: Robert Baden-Powell became famous (rightly or not) at home for his activity in the British Army. ...
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3answers
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Did French people in 19th century not bathe every day?

I am currently watching Ikoku Meiro No Croissant episode 4. In this episode, Yune tried to take a bath, but it didn't work out nicely. So in the next morning, Claudel-san said that: Only rich ...
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1answer
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How common was it for monasteries to attack other monasteries in the early medieval period in western Europe?

Recently, I saw this passage in M & H. Whittock, ‘The Viking Blitzkrieg’ (referring to Ireland) of the 113 attacks on monasteries between 795 and 820, only twenty-six were carried out by ...
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Where did Metternich say Asia/the Balkans begin at the Landstrasse/Rennweg? Does anyone have a source? [duplicate]

I have found several variations on this, but always the source has been unattributed (or attributed to a source that itself has no attribution!)# So - can anyone provide a contemporary source, and ...
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3answers
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Why didn't global trade and investment prevent World War I from erupting in Europe? [closed]

It has often been said that world trade and investment between nations makes war between nations an irrational act. If your trading partner is hurt, it hurts your own wallet as well because you lose ...
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9answers
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Who taught Russian in Eastern-bloc satellite countries?

After the USSR gained many satellites countries in central/eastern Europe in 1945, Russian became obligatory at school. It seems those Russian courses were highly unpopular and only a small minority ...
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What is the historical evidence for asserting Huns were one and the same as Xiongnu?

This question is very close to a previous question, Who were the Huns and/or Xiongnu?, but I hope it is clear that I'm not asking the same point. In fact, I'm asking about the common assumption such ...
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Should the Great Schism of 1054 be taken to be 1204 (or 1182) instead?

It seems that 1054 wasn't such a big deal: forty years later Pope Urban and Emperor Alexios were on such good terms that a crusade was initiated to save Constantinople and the Holy Lands; even in 1136 ...
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5answers
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Why was most of Europe against communism right from the start?

In "Dark Continent" by M. Mazower, I read the following with regards to the 1920s: In the first place, democracy’s international backers were less supportive as time passed. Woodrow Wilson’s legacy ...
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How economically profitable for Nazi Germany were the occupied countries in Western Europe?

Despite the invasions costs, there were at least short-term economic gains as a result of plundering and the confiscation / taking over of resources and factories. Were those benefits so evident in ...
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1answer
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In medieval Europe, were children born in an annulled marriage automatically illegitimate?

I know that under modern laws (even within the Catholic Church), children born in a marriage that is later annulled are still considered legitimate, because they were born of a putative marriage. Was ...
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1answer
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Why was there little nonwhite migration to Europe in the 19th century?

Migration This may sound like a strange question, but hear me out. The 19th century was an age of massive population migration, perhaps the most significant in history according to this economic ...
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3answers
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Under European feudalism, were the distribution of armies (vassals and fiefdoms) based on a coherent idea?

The context is High Medieval, (c. 1001—1300). The concept of feudalism is as understood in Europe. I'm not looking for an answer to cover all European empires or dynasties during this period -- which ...
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Were there ever any libraries in medieval villages?

I know that in towns and cities there might be libraries built, but is it possible or likely that peasants can have access to it as well? I've heard that every village has an least a monastery or ...