Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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11
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2answers
1k views

Did the Romans see Africa as a black continent? Was there a perception of a divide between Africa and Europe?

Nowadays the Western world perceives Africa as the continent of the black people and hence a standard African person as a black individual. How did the people in the Roman empire perceive the African ...
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3answers
318 views

Early counterparts of scholarly journals

If I'm not mistaken, universities in Europe originated in the middle ages. Today, the way of making new discoveries known to the learned community is publication in scholarly journals, or more ...
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In what European countries did non-hereditary nobility exist? (XVII-XIX centuries)

In Imperial Russia a person of simple birth could be granted "personal nobility"(non-hereditary), by state service or even by some noble deeds out of it (traders got it this way). The whole system ...
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2answers
520 views

Are there equivalents of the Domesday Book for other (French or German) duchies?

Is the Domesday Book a one-off census in the wake of the Norman conquest? One can imagine that William wanted an accurate feudal picture of his new kingdom but was it the norm? Did other dukes and ...
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1answer
281 views

Was a Žaltys a real snake?

The Wikipedia article on Žaltys says (in its entirety): A žaltys is a household spirit in the Lithuanian mythology. As sacred animal of the sun goddess Saulė, it is a guardian of the home and a ...
6
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1answer
314 views

Were pregnant women regarded as particularly attractive in 19th century Europe?

I have now read two books from the 1800s in which single young men flirt with married pregnant women. (The first was Anna Karenina, in which Veslovsky flirts with Kitty Levin. The second was ...
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1answer
200 views

Trying to understand the idea of a totalitarian administration from the pages of history

I'm a student of science and new to History StackExchange. I'm trying to understand the idea and meaning of a totalitarian administration through historical examples. Can someone provide me with ...
2
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2answers
209 views

Earliest use of Renaissance Era innovations in Islamic countries & culture?

Though the title may be vaguely broad, I have two specific things in mind I wanted to ask about. While I was recently considering the cultural and technological advancements of Europeans in the ...
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1answer
449 views

Did any European monarch execute their sister or other direct female relative?

In my search, I found examples of kings/queens having their wives and brothers executed, but I cannot seem to locate any example for sisters, mothers, and fathers.
4
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1answer
969 views

How long would it take a Victorian to travel from central Germany to the UK?

Specifically from Lauscha in 1862, does anyone know how extensive railways were then?
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2answers
782 views

In the 18th c., did/would China accept gold from Europe as trade payment? Why / why not?

In reading about the historical Opium situation in China, the silver trade is mentioned again and again. I get the impression that China only accepted silver, even though I have never seen gold ...
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2answers
573 views

Why did the United States want to “make Europe prosperous once more” with the Marshall Plan? [closed]

Was it purely a matter of self-interest, or were there wider economic (or other) reasons that made the United States feel that it had to "make Europe prosperous once more" with the Marshall Plan?
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2answers
578 views

What is the strongest alcoholic drink that existed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

What is the strongest alcoholic drink that was drank within the European nations during the Middle Ages (5th to the 15th century)?
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1answer
394 views

Hunting in Armour in Medieval Europe?

Someone has told me that all nobility, when they hunted animals, it is in armour. They are further convinced that depictions of normally clothes hunters, are either not nobles, or they are wearing ...
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4answers
3k views

Why couldn't bastards inherit titles?

Why were bastards historically not able to inherit nobility or monarchy from their parents? What about being a bastard made one unfit to rule? For example William IV of the UK was succeeded by his ...
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1answer
197 views

How did European monarchies become nation states? [closed]

I have a pretty specific question. How did European monarchies become nation states? Can someone give me some good examples? My history book is kind of vague.
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2answers
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Novgorod means “New city”. Given such name, what were the old cities in the region? [closed]

"Novgorod" means "New city". Given such name, what were the old cities in the region at the time of its foundation?
9
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2answers
753 views

Was African slave trade ever directed towards Europe? If not, why?

The capture, shipping and sale of African slaves was most famously directed towards the colonies of European empires in the Americas, where they were put to work on plantations and other harsh, labor-...
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0answers
138 views

Why were so very similar names chosen for the European Council and Council of the European Union?

There are two official EU institutions which have very similar names but do very different things: The European Council, which is a strategic body comprised of the heads of state or government of the ...
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2answers
633 views

How much of a effect did linguistic relativism play in ancient Europe?

In linguistics we have a concept known as 'language relativism'. It's the idea that since languages change with time, and that they can share features with each other, the borders between them can be ...
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1answer
407 views

What is the source for the Arabic name of the penguin and when it is first used?

During Vasco da Gama's trip to the south of Africa, they discovered birds never seen by European eyes before which became named as penguins in most of the European languages. But in the Arabic ...
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3answers
649 views

Why was being divided a boon for Europeans, but not for anyone else?

I often see the thesis that European nations became good at warfare because they never united, and improved their technology and skill at warfare due to competition between one another. Compared to, ...
9
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2answers
534 views

Did Charlemagne save Latin literature?

Kenneth Clark states his opinion in Civilisation that nearly all Latin literature still extant today was saved thanks to Charlemagne, who instructed his kingdom's copyists to work on non-Christian ...
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2answers
273 views

When the king was away, did their queens sign Acts of Parliament on their behalf?

I'm actually referring to a circumstance in the event that they are joint sovereigns. Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain, and William III and Mary II ...
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0answers
307 views

Was there any restriction on private citizens owning cannons and other large weaponry in 17th, 18th and 19th century Europe? [closed]

Were there laws limiting what kind of guns a private citizen in Europe could own? Could John Doe go to a shop and commission a cannon to be made for his own personal use?
6
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1answer
240 views

Is there any evidence of improved sanitation in the years following the Black Death?

I've been reading up on the Black Death and surprisingly have not found any evidence of improved sanitation in the years immediately following the event. Was there any improvement? Were people aware ...
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1answer
606 views

Why the Black Death took longer to appear in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe

As above, can someone hypothesize why?
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0answers
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What was the average tooth to tail ratio of medieval armies

The tooth to tail ratio is the ratio between the fighting force (tooth) and the non-fighting force in an army. In other words, how many non-combatants directly supported and supplied an army. I'm ...
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1answer
142 views

Eastern Europeans integration in the USA politics

How successful were and are the Eastern Europeans and their descendants in the USA politics? Are they pretty well (according to the percent they represent in the USA demographics) represented in ...
6
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1answer
410 views

What kept 19th century Europe's workers going?

If the salary of an industrial worker was so low that they barely survived and couldn't even dream of ascending to upper classes¹, what kept them from revolting all the time? One could argue that ...
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7answers
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Why were bloody religious wars so incredibly frequent in Europe in the century following the Reformation? [closed]

Beginning in 1520, right after Martin Luther's Reformation, bloody religious wars began that kept recurring almost yearly for over a century. The Reformation's rapid spread drew battle lines accross ...
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6answers
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What is the flag in this 17th century painting?

I'm doing research on a painting 'Koppertjesmaandag' by Adriaen van Nieulandt in 1633. In the right corner of the painting you can see a couple of ships with their flags. One in particular is a gold ...
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1answer
320 views

Why did the Capetian kings of France come into conflict with the Roman church?

Beginning around 1250, the monarchs of France slowly rolled toward severe conflict with the Church of Rome; this culminated in 1300 with Pope Boniface being arrested by King Philip. France, however, ...
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4answers
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When Adam Smith discusses “corn” to what crop does he refer?

In "The Wealth Of Nations", Adam Smith discusses the price of corn in ancient times. Apparently, books such as "Chronicon Preciosum: or An Account of English Money, the Price of Corn and Other ...
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3answers
432 views

What, if any, celebrations or commemorations were done in 1000 AD?

By the 9th century, the Anno Domini system was the most widespread year numbering in medieval Europe. Humans like patterns. Surely people must have thought it significant when "999 AD" became "1000 ...
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6answers
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Which was the last major war in which horse mounted cavalry actually participated in active fighting?

Which was the last major war in which horses were used for frequent fighting? Why were these horses used, and about how many were there? This is not a duplicate of the question (When was the last ...
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1answer
107 views

The begining of Judaism [closed]

Did Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), also known as Rambam, write the 5 books of Moses, known in Christianity as the Pentateuch?
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2answers
339 views

When did most European countries limit citizens’ rights to possess weaponry? [closed]

In medieval times, the nobility had the right to freely posses arms, and actually it almost had to, since fighting was part of its duties. When firearms where introduced, AFAIK they were not ...
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1answer
788 views

Raising children in Europe in the Middle Ages

This question might be a little broad, but I would like to know about child rearing practices in Mediaeval Europe. To narrow this down, the time and place that I am particularly interested in are ...
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0answers
264 views

Did the British Queen raise young women of humble lineage to serve her?

The House of the Portuguese Queens in the 13th and 14th century could be described more or less as the following: high social class - donas or ladies-in-waiting (widows or women married to important ...
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2answers
75 views

chests for transporting bedding furnishings (and mattresses)

In Medieval Portugal (13th-14th centuries) chests specific for transporting mattresses and bedding furnishings were called 'almafreixe' (term of Arabic origin). In English I have found references to: ...
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2answers
203 views

Star of the Allies

Which alliance is this? The picture is from a hand stitched post card around the time of WWI. Can't figure out when these five nations (assuming the black/yellow is some form of Germany), would have ...
3
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2answers
650 views

Name for a position in a noble household in the medieval period (c.13-14)

In Portugal, the woman charged with taking care of a noble person's body (cleanliness, clothes, etc) was called 'covilheira' (also spelt 'cuvilheira'). Her job (this was always a woman's job) ...
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5answers
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How did such a relatively minor event as the assassination of an archduke start World War I?

The assassination of the Austrian archduke was, considered in the context of all Europe's near-explosive politics, a relatively minor event. So how did it cause such a major war?
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Which European nation had the most kings in the 18th century? [closed]

Which European country had more kings than any other in the totality of the 1700s?
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1answer
560 views

How did silk manufacturing become a major industry in medieval Europe?

In the beginning of the Middle Ages, silk in Europe was known only as the expensive fabric imported from Asia. But by the end of The Middle Ages, silk had become one of Europe's major industries. How ...
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2answers
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Did the Ottoman government rationalize the Armenian Genocide and other instances of ethnic cleansing as a response to Russian expansion?

The course I took on Ottoman history was 2-3 years ago and relatively short, so please correct any and all inaccurate statements I make. Also, I want to emphasize that neither genocide nor ethnic ...
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1answer
921 views

Has Catholic excommunication ever caused the dethronement of any king?

Wikipedia has a list of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church, with a little explanation of the causes for each case, but (understandably) none of the effects. I'm curious if this measure has ...
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4answers
779 views

Who were the first people to get divorced in Western* Christendom?

*By Western Christendom I mean non-Orthodox, non pagan, non-schismatic, non-Muslim controlled societies. So everywhere from Lagos to Lapland. By divorce, I mean that the law recognises that two ...
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1answer
658 views

Identifying a military uniform from the early 19th century

I would like to identify this military uniform from someone related to my family in Portugal. It is probably from the early 19th century, and it may be from the Portuguese, British or Napoleonic Army ...