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Questions tagged [holy-roman-empire]

The Holy Roman Empire existed from 962 to 1806 on the territory of present-day Germany and a number of its neighboring countries.

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2answers
83 views

Which is more correct, Carlos I or Carlos V?

I asked this in the Spanish StackExchange and they send me here. One very well known emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) is known as Charles V (or in Spanish: Carlos V), but it is also known as ...
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Was there ever support for any persons outside of the empire to be elected Holy Roman Emperor?

In Europa Universalis IV, it is possible for electors in the Holy Roman Empire to support the election of someone outside of the Holy Roman Empire as the emperor. I recognize that this is a game with ...
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Where was the ruling seat of East Francia located under Henry the Fowler?

It seems safe to assume that Bavaria wasn't an option as Arnulf the Bad controlled this area throughout Henry's reign. The only possible candidates that I can find are Memleben (where Henry died) or ...
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When did Nuremberg adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

A similar question has been posed on this site in the past, "When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?. I'm trying to discern exactly when the city of Nuremberg adopted the Gregorian ...
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What statuses did Black Africans have in the court and royal family of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and do their descendants survive? [closed]

What positions and statuses did Black Africans hold in Germany in the court culture of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and later courts? According to Germany and the Black Diaspora: Points of ...
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Where was the County of Thurn und Taxis located?

Thurn und Taxis is a German princely family most famous for starting the first modern postal service. Wikipedia lists the County of Thurn und Taxis as a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Electoral ...
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Was Emperor Francis II & I present at the Battle of Austerlitz?

The Battle of Austerlitz between France, Austria, and Russia on 2 December 1805 is also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, because of the presence of Napoleon I, Alexander I, and Francis II &...
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Did German Princes during the Protestant Reformation often live in castles?

I'm writing a short story based on Snow White. My research tells me the story took place during the late 16th century. The timeline of my story coincides with the Protestant Reformation. I am ...
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How were the borders of the Holy Roman Empire established?

We all know that the Holy Roman Empire was a collection of minor Germanic states in the Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Wikipedia stated that: The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of ...
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Why didn't continental eurotpeans aid the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia) against the invading Danes and Norse? [closed]

At some point during the Viking invasions of England, the Holy Roman Empire or France or even the Emirate of Cordova could've easily held the Vikings back in British soil if they would've decided to ...
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What were the conditions of joining or leaving the Holy Roman Empire?

Seeing as several countries in Europe are regularly rethinking whether to join or leave the European Union, I wonder how did countries join or leave the Holy Roman Empire, which was also more like a ...
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Did the Danes sack Hamburg after the conquest of Hedeby in 983?

In 983, the Danes reconquered the southern Schleswig area from the Germans. Some sites claim that the Danes conquered Holstein as well during this invasion and even sacked Hamburg in cooperation with ...
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What was the conflict in Milan from 1041-1044?

I was researching the Pataria movement in Milan that began around 1045. I found mention of a compromise of Milan in 1044. This got me interested in these earlier events. The only information that I ...
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Who was the Holy Roman Emperor that was a travelling adventurer?

I recall reading about a medieval Holy Roman Emperor, or heir apparent, that didn't get to rule over the kingdom. He was the last in line from a major dynasty, and held a high amount of prestige. He ...
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What was this major foreign policy reversal by the Vatican in the Middle Ages?

I made a note about something, but now I can't find it. It was a major shift in the political situation of Europe in the late Middle Ages. Initially one country was the hegemon and the pope organized ...
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What government functions, if any, did the archchancellor of the HRE actually exercise?

Although the Holy Roman Empire was famous for being a loose confederation of largely independent feudal lords, it nevertheless possessed institutions akin to a unified state even near the end of its ...
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What are these “Papal States” in Germany after 1648?

I don't usually watch this person's videos, but I couldn't find another one. What do the "Papal States" in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia represent? I especially want to know what affected the ...
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Who were the successors of the Roman Empire?

I know that the Byzantine Empire was technically the Eastern Roman Empire, but did they carry over actual Roman traditions with them? Also, did the Holy Roman Empire have anything to do with the ...
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What language was spoken between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian I

As the title states: What language was spoken between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian I. of Habsburg? I could think of three possibilities: Latin, French and German, but am leaning towards German.
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Was the Holy Roman Empire a financial union as well as a defensive union?

The Holy Roman Empire was a union of countries under one rule and under one emperor. My question is: Was the Holy Roman Empire a financial union too or just defensive union? For example was any tax ...
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What language(s) were spoken within the Holy Roman Empire?

What language(s) were considered the primary language for the Holy Roman Empire? Were there many different languages spoken due to the many different regions?
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What is the line of descent from from emperor Louis III to Henry VII?

In this Wikipedia page about the Holy Roman Emperors, it is stated that emperor Henry VII (1275-1313) is a far descendant of emperor Louis III (880-928). What is the list of people that make the ...
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How were the territories added to (and thus the limits set in) the Holy Roman Empire

I've seen a similar question but not with the answer I'm looking for. During its existence, HRE had limits including and excluding territories that did not follow any criteria according to the ...
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What education path had to be followed to study law in 17th century Europe?

How was the path in terms of education for a small kid to follow in years so that he can become a LAWYER in 17th Century in Europe? (Mainly in The Holy Roman Empire). Thanks!
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Kingdoms in the Holy Roman Empire?

The Holy Roman Empire was founded in 962 when Otto the Great, King of Germany and Italy or Lombardy was crowned Emperor. All Emperors since then were kings of Germany and Italy, and since 1032 kings ...
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How did member states of the Holy Roman Empire justify only including part of their land inside it?

Looking at this map, we see that the Habsburg monarchy extends partly inside the Holy Roman Empire, and partly outside of it. Similarly, a tiny sliver of Denmark-Norway, and a similar tiny slice of ...
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What is the manifestation of the Holy Roman Emperor reign in Italy?

According to Wikipedia, The Holy Roman Emperor was also called "King of italy", and it says there that he ruled over a big part of Italy. But I have also read that throughout the Middle Ages, many ...
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Which were the (militarily) strongest countries of the Holy Roman Empire?

The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, Roman or an empire, but it was still a strong power despite its infighting. What were the strongest countries towards the end of the "empire"?
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Were the lands of the Teutonic Knights part of the Holy Roman Empire? [closed]

This is a pretty simple question. The lands owned and ruled by the Teutonic Knights within Germany were certainly part of the Holy Roman Empire. Were the lands of the Teutonic Knights in the Baltic ...
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Why did Charles V divide his holdings as he did?

Even as monarchs go, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was one lucky individual. He inherited Austria and the job of Holy Roman Emperor, as well as the Netherlands (including Belgium) through his father, ...
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Did Gustavus Adolphus ever speak of making himself Emperor?

Such an assertion is made on p. 91 of Richelieu and the French Monarchy by C.V.Wedgwood. There are no footnotes, this being a book for the general reader, so I would like to have a corroboration for ...
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Was Willem the Silent Dutch?

Willem the Silent is widely considered to be the father of the Netherlands, but I have found that he was born in Nassau, Germany, which was then part of the Holy Roman empire. His ancestors were born ...
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When did the Holy Roman Empire collapse?

In the 1500's, the Holy Roman Empire was a relatively powerful country. By the mid 1800's, it seemed to be superseded by in importance by its states. When did the unified "Holy Roman Empire" really ...
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When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

The Gregorian Calendar was adopted in Habsburg lands in 1583. As Frankfurt am Main was a Free City within the Holy Roman Empire, it fell under direct control of the [Habsburg] Emperor. However, if I ...
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What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for?

I came across a medal commemorating the coronation of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor in 1790. The inscription on the obverse of the medal is: LEOPOLDUS II D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D· With ...
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Were the “hussars” that Jan Sobieski used at the battle of Vienna actually elite troops?

Apparently, the decisive blow at the 1683 Battle of Vienna was struck by Jan Sobieski, with only 3,000 "hussars" (cavalry). This seems a bit hard to believe, given that the Turkish army had about 100,...
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What is the term for a person who surveys the land and relays messages from a noble to his governed village?

The question is self-explanatory: What is the term for a person who surveys the land and relays messages from a noble to his governed village? The officer would: Survey the village or tenant, to ...
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What is the origin of the black/devil riders?

From what I understand, the black/devil riders were a group of German soldiers or mercenaries who were famous for using black painted armor. They developed various techniques for fighting on horseback,...
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Monarchies with built-in rotation

I have read that rotation among nine hereditary rulers of provinces determines who is King of Malaysia during a given 5-year term. This seems to stand out from related practices e.g. over the history ...
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What was the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Carolingian emperors?

Charlemagne was crowned by the pope in the year 800. But was it Charlemagne's choice, or was he compelled to do so? Having conquered his lands, couldn't he just crown himself emperor? Moreover, did ...
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Was Marie Antoinette considered a fully legitimate bride for the heir apparent to the French throne in 1770? [closed]

When Marie Antoinette married Louis-Auguste, Dauphin of France in 1770, who later became King Louis XVI of France, was she considered as a fully legitimate bride or was there some sort of political ...
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Duchy and Electorate of Saxony during the Schmalkaldic War

The Wikipedia page for the Schmalkaldic War list the Duchy of Saxony and the Electorate of Saxony as opposing sides of the war, each with their own monarch (Maurice is the Duke of Saxony, John ...
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Did any commoners become prince-electors during the Holy Roman Empire?

Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) were elected by a set circle of prince-electors. Among them were both secular electors as well as the archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne. In ...
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What is the Holy Roman Empire? [closed]

What is the Holy Roman Empire? I have a little background knowledge and I read a little bit on Wikipedia, but I'm still not exactly sure what it is. I know that the states under the "Empire" were ...
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How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured?

With shifting boundaries, enclaves, exclaves, and alliances, how were the territorial extents of small principalities or duchies maintained, for example in the Holy Roman Empire or German ...
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Why did Germany take so long to consolidate into a single nation?

To the casual observer, the Holy Roman Empire seems locked in time, continuing its almost feudal tradition even while every other part of Europe was consolidating into nations and empires. By the ...
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What happened to copies of Holy Lance (Holy Roman Empire regalia)?

This question is only about copies of the spear that's kept in Vienna, not the Roman one or any other that are connected with "original" Holy Lance. I'm making this research for the story I'm in the ...
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1answer
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What happened to Frederick II's library?

The emperor Frederick II was, among other things, a very learned man who wrote a highly regarded book on falconry. Presumably, he would have had a sizeable library. Is there some mention of his ...
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Who besieged Karl IV at Siena?

According to Wikipedia article about the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV: His second journey to Italy took place in 1368, when he had a meeting with Pope Urban VI at Viterbo, was besieged in his ...
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Material Basis of the Golden Age of Bohemia

On a recent visit to Prague I was much impressed by the city's beauty and the number and splendor of its historic sites, such as Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge (a bit further afield Karlštejn ...