Questions tagged [germany]

For questions on German Empire, Weimar Republic, German Democratic Republic and the modern Federal Republic of Germany. Questions regarding the Third Reich should be tagged with Nazi-Germany.

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1answer
197 views

What were Nazi policies around converts to Judaism?

While Judaism is not a missionary religion, it is possible to convert to Judaism. I can only assume (although I've not found any sources on this), that practicing converts were treated like any other ...
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2answers
211 views

Why were some German and Japanese cities bombed more than others during WW2? Is there a scientific consensus?

I'm trying to study the long-run effects the strategic bombing of German and Japanese cities had on urban and economic development. Reading some articles about it I get contradictory information about ...
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How and why was the boundary between West and East Berlin decided to be where it was?

I have been trying to find detailed explanations (and, if available, references in English or German about it) to the following about the division of Berlin into West and East sides after WW2: how ...
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1answer
252 views

What did the Germans believe were the causes of WWI during the war and after?

Did the Germans en masse believe they were waging a defensive war or a war for colonies, or a war for living space, or preventive war or a war in support of allies? I have read about some opinions of ...
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1answer
147 views

Was "Nobody intends to build a wall" Machiavellian? [closed]

When Ulbricht said in 1961: "Nobody intends to build a wall", is there any truth to the idea that he was being deliberately Machiavellian, knowing that most East Germans would read the signs ...
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0answers
154 views

West Berlin: who else fled besides East Germans?

When the Iron curtain descended across Europe, and Berlin was the only hole unplugged, did large numbers of other Eastern Europeans flee that way as well? I know that East Europeans could across into ...
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2answers
180 views

Are there any good books in English about the mechanics of German reunification?

Are there any good books in English about the mechanics of German reunification? I'd be interested to know how such things as: Criminal justice. Who was released and who remained in prison? Did ...
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1answer
266 views

Why were the kingdom of Prussia's territorial ambitions focused in Saxony?

If I have remembered it correctly the Hohenzollerns tried several times to annex the electorate/kingdom of Saxony. From the reign of Frederick II (the great) to the aftermath of Napoleonic wars where ...
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2answers
113 views

Does city-specific economic data for the pre-WW2 decades exist for Japan and Germany? How do I find out?

I'd like to the an analysis using historical economic data of Japan and Germany. For that I'm trying to figure out, if data exists from before 1945 of economic production in different japanese and ...
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4answers
5k views

How were the West Berlin air corridors negotiated?

This grew out of a question I asked on the Politics SE, which I'm moving here because it's tangential to that question. As far as I can tell, after World War 2, the Western powers negotiated air ...
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0answers
146 views

Which place in Europe and/or Russia had its catenary lines removed/replaced several times for political reasons?

I could swear I remember reading about a city or rail line -- maybe in Germany? Maybe in Poland? -- that had the overhead electrical wires for trains removed, exported to another city or country, and ...
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1answer
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What are the 'mushroom trusts' referenced in Churchill's "Second World War"?

It is in a section where he is referring to the collapse of the German economy during and after hyperinflation… p.10 The Gathering Storm – The Follies of the Victors 1919–1929 Here is the passage that ...
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1answer
2k views

What does this acronym and the symbol in the middle represent?

One of my Polish friends just bought a ruined old brick house in a village in Poland, which was supposedly reigned by Germany during the second world war (I didn't ask the name nor the location of the ...
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3answers
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Were there German bomb disposal units in WW2?

There is lots of information about British bomb disposal units in Britain during WW2. Britain dropped a lot of bombs in Germany. Many of them didn't explode - they're still digging them up now. The ...
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3answers
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Have Germans expelled from Eastern Europe been re-enfranchised?

After World War II, large numbers of ethnic-Germans who had lived in Eastern Europe were expelled - by the local (post-Nazi-occupation) government, by the USSR and even with some Western power ...
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1answer
126 views

Post WWII Munich- U.S.occupation

Is there any way to find out which unit of the US army of occupation took control of US HQ in Munich after April 30th, 1945?
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1answer
766 views

Which 1848 German revolutionaries became key players in the US Republican party?

Gillian Brockell wrote in an article at the WP: In 1860, two major factors helped to propel Lincoln — a one-term congressman and country lawyer most known for losing a Senate campaign — to the ...
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1answer
1k views

Was the 1977 sale of a submarine to Indonesia controversial in Germany at the time?

In April 2021, the Indonesian submarine KRI Nanggala sunk with all hands. The submarine was sold by Germany in 1977 (contract signed, manufacture finished in 1981). Just two years before order, ...
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1answer
252 views

Did the Prussian army commit atrocities?

We know the German armed forces, all of it, during WW2 committed atrocities. Same for the German army during WW1. I also found some references the Prussian army committed atrocities during the Franco-...
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1answer
354 views

Why did East Germany fail? And why did DDR need hard currency 1986-1989?

Sometime back I saw Deutschland 83 then Deutschland 86 and finally Deutschland 89. The sad part is even though you see the series, you don't really understand why did East Germany fail? Why exactly ...
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2answers
153 views

Why is Germany's history of colonialism and imperialism less prominent compared to other European nations? [closed]

Spaniards and Portuguese in South America, etc UK in India, Pakistan, etc Dutch in SEA: Indonesia, etc French in Africa Belgians in Congo Why was Germany not as involved as these nations?
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1answer
325 views

After the Cold War, how did Berlin develop so much more rapidly than Moscow? [closed]

How did Berlin redevelop so rapidly that today its economy is way better than Moscow's following the Cold War?
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2answers
887 views

Did the Sturmabteilung uniform look ridiculous in terms of German fashion in the 1920s?

Ridicule is a common method of social dismissal. The Sturmabteilung (SA) were a German fascist militia in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. Their most basic uniform was described as a yellow brown ...
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1answer
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How did German unification affect existing sentences for criminal convicts?

The German reunification of 1990 was legally the annexation of West Berlin (a separately administered occupied territory) and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic, or GDR) by West Germany (the ...
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3answers
507 views

At the end of WW2, multiple German leaders either committed suicide or made preparations to do so -- was this unprecedented?

I have read nothing of German officers and/or political leaders committing suicide after WWI and it is my sense that WW2 might have been the first time that so many people planned or actually went ...
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3answers
449 views

Was there a German re-urbanization plan for after WWII?

Was there a Germany-wide re-urbanization plan for after the WWII? I don't mean a hypothetical Nazi re-building plan, but a real implemented plan. All these things would get intense resistance in ...
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1answer
1k views

How did different asset classes perform during the Weimar hyperinflation?

I read many years ago a story about someone in Germany in the 1920s who had been tipped a US dollar immediately seeking investment advice presumably because it was so valuable. Now, this did not make ...
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1answer
199 views

How strong was pacifism in interwar Germany?

During the rearmament of Germany operated by Hitler and especially during the remilitarization of the Rhineland, the French Republic stayed by and, in doing so, probably failed to seize the last ...
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0answers
191 views

Has the Federal Republic of Germany ever refused diplomatic credentials for foreign ambassadors?

The proposal of Douglas Macgregor as US ambassador for Germany has been criticized in Germany and it has been suggested that the Germany government should simply refuse his diplomatic credentials. ...
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1answer
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Who was Mathilda von Merckens and which was her castle?

I am reading “The Magic Lantern”, the autobiography of Ingmar Bergman. In it, he describes a castle of a musicians' patron: Every summer before the war [World war II], they were invited close to ...
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2answers
4k views

What uniform is this (German/WW1?) and could a 15–16 year old be wearing it?

I was told that this would be a German uniform from WW1. Is that correct? I would assume that would be right, however, the picture is from spring 1917 and the young man was only 15–16 years old in ...
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1answer
239 views

Why are some school systems from September–July versus others that go April–March?

I've heard from colleagues and on-line sources that the Japanese school system starts the school year on 1st of April and I've heard the same used to be true in Germany. In Belgium, where I live, I ...
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6answers
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What were Germany's long-term aims in World War I?

In World War I, according to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany aimed to defeat France in several weeks, before freeing up soldiers to fight on the front against Russia. Suppose their plan would have ...
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1answer
4k views

Identifying this uniform, possibly German or Polish

This photo was in my great-aunt's album. She only identified it as "he came from Germany", but the picture was taken in Bunzlau, which I believe to be in Poland. I am guessing it is from ...
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2answers
354 views

Were union disputes the only reason for low female employment in WWI German factories?

While giving a lecture on the end of WWI, Prof. David Stevenson mentions a disparity in female employment between the Allies and Germany. The relevant portion is here. The British army is not short ...
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0answers
98 views

How to travel from Koblenz (Germany) to Paris (France) in May 1805?

I'm trying to fill in some blanks in my family history. In May 1805 an ancestor of mine traveled from Koblenz (Germany) to Paris (France). He left most likely on May 16 or 17, maybe a few days later. ...
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3answers
488 views

Why was the wording on war in Japan's postwar constitution so much stronger than in Germany's or Italy's?

From Hathway and Shapiro (2017): The Allies supervised the drafting of new constitutions for each of the Axis powers and enshrined the prohibition on war into each state’s own governing documents. ...
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1answer
382 views

Did German spies operate in Austrian territory up to 1914?

Germany in the years up to and during World War I, had an extensive intelligence network; in the US in particular, even prior to that country's formal entry into the war, they engaged in not only ...
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0answers
207 views

Why was anti-semitism such a central issue in German politics? [duplicate]

Provided that the Jewish population was not more than 0,76% why the presence of Jews was considered such an important problem in German politics and culture from the middle of the 19th century till ...
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2answers
246 views

What was the purpose of creating the Weimar Republic?

I listened to a podcast recently called Dictators by Parcast Network. In a particular episode about Hitler, the speaker said The Weimar Republic was created so that it could take the blame of Germany'...
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1answer
228 views

How would an early Medieval German market have looked?

I am trying to find sources on how a medieval German market would have looked. Any artwork (painting, wood carving, wood print) would be perfect, but even just a description would already be great. My ...
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2answers
431 views

Are there churches that belong to the German Armed Forces?

Yesterday, while walking through Graz, in southern Austria, I noticed an old church. I noticed it because it had a big symbol painted over its entrance door. You might have seen this symbol in WWI and ...
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3answers
323 views

Why was Hesse south of the Main left out of the North German Confederation?

When the North German Confederation was founded after the Austro-Prussian war, it included all German states north of the Main, including the part of Hesse that was north of the Main. However the ...
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5answers
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Historically, why did the US station their nuclear weapons in Germany for delivery through German pilots?

Recently, somewhat controversially, Germany considers ordering 45 F-18 fighter jets for replacement of the old Tornado bombers, in order to still have jets capable of delivering US nuclear bombs. How ...
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1answer
213 views

How hard was it to produce German zeppelin pilots in World War One? [closed]

I would like to know how much time it took to train new zeppelin pilots, the cost to train them, if the airship pilots were normal airplane pilots, and the demand for them. Any help will be ...
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1answer
446 views

How much debt did Italy remit Germany in the London Debt Agreement?

Italy was one of the signatories of the London Debt Agreement in 1953, pardoning part of previous German debts. Is there an estimate of the amount owed by Germany to Italy? Various sources cite the ...
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3answers
485 views

Which factors led to the different casualty ratio betwen British and German forces during the Battle of Normandy?

I take for example the VIIIth corps of the British Army, which was part of multiple operations in Normandy in 1944. If you go through the different operations listed in the article, there are very ...
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1answer
237 views

Was Mark Twain's book 'The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn' banned in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany)?

I am currently studying the film Barbara directed by Christian Petzold for my undergraduate dissertation. This film is based in the former German Democratic Republic=GDR (East Germany). The ...
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2answers
497 views

What does this 1960 West German political cartoon mean?

I have recently seen a [caricature][1] in which a blindfolded man goes along a cliff. The caption was "The German citizen in the 1960's". I thought it may have something to do with the economy, but in ...
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0answers
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What happened to priests in Germany during the Protestant Reformation and the wars of religion?

I'm curious to know what happened to them as Protestantism spread. I've researched a little in the Catholicism in Germany Wikipedia page's section on the Reformation. (Couldn't find anything there.) ...

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