Questions tagged [germany]

For questions on German Empire, Weimar Republic, German Democratic Republic and the modern Federal Republic of Germany. Questions regarding the Third Reich should be tagged with Nazi-Germany.

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How did the Holy Roman Empire govern itself during the Hohenstaufen dynasty? [on hold]

How did the Holy Roman Empire govern itself during the Hohenstaufen dynasty even when there's a time of war? Because it must've been hard to govern such a messy empire?
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3answers
290 views

How does a heraldic eagle become a nazi symbol?

The Heraldic Eagle, or Reichsadler is still to this day used as the coat of arms of the German empire. Its use in the coat of arms, and on German symbolism generally picture an eagle with curved wings ...
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2answers
393 views

Why did Hitler order counter-attacks as late as 21/04?

On the 21st April 1945, Hitler ordered the Armeeabteilung Steiner (and the ninth Army) to execute a counter-attack on the approaching Soviet forces. How and why did Hitler become deluded enough to ...
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2answers
178 views

What happened to Saxe Altenburg circa 1827?

I have a dataset that says that Saxe Altenburg was part of some other entity (simply coded "263") until 1827. I have been trying to figure out what the entity "263" is, but have not been able to do ...
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2answers
299 views

Why did the German Military and Police not intervene during the years of NSDAP ascend?

I am currently following a free course provided by the Open University which features a brief timeline on the rise and fall of Adolf Hitler. This timeline dates Hitler's entry into politics to 1920, ...
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1answer
142 views

When did Nuremberg adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

A similar question has been posed on this site in the past, "When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?. I'm trying to discern exactly when the city of Nuremberg adopted the Gregorian ...
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2answers
135 views

How did redenomination prevent the Weimar Republic from further decline?

My school is currently teaching us European History in the 20th century, and we were on the topic of the Weimar Republic. It got me thinking, how exactly did redenomination of currency save the ...
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130 views

What were German contingency plans in case Hitler was killed? [closed]

There were several attempts to kill Hitler, most famously probably the 20 July plot. So… what would have happened, if that e.g. succeeded? Now, as I do not want to ask a question about alternative ...
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10answers
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Why was Germany not as successful as other Europeans in establishing overseas colonies?

French, British, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch.. they all had vast outreach across the globe on multiple continents. Why did Germans not have this much outreach?
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3answers
6k views

A German immigrant ancestor has a “Registration Affidavit of Alien Enemy” on file. What does that mean exactly?

While researching genealogy, I discovered that one of my ancestors had a "Registration Affidavit of Alien Enemy" document on file. It is dated 1 January 1918 and includes his fingerprints, immigration ...
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1answer
109 views

When was the last coal mine in Germany established?

Recently, the last German coal mine (excluding brown coal) was closed. For more than 50 years, German mines were struggling because their coal was too expensive. I wonder when and where the last ...
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2answers
2k views

How were servants to the Kaiser of Imperial Germany treated and where may I find more information on them?

I'd like to know how the Kaisers treated the servants in their palace, along with where I can find more information on this subject. In "The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of ...
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8k views

Why did other German political parties disband so fast when Hitler was appointed chancellor?

Not long after Hitler was appointed chancellor, opposition groups began to shut down. He, of course, had already criminalised the Communist KPD and alleged sympathisers, but I was astonished to learn ...
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3answers
4k views

Was there a pre-determined arrangement for the division of Germany in case it surrendered before any Soviet forces entered its territory?

Listening to the audiobook D-day through German eyes, I thought: what if Germany had surrendered before any Soviet force entered its territory? In the book, a German soldier says that his motivation ...
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1answer
271 views

What is the earliest example of the usage of 'Nazis' to refer clearly and exclusively to the National-Socialists?

The term 'Nazi' is now commonly explained as being an abbreviation of 'National-Socialist'. That was not always the case. The use of the term Nazi is a well-established convention in English. It ...
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2answers
4k views

Did ancient Germans take pride in leaving the land untouched?

I remember reading something along those lines, perhaps in the De Bello Gallico. Can anyone provide source material to confirm this? EDIT: I think the claim was also that the tribes there were ...
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1answer
291 views

Is there any historical evidence of a significant population of middle eastern people in iron age Northern Germany/Southern Scandinavia?

In at least two of John McWhorter's works, he argues that the Germanic language group was heavily affected by a significant group of people speaking a Semitic language. The works are the book "Our ...
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1answer
259 views

Was the Weimar Republic referred to as such by contemporaries?

Recently I've noticed the tendency to refer to certain areas which were historically under that administration as the Weimar Republic (e.g. Wikipedia: Helmut Kohl 'Born Helmut Josef Michael Kohl, 3 ...
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1answer
289 views

How can I understand the effect of the Sonderweg on the Revolution of 1848?

I'm trying to understand the effect that the German 'Sonderweg' had on the Revolution of 1848 in Germany. Are there authoritative/canonical references that would help? PS: Since I also speak German ...
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2answers
251 views

When was the first usage of the slogan “Wer hat uns verraten…”?

Inspired by this question on Movie&TV.SE, I am looking for the origin of the phrase/slogan Wer hat uns verraten? Sozialdemokraten! Who betrayed us? Social democrats! It is still used ...
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2answers
421 views

Teaching of Mathematics in Italy and in Germany in the fifteenth century

In is book Beyond numeracy, John Allen Paulos tells this story: “A German merchant of the fifteenth century asked an eminent professor where he should send his son for a good business education. ...
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1answer
452 views

What restrictions were in place after WWII on the German aircraft industry?

A question on Aviation.StackExchange asked why the German aircraft industry is smaller than other countries in Europe. I know that the Allies did not want German rearmament after the war and had ...
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1answer
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What do we know about Hennig Brand's family?

What do we know about Hennig Brand's family? He is credited with the discovery of Phosphorus of course, but it appears he was married twice during his life. Did he have any children, and if so do we ...
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1answer
161 views

Why were the Istein and Schliengen enclaves transferred from Switzerland to Baden?

Before the French revolutionary wars, the principality of Basel had 2 enclaves in the Rhine valley of what is modern Germany. Istein (also including Huttingen and maybe Wintersweiler) Schliengen (...
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1answer
267 views

Elevated walkway in background at 1980s Potsdamer Platz seen in Wim Wenders' film “Der Himmel über Berlin”

In Wim Wenders' 1987 film “Der Himmel über Berlin” (released in English as “Wings of Desire”), several scenes are shot at Potsdamer Platz, then a big empty divided square. In some of those scenes, ...
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274 views

What was German GDP in 1919, in Gold Marks?

The Treaty of Versailles fixed German reparations at the end of WW1 at 226 billion Gold Marks. The Gold Mark was the currency of the German Empire, and Versailles fixed the values of the "papiermark"...
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2answers
3k views

What did Germany gain from the Armistice of 11 November 1918?

The conditions of the armistice were very unfavourable for Germany: The naval blockade continued, prisoners of war were not released, but parts of Germany were occupied and Germany lost the practical ...
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3answers
812 views

What was the significance of ball bearing factories during the World Wars and in the economy at the time in general?? [closed]

I have heard historians claim that enemies' ball bearing factory locations were a coveted piece of intelligence. I have also heard that big money industry for both the allies and axis super powers ...
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1answer
238 views

Who made this violent speech in the documentary De Nuremberg à Nuremberg?

In F. Rossif's documentary De Nuremberg à Nuremberg at some point you can hear a pretty violent and aggressive speech (begins at 25:19 and ends up at 25:44) from which I could hardly understand things ...
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1answer
466 views

What transit restrictions were in place in Occupied Germany limiting military and civilian movement between the four occupation zones?

Question What provisions or restrictions (civil and/or military) were in place in the summer of 1945 which governed movement between the four partitioned zones of occupation (British, American, ...
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1answer
3k views

Did Emanuel Lasker write a book declaring that Germany had to win World War I if civilization were to be saved?

Emanuel Lasker, the second chess world champion, was a very interesting person. I read here that During World War I, Lasker […] invested all of his money in German war bonds. At the end of ...
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2answers
861 views

Which Allied aircraft scored the most air-to-air kills against the Me 262 in WWII?

Backgound: The Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") fighter version of the Messerschmitt Me 262 was the first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft, with the first test unit having been formed on 19 April,...
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1answer
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What was the reason that Poland wanted a part of Germany north of Stettin/Szczecin and west of the Oder?

If you look at the map you see the so-called Stettiner Zipfel (Szczecin lobe) in the west of the Oder which includes Stettin/Szczecin. OpenStreetMap How the course of the border is defined is ...
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2answers
940 views

Why was the first production PzKpfw V (Panther) called the Ausf.D, and the second production version called the Ausf.A?

Background The first Panther (PzKpfw V) production variant, produced from January 1943 through September 1943 was called the Ausf.D. (see below) The second Panther production variant, produced ...
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2answers
161 views

Where could I find a map of the communes for Bavaria region before 1930?

I am looking into data for an article and I am missing a pretty important map. The map relates to this question. I need a map of Bavaria communes, the so called Gemeinden divisions (~municipalities ...
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2answers
263 views

Did German Princes during the Protestant Reformation often live in castles?

I'm writing a short story based on Snow White. My research tells me the story took place during the late 16th century. The timeline of my story coincides with the Protestant Reformation. I am ...
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1answer
968 views

How many officers on board Type VII-C U-boat? [closed]

As the topic states I am curious of how many offiers were on board a type VII-C U-boat during WW2. I know the crew size was typically 42 to 48, but what was the breakdown of the crew? Bonus points ...
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2answers
676 views

Who was “The famous American Roberts” in 1920's Europe?

Reading this clip from a German newspaper left me puzzled: Die praktischen, die smarten Amerikaner! Das Girl haben sie bei uns eingeführt und den Jazz und die Songs mit Rachenkatarrh, und die ...
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2answers
637 views

Was it customary for young upper-middle class women to chew gum in public in German-speaking Europe?

I'm writing a fiction work and there is a scene about a young, well-educated, but stormy woman, willing to stretch the boundaries of what's allowed. I'm thinking about making her chew gum in public. ...
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7answers
10k views

Why are the majority of Dresden inhabitants atheists or agnostics?

German Wikipedia says that Four fifths of the inhabitants of Dresden do not belong to any religious community. Approx. 20 % of the population is predominantly Christian. Original German text: ...
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4answers
368 views

What education was required for a woman to become a teacher in pre-WWII Germany?

When a woman wanted to become a teacher in Germany of the first half of 20th century, she had to attend a preparatory school for 2 years (Präparandenanstalt), and then spend 3-6 years at a female ...
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1answer
396 views

What statuses did Black Africans have in the court and royal family of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and do their descendants survive? [closed]

What positions and statuses did Black Africans hold in Germany in the court culture of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and later courts? According to Germany and the Black Diaspora: Points of ...
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9answers
26k views

Did Russian winter seriously contribute to German defeat on the Eastern Front in WWII?

When people discuss the causes of Hitler's defeat in Russia, one topic is frequently mentioned: climate. People claim that winter contributed significantly to the problems of German army on the ...
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1answer
414 views

Murder rate in the last years of Weimar Republic 1927-1933

I am writing a paper about mortality during the last years of Weimar Republic, namely 1928-1933. Presenting the data in Berlin, scholars wondered about the reason why the figures about people dead by ...
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3answers
9k views

Why weren't army snipers used at the Munich massacre?

I was reading about the history of the GSG 9 and found the following statement on Wikipedia: "Police did not have a specialized tactical sniper team at that time. The army had snipers, but the ...
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1answer
655 views

Why was Zabrze renamed Hindenburg O.S in 1915?

Through history, many towns got renamed, often by totalitarian, ultra-nationalistic or communist regimes. Most of this renaming happened past 1918 under the influence of Wilsonian self-determination, ...
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1answer
230 views

Can someone identify these German ww2 badges?

I have a number of badges on a leather pouch. Can someone identify these?
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2answers
1k views

Why were blackletter typefaces abolished in Germany?

Blackletter typefaces were exclusively used in German and German-friendly countries for several centuries. They were often commonly and errornously called "Fraktur" in German, but the correct name was ...
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4answers
2k views

Did the US provide oil assistance to Germany during WW2?

Some Russian guy on BBC Radio 5 (Up all night) just now shouted down a Yank, claiming that the US had helped Germany maintain its oil supplies during WW2. At least that's what I recall of his rant. I ...
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1answer
761 views

Was Marshal Foch predicting WW2 20 years in advance just a coincidence?

The Allied Supreme Commander at the end of WW1, Ferdinand Foch, seemingly predicted at the signing of the Treaty of Versailles hostilities with Germany recurring in the future. His prediction for the ...