Questions tagged [france]

Officially the French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands

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8
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2answers
3k views

What were the major imports and exports of Germany and France from 1850-1915?

Background: I've been doing some digging on nineteenth century trade, and so far have found this list of Britain's major imports to be an extremely helpful big picture guide. Sadly, I've yet to google ...
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1answer
234 views

Major power shift in Gaul circa 350 B.C

I realize this is a little before history and therefore interpretive. I recall reading something about a shift that took place in Gaul, some time before the Romans came there. It may have been around ...
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267 views

Historiography and the uses of history in the Second French Empire?

The Pre(r)amble: Over the past few months I've gotten interested in the development of history and historiography in Victorian England, and how the Victorians saw themselves reflected in and ...
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740 views

What were the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra in the War of the Spanish Succession?

After reading another biography of Marlborough, I am annoyed by the fact the authors mention but do not describe the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra. They make it sound (I have read Chandler and Konstam) as if ...
10
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1answer
280 views

Origin of French electoral tie-breaking mechanism (oldest candidate wins)

The French Code électoral specifies that ties be broken by giving the oldest candidate the win. (At least in certain elections. See for example L126, L262, L338, LO512.) What is the historical origin ...
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1answer
274 views

In modern terms (for example the 2017 US dollar), how much purchasing power is 50,000 (French) Francs in 1829?

Not simply a conversion of money, as even independent of inflation, the value of basics like bread and such change over time. I am reading "The Count of Monte Cristo" and a character has just remarked ...
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3answers
311 views

How effective were the forces of the French Provisional Government compared to the other allies?

Ways to answer this: How did the French officers and soldiers rate their own effectiveness relative to the Americans and Brits? (Diaries, letters, reports, etc) How did French government officials ...
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3answers
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Was Napoleon's General Joachim Murat of Turkish descent?

Joachim Murat was a General allegiant to Napoleon and very successfull in his military career. Though his very German first name I wondered if he has Turkish origin too because his second name ...
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Why was immigration from France to the United States lower than from some other countries?

Large waves of immigrants to the United States arrived from various European countries at different times in history, including Irish, Germans, Scottish, Poles, Russians and some lesser waves from ...
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1answer
377 views

Did the Sword of the Republic really fall from the Arc de Triomphe on the first day of the Battle of Verdun?

According to several sites - none of which offer sources or citations - the Arc De Triomphe de l'Étoile was damaged on or near the same day that the Battle of Verdun began in February 1916. These ...
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424 views

Was Falkenhayn the first commander to recommend defeating an enemy by bleeding them to death?

In his book The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916, Alistair Horne describes the memorandum introducing Erich Von Falkenhayn's plan to compel France to throw all its men into the defense of Verdun, because (...
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414 views

How did one's statistical chance of survival as a hidden Jew change during the course of the Nazi occupation of northern France?

A Jewish relative who had grown up in Vienna fled from Germany to France to escape persecution. Then Germany invaded France, and this relative went into hiding. He and his wife hid successfully ...
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1answer
869 views

Louis XIV of France, “L'État, c'est moi”, and the royal 'we' [closed]

(Maybe should be in the French Language community instead.) Louis XIV famously allegedly said "L'État, c'est moi". But wouldn't he (at least hypothetically) have used the royal 'we', i.e., "L'État, c'...
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1answer
2k views

Which king was this?

I believe he was a French king who ruled shortly before the Renaissance, but I'm probably wrong. The story goes like this: A knowledgeable courtier reported to the king that there was in his kingdom ...
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2answers
1k views

Did the French Resistance kill civilians?

During the second world war, did the French Resistance kill civilian or paramilitary targets? And if so, how often did this happen? Additionally, were there any murders of collaborators after the ...
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2answers
11k views

Why do French houses have exterior window shutters? [closed]

One of the things tourists notice about French houses is the presence of exterior window shutters: Why do French houses have exterior window shutters? When did they first appear in France? Are they ...
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3answers
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Did 17th Cent. French Gentlemen Necessarily Use a Scabbard for Dress Swords?

I'm costuming a show that takes place in the 17th century, Paris, "Cavalier" period, as far as costumes go. I can't seem to find a conclusive answer regarding whether the gentlemen need to have a ...
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1answer
2k views

When did French become the official language of France? [closed]

While French did exist in France and differed depending on areas, it was not the official language. When did it become so ?
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1answer
347 views

Why did the Capetian kings of France come into conflict with the Roman church?

Beginning around 1250, the monarchs of France slowly rolled toward severe conflict with the Church of Rome; this culminated in 1300 with Pope Boniface being arrested by King Philip. France, however, ...
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800 views

Which Allied forces held the French-Italian border from Operation Dragoon to the end of WWII in Europe?

Since the Germans and their puppet state the Italian Social Republic continued to hold northern Italy almost to the end of the war, it was necessary for the Allies to man the fortifications on the ...
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2answers
773 views

With what weapons were the towers of the Bastille armed?

I am researching the Bastille for a project in which I have to depict the Royal soldiers that stood on the towers during the French Revolution. Specifically, I am looking for the types of weapons ...
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0answers
118 views

What was the Sully wing in the Louvre originally?

I'm trying to find an exact idea of what the state of the Louvre was in 1677 during the reign of Louis XIV and the beginning of the Poisons Affair, particularly the Sully wing. Would it have still ...
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4answers
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Why is Napoleon III seen as a bad leader?

I'm asking that because, with the exception of the defeats against Prussia and Mexico, he succeeded to raise France as a fully industrial nation, gave some rights to the workers (like the right of ...
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1answer
729 views

Why didn't the English overrun France when the king was their captive?

John II was captured after the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 and taken to Britain. Why did they wait and ransom him only to fight the French again? The ransom was 4 million pounds, but that could be ...
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1answer
864 views

Why did Guinea vote so differently in the 1958 French constitutional referendum?

In the 1958 French constitutional referendum, 79.3% of Metropolitan France and 82.3% of the territories voted in favor of the constitution. Out of the latter, votes in favor ranged from 64.40% in ...
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1answer
274 views

Were some categories of French-Jewish people treated better by Vichy anti-Jewish laws

Even during WW2, some German Jews managed to stay in Germany without being imprisoned (although they were forced to live in special housing for Jews under uncomfortable circumstances) for example ...
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1answer
256 views

When did Napoleon start to be regarded as a French national hero? [closed]

Napoleon was a very controversial figure at the time of his death. A large percentage of French were monarchists and pro-Bourbons. Many others were Republicans or Socialists who were against personal ...
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2answers
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Why wasn't there more resistance to the French revolution by the army?

Reading about the French revolution in 1789, none of the readily available Sources (Wikipedia history.com encyclopedia.com) mentions much resistance to the revolution by the army, even though "The ...
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1answer
158 views

Could prisoners be pardoned in 1832 France under the July Monarchy?

For instance, could inspector Javert in "Les Miserables" have avoided his dilemma by asking for Jean Valjean to be pardoned by the French king and/or government? Would the king and/or government have ...
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1answer
357 views

Former French PM Blum was in Buchenwald — what is known about his life there?

To me it is interesting that he received special treatment rather than immediate execution. He was considered extremely valuable perhaps as a hostage. Wondering any details about how and why he was ...
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87 views

Is the Loi Lamine Gueye- law n ° 46-940 of May 7, 1946 enacted by the French Parliament active even today?

How many countries(former French colonies) have annulled this? And, has this been annulled by France as well after the dissolution of French Union?
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1answer
374 views

Where can I find documents on the 1992 fight between French soldiers and Somalian fighters?

I read in this French blog that before the battle of Mogadishu in 1993, French soldiers did fight successfully and manage to achieve their mission in June 1992 during the Oryx Operation (They were ...
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1answer
247 views

What was the Seven Years' War about? [closed]

I have become obsessed with the history of France and no one can deny that the Seven Years' War was a very important war to their history, but until the more popular wars of the last few centuries, ...
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5k views

What were the advantages and disadvantages to the creation of Vichy France, from the Nazi point of view?

After the defeat of France in 1940, Hitler concluded a deal with the French that saw the creation of Vichy France. What was the reasoning behind this resolution? Oviously there must have been some ...
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3answers
10k views

Did Napoleon plan to invade India?

In 1798 Napoleon invaded Egypt and in 1799 he invaded the Middle East. The only thing that stopped him from going further was the fortifications of Acre which he could not take. What was his plans if ...
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2answers
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Why was an independant Saarland country created twice after each world war?

After World War I, some territories were removed from Germany, most of them had either a majority or a significant minority of non-german-speaking populations. The exception that comes to mind to me ...
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3answers
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Why wasn't there French irredentism or pan-fransicm?

In the period from the mid 19th century until the end of the second World War, irredentism was a very common thing. For example, before the first world war, Italy wanted to annex the Italian speaking ...
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1answer
243 views

Did French Seamen Join the US Merchant Marine in WWII?

I've heard that my father, a Frenchman who served in the French Navy during WWII, joined the US Merchant Marine after the Germans occupied France. He died when I was a child, and I can't find much ...
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2answers
553 views

Before his arrival at St Helena, was Napoleon legally a prisoner of war?

I would like to know whether in law Napoleon was a prisoner of war when he surrendered himself to the British after the Battle of Waterloo, did he retain that status up to the point when he was landed ...
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1answer
1k views

Were the English behind the creation of Belgium? [duplicate]

The other day I read an article in a printed newspaper which explained that the British had a tradition of trying to break any continental power (links to recent news is not a coincidence). Among the ...
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2answers
504 views

How did the French and English forces “stack up” toward the end of the Hundred Years' War?

I am of the opinion that Joan of Arc, an "amateur" general, started France on the road to winning the war because she understood something that the "professionals" did not; that is, that the French ...
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6answers
23k views

Why are the German and French languages so different?

My understanding (which could be wrong) is the following: During and before the period of the fall of western Rome (roughly 400 AD), the Franks and the Alemanni were tribal people who moved around a ...
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1answer
205 views

Were there any elections in the First French Empire?

I know Napoleon's senate was appointed, but what about the lower house? Were there political factions like in the first republic?
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1answer
724 views

What other courts were similar to Louis XIV of France's court in Versailles?

After reading about feudalism in the Middle Ages it became apparent that lords lived on their lands far away from the king and provided military services themselves in exchange for said lands. However,...
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1answer
160 views

What is the proportion of Harki descendants in today's French Algerian community?

I was having this discussion once with someone, and now I am curious: Q: What proportion of today's Algerian immigrants (of first and second generation, who may or may not have French nationality) in ...
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2answers
256 views

What economic incentives (if any) did France have to aid the American army during the revolution?

Most history texts only state France had a desire to seek revenge for their defeat in the 7 Years War and that a Treaty of Alliance (1778) was signed. I'm having a hard time convincing myself that ...
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1answer
134 views

Exact date of Aquitania uprising over Charlemagne?

I read that the uprising of the Aquitainians and Gascons led by Hunald II, probably son of King Waifar, was in 769. But I can't find info about the exact date (only the month name).
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1answer
282 views

Where did the French National Constituent Assembly meet on August 4, 1789?

Where did the National Constituent Assembly decide to abolish feudalism? I read that the National Constituent Assembly did not meet in a specific place. Therefore I want to know where they met in ...
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2answers
752 views

How was Napoleon able to take power from the Republic

Napoleon took power less than a generation after the French Revolution. He had a lot of support from the Army and the people, how was this possible? Why would the French people support someone who ...
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2answers
734 views

Black Monday, April 13, 1360

According to English Wikipedia ("Black Monday (1360)"), a severe hail happened on Monday, April 13, 1360 when the army of Edward III was camped in an open field near Chartre. The article says that the ...