Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
8
votes
2answers
1k views

How exactly did Franz Ferdinand hunt?

“Anything that moved, he was ready to shoot,” said Lebow. His personal record was reportedly 2,140 kills in a day. Franz Ferdinand tallied his kills in a massive journal. The grand sum of pheasant, ...
4
votes
3answers
306 views

Were the Pechenegs at some point Manicheans?

I've seen it hinted in some places the Pechenegs were at some point Manicheans, often contrasting against the Bogomils in the Balkans, Paulicians in Armenia and other Manicheans in Central Asia, ...
20
votes
1answer
3k views

Why did the Merovingians and Pippinids adopt Christianity so fervently?

The Western Church was generally in decline from, say, 400 to 700 AD. Yet, Clovis converted, and more to the point, so did many other dukes. In the end, the Pippinids conducted various wars with the ...
5
votes
1answer
578 views

What was the death rate of Germans outside Germany's post war border after World War 2?

In 1945, how many Germans were living in areas of eastern and central Europe outside Germany's post 1945 border? How many of them died an 'unnatural' death (i.e. by murder, starvation, disease, ...
-1
votes
1answer
205 views

How large could king Arthur's kingdom have realistically been? [closed]

I fully understand that most what is written about king Arthur is shrouded in myth, many stories having been written several centuries after his time period. Most material I found focuses on the ...
5
votes
1answer
303 views

How was real estate from Germans expelled after WWII redistributed?

After World War II, tens of millions of ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern Europe were forcibly expelled into Allied-occupied Germany and Austria. What happened to all the homes they left behind?...
48
votes
4answers
9k views

Was hay invented only in the Middle Ages in Europe?

I stumbled upon the following remark from Freeman Dyson: The most important invention of the last two thousand years was hay. In the classical world of Greece and Rome and in all earlier times, ...
3
votes
0answers
268 views

When the outbreak of World War II was foreseeable, were any European commoners able to preemptively emigrate?

When the outbreak of World War II was foreseeable, or at least a conflict of some proportions was, were any common Europeans able to preemptively emigrate? From reading some other questions and ...
15
votes
2answers
4k views

What did men wear at night in the Middle Ages in Europe?

The question: I'd like to know how did people, especially males, used to dress while sleeping in the Middle Ages in Europe. I suppose the nightwear changes both according to the exact time period ...
-3
votes
1answer
396 views

ِWhen did sexual life outside marriage became popular in Europe? and why? [closed]

In Christianity sexual life outside marriage is banned and for ages it was like that in Europe and the Western world, I want to know at which age this start to became popular that people will have ...
0
votes
1answer
223 views

The end of swords as infantrymen sidearms [duplicate]

When did infantrymen of Western armies cease to be issued of swords as sidearms (and backup weapons), on a general basis? PS, Swords were rather common stuff for infantrymen even in 19th century (...
5
votes
2answers
432 views

What level of knowledge was required to enter medieval universities?

According to this answer, students at university in the medieval period were generally paying their own way and were independently rich or were selected by the crown or the church, the latter making ...
6
votes
4answers
475 views

How do I differentiate ancient ceramic from today's junk?

I've been to London's River Thames, a famous place where it is relatively easy to find ceramics and other relics of the past. I found something but I have no idea how to distinguish ancient stuff ...
3
votes
4answers
800 views

Purple in Roman History

Recently, I was reading articles of ancient clothing (more specifically Roman and Chinese) and while I was reading there wa countless references that only a Roman Emperor could wear a complete toga of ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Did medieval commanders exchange words before battle?

Random question for anyone who reads accounts of medieval battles. Was it customary for European medieval commanders to exchange words before battle, not merely for diplomatic reasons but more out of ...
7
votes
5answers
627 views

Non Altered European Castles

I recently paid a visit to Leed's castle, and was disappointed by the extent to which the manor had been refurbished and modernized. Importantly: What castles in Europe are accessible to the public ...
1
vote
5answers
820 views

Is the EU the world's first supranational political union? [closed]

Is the EU the world's first supranational political union?
4
votes
0answers
1k views

Did medieval Europeans really walk around barefoot in winter?

Luaan posted a comment on a question, as follows (emphasis mine): Take an old-school shoe with no rubber, and you'll see that it's extremely slippery on wet surfaces - medieval Europeans went ...
2
votes
2answers
155 views

Was Karst (Kras) first region that was man-made reforested?

We know that for centuries trees from Karst were used as a foundations where Venice was build. So presumably, in 17th and 18th century, Karst was a stony desert. We also know that Karst or Kras (...
11
votes
2answers
769 views

Did Hungarian Army ever use Crescent banners?

I was reading about Battle of Mohi between Mongol Empire and Kingdom of Hungary. The Wikipedia contains this artistic depiction of the battle: The cavalry on left hand looks like Mongols while ...
61
votes
6answers
21k views

Why are the German and French languages so different?

My understanding (which could be wrong) is the following: During and before the period of the fall of western Rome (roughly 400 AD), the Franks and the Alemanni were tribal people who moved around a ...
7
votes
1answer
186 views

Were there any elections in the First French Empire?

I know Napoleon's senate was appointed, but what about the lower house? Were there political factions like in the first republic?
26
votes
1answer
5k views

What was the Seven Years War called at first?

When the Seven Years War broke out, obviously they had no idea how long it would last. What did Europeans call this war at first? I know that in the North American Theater, it was called the French ...
4
votes
1answer
165 views

What were the largest European Treasuries, in gold and silver, at the end of the Seven Years War?

From a related question, I'm now looking to compare the size of European Treasuries as they existed at the end of the Seven Years War (1763). I'm only interested in gold and silver that existed in ...
9
votes
1answer
468 views

What did they call Gothic and Baroque architecture before the modern terms came into use?

In the modern sense, I mean. All the reference sites explain the origin of the word Baroque and mention that up until the late 19th Century it was a derogatory term: It was only with Heinrich ...
9
votes
8answers
2k views

Is there a relationship between Portugal and Spain being able to discover the New World and the Moor occupation?

This documentary circa 01:07:20 discusses the Renaissance in Toledo. To me that seems plausible. The knowledge and culture brought by the Moors seems a much better catalyzer to escape the dark ages' ...
9
votes
1answer
671 views

Who was Balavignus?

I was reading up on some history on the Black Death and came across the name "Balavignus". He was a Jewish doctor who urged people to apply hygienic measures, based on some biblical verses in ...
9
votes
4answers
3k views

If the heir to a Kingdom is called Crown Prince, what is the heir to a Duchy called?

Just like the title said. What a heir to a hereditary Duchy is called? (as opposed to someone appointed by a King). I mean a Duchy where the Duke inherited his title to his son/daughter. Since the ...
-2
votes
1answer
343 views

Why did the Arab spring and Iranian Green movement failed for the most part, but the European revolution did not? [closed]

Why did the Arab spring back a few years ago failed for the most part, the Iranian green movement didn't get the result it wanted, but the European revolutions (such as the French revolution, ...
2
votes
1answer
279 views

Historical use of air guns in major battle?

In the 18th century some European armies had air guns at their disposal. I remember that during some major battle sharpshooters from Tirol used air guns to deadly effect on the troops of the opposing ...
2
votes
2answers
470 views

Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? [closed]

This is one question that perplexes me: Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? I understand that Catalonia was developed out of the Frankish counties of the Marca Hispania, but it still seems disputed ...
5
votes
2answers
480 views

Exactly when was the country of Andorra founded?

Founding origin myths of Andorra claim that Charlemagne the Great (King of France and Holy Roman Emperor) granted the people of Andorra independence in 800 AD. I'm doubtful of this claim as no written ...
7
votes
3answers
485 views

What happens if a vassal inherits not under the control of their sovereign?

For example, suppose some count in France inherits a county in the Holy Roman Empire. Does the count become a vassal of both the King of France and the HRE? What if said Count inherited a whole ...
5
votes
0answers
237 views

German - Yugoslav partisan negotiations 1943 and Churchill? [closed]

Negotiations between Tito's partisans and Germans in 1943 are well known. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German%E2%80%93Yugoslav_Partisan_negotiations "Đilas and Velebit were passed through the ...
3
votes
0answers
131 views

Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
13
votes
2answers
605 views

Has being a single mother been always stigmatized?

Being a single mother was obviously a big economic disadvantage. And in the times when the Christian church morality dominated every day life, being a single mother was obviously a proof of a sin. But ...
6
votes
2answers
8k views

Why was there a reference to the Battle of Hastings in Harper Lee's novel?

I am unfamiliar with details of European history; how is the Battle of Hastings relevant to the historical background in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird? Chapter 1, Paragraph 4: Being ...
4
votes
0answers
90 views

Are the traditions of Ground Hog Day connected to those of Candlemas Day in Europe? [closed]

Today, the 2nd February was Ground Hog Day. In Europe it was also Candlemas Day (the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple). Now there is a tradition in America that if the humble ground ...
5
votes
3answers
523 views

Written sources that mention Macedonia, prior to the 19th century?

Before the Balkan Wars Macedonist ideas were shared by a limited circles of intellectuals. They grew in significance during the interbellum, both in Vardar Macedonia and among the left-leaning ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Why was Bulgaria at war with both the Allied and the Axis at the end of WWII?

Bulgaria entered the WWII after signing the The Tripartite Pact (1 March 1941) which subsequently resulted in a long list1 of war declarations, unilaterally or mutually initiated, against Western ...
42
votes
7answers
11k views

Why aren't there major cities on the Atlantic coast of France?

I see Bordeaux and Nantes, but they are a short ways inland. The U.S. has several like New York, Boston, Miami, Charleston.
4
votes
2answers
348 views

Where were Racka sheep brought to Europe from and when?

These are Racka sheep. The Racka is a unique breed with both ewes and rams possessing long spiral shaped horns. This sheep is a bit of a mystery, a mystery whose solving will shed new light on the ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

What's the last record of pagan believers in Europe?

When was the last group of pagans wiped out? I'm interested in mainland Europe and the British isles, not fringe areas like Greenland. Edit: I am talking about authentic, contiguous, non Abrahamic ...
15
votes
2answers
683 views

Was Mohammed known and respected in seventeenth-century Europe?

I’m reading Andrew Pettigree’s fascinating book, The Invention of News: How the world came to know about itself. In the early days of newsprint, many felt that only people who actually needed to know ...
13
votes
6answers
10k views

Why are most monarchies in Europe of German descent?

When we look at existing monarchies in Europe, following are of German descent: Royal Family of Belgium Royal Family of United Kingdom Royal Family of Denmark Royal Family of Liechtenstein Royal ...
32
votes
9answers
16k views

Was England considered a “colony” of France?

After the "Norman conquest of England", many things including languages, the ways of life, etc. have changed a lot in Europe. Especially it affected the English language significantly that a lot of ...
4
votes
2answers
581 views

Which tall building was completed in 1940 in Europe?

This chart from The Economist lists the tallest building completed each year since 1885. It seems a tallish building (over 100m) was completed in Europe in 1940, and indeed this was the tallest ...
5
votes
1answer
344 views

What was the first book translated from Japanese to any of the European languages?

What was the first Japanese book translated and published in one of the European languages? By "first" I mean the date of translation, not the original.
0
votes
2answers
572 views

When did flogging and other corporal punishments get abolished in Europe?

Where were the first and last countries that abolished flogging as a punishment? Edit: I hadn't seen the wiki articles below. Very interesting much don't go into much detail about non-Anglophone ...
10
votes
6answers
936 views

Who would have a good or fair command of Latin in medieval Western Europe?

This answer to this question states Latin was the language of diplomacy in medieval Western Europe, but this does not imply that royalty or nobility themselves knew Latin: it would suffice that a few ...