Questions tagged [independence]

Situation when one country is able to perform her foreign and interior politics fully without control of any other country. Independent countries recognize one another.

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14 votes
6 answers
4k views

Was the British Empire financially capable of maintaining India as a colony after WW2?

In India, it is generally accepted that Indian Independence from the British was the culmination of the 190 year long freedom struggle; from the armed conflicts of the mid-1800s to the more peaceful ...
8 votes
3 answers
4k views

"Three Pines" as code for British Loyalists during the Revolutionary War

I half expect this to be closed, but in Louise Penny's novels set in and around Quebec, three pine trees are said to have been a sign of sanctuary for British Loyalists fleeing the Anglo-American War....
8 votes
1 answer
239 views

Is there a Welsh or Irish equivalent to the Declaration of Arbroath or Magna Carta?

Are there any pre-modern documents (or were there any, if they didn't survive) in Welsh or Irish history, which are broadly equivalent in intention and purpose to the Declaration of Arbroath or the ...
11 votes
5 answers
4k views

What's the difference between Kosovo's & the Confederate States of America's declaration of independence?

In reading the Wikipedia article on Kosovo independence precedent, one thing I noticed is that it treats the Kosovo situation as a precedent. This is surprising to me because there's obviously a ...
6 votes
8 answers
9k views

Why did the the East-Pakistanis oppose Urdu as their national language while Indians accepted Hindi as theirs? [closed]

In 1947, Both India and Pakistan were given independence from Britain. India was able to establish Hindi as its national language with minimal problems. Pakistan on the other hand, was created with ...
-2 votes
1 answer
500 views

What does "free and independent states" mean in the Declaration of Independence? [duplicate]

The Declaration of Independence declared the United Colonies to be "free and independent states," with the following context: We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in ...
9 votes
6 answers
1k views

How did the United States avoid (or recover from) post revolution corruption?

I was recently reading a novel set in post-revolution Ghana1. A central theme of the novel was the deeply entrenched culture of corruption that developed with independence. It seems that this type ...
2 votes
0 answers
38 views

When did the defeated General José de la Cruz sail back to Spain?

José de la Cruz was a Spanish military commander in Mexico's wars of independence. He was finally defeated by his ex-subordinate, Pedro Celestino Negrete in Durango, just after the Treaty of Córdoba, ...
2 votes
1 answer
434 views

Apart from Veer Savarkar and S.A. Dange, were there any Indian revolutionaries who filed mercy petitions to the British?

In today's Indian politics, it is often pointed out by anti-Hindutva political parties that Veer Savarkar, an Indian freedom fighter and founder of the Hindutva philosophy, wrote mercy petitions to ...
2 votes
0 answers
166 views

What was Rhodesia like before independence? [closed]

I have heard a lot about Robert Mugabe in my time, and he mostly seemed like a good example of how not to run a country. Now that he's died, I'm seeing a lot of articles talking about his supposed "...
64 votes
12 answers
17k views

Have there been any countries that voted themselves out of existence?

I'm interested in countries that voted themselves out of existence because they believe that joining another country is best for them (see e.g. world government). For example, say New Zealand votes to ...
10 votes
1 answer
371 views

Why were Catholic priests so instrumental in the Mexican independence movement?

Catholic priests were leading figures in the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. In 1810, Hidalgo gave the Grito de Dolores; in 1811, Morelos occupied Acapulco and Mercado took San Blas. ...
2 votes
3 answers
267 views

How were British tea taxes collected in Boston in the early 1770s?

I assume the taxes were ultimately passed on to tea consumers, but that’s not my question. Who in Boston was responsible for the initial outlay of payment, and when in the lifecycle of a tea ...
22 votes
1 answer
6k views

Why didn't Britain or any other European power colonize Abyssinia/Ethiopia before 1936?

It is well mentioned while reading books on Africa or, the colonization or “scramble” for Africa, that two countries, Liberia and Ethiopia/Abyssinia, had retained their sovereignty as independent ...
3 votes
4 answers
8k views

Why did Gandhi give the violent "Do or Die" slogan to the Quit India movement?

Mahatma Gandhi was a pacifist and anti-violence leader. Why did he adopt the slogan "Do or Die" for the Quit India movement? It sounds more like a strong, desperate phrase.
3 votes
1 answer
509 views

Why is 26th January India's Republic Day?

I read on Wikipedia that 26 January celebrated as India's Republic Day because it is on this day in the year 1929 that the Indian National Congress proclaimed the declaration of independence as ...
21 votes
10 answers
7k views

What are some examples of nations that involuntarily gained independence?

I just read that Singapore gained their independence not because they wanted to, but because the Malaysian Parliament voted unanimously (without Singapore representation) to expel Singapore from ...
18 votes
4 answers
4k views

What was the first successful non violent independence movement?

It is a known fact that Mahatma Gandhi launched a non-violent movement which freed the Indian subcontinent from the British rule on 15th August 1947. But was this the first instance that a freedom ...
1 vote
1 answer
18k views

Why did US annex Hawaii? [closed]

Was there an economical or political reason for the annexation of Hawaii by US in 1898? It does not seem to me that Hawaii was a particularly wealthy place at that time. Did the US government need to ...
25 votes
3 answers
7k views

Why did the UK allow India to be a republic rather than a democratic parliament under the British Monarch?

In the UK, there is a democratically elected prime minister but the Monarch is the Head of State, although the latter is not (directly) involved in government. Likewise, the UK could have done the ...
10 votes
2 answers
404 views

Was there a massacre in the Algerian war calculated to provoke French reprisals?

This was something I read in the 70s, about an early Algerian war massacre. This was in a popular, French magazine (I don't remember the name) - think Readers’ Digest and you’re not far off. Now, ...
2 votes
0 answers
107 views

Mutual support in Latin American wars of independence

Nascent Latin American countries expelled Spain with some mutual aid from each other. Between 1815 and 1822, independent Argentina and Chile sent newly acquired naval forces (under Bouchard, Brown, ...
8 votes
1 answer
329 views

Why did Russia accept the legal framework that led to Kosovo's independence?

Kosovo's unilateral secession was judged not illegal by the ICJ based on Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) and the UNMIK (United Nations Mission in Kosovo) regulations promulgating the ...
-4 votes
1 answer
703 views

Were any signers of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, or Constitution of the United States Black (also called Negro)?

According the Wikipedia the population of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States categorized by racial and ethnic demographics in 1770 and 1790 was 1,688,254 1770 and 3,172,006 for White, and 459,...
3 votes
1 answer
490 views

What US states celebrate an Independence Day?

Today, March 2nd, is Texas Independence Day; a celebration of how the Texans officially declared independence from Mexico. I found that some other states (i.e. Rhode Island, Hawaii) do (or did) ...
16 votes
5 answers
4k views

How did former Spanish colonies in the Americas become so fragmented?

If we only consider countries that are connected by land, there are 16 Spanish speaking countries in the Americas, totaling 11,301,072 km2 in area. That's only slightly larger than Canada (9,984,670 ...
10 votes
5 answers
6k views

What were the key differences between United States' and Indian revolutions?

The Thirteen Colonies and Indian subcontinent were two of the most significant colonies of the British Empire, yet the former was able to gain independence via a rebellion relatively early on, whilst ...
16 votes
6 answers
2k views

How has Catalonia ended up being so nationalist?

I mean I cannot comprehend how the separatist sentiment has risen so much in just a little more than 40 years (considering that when Franco died nationalism did exist, but nowhere near where it's now ...
5 votes
3 answers
15k views

What was the exact time of announcement of Indian independence?

Unanimously, India achieved its independence on 15th August 1947. Of course, to say the exact time would be, a bit difficult. However, what time did they begin to address the nation to announce its ...
20 votes
7 answers
8k views

How do new countries legally and without bloodshed declare themselves independent?

I saw an article about the legality of the declaration of independence. For example, when USSR broke up, several countries became independent, but for others, there is still fighting to maintain them ...
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why did India choose August 15th as its Independence Day?

India, Pakistan and Bangladesh were independent from the British rule on August 15th, 1947. Why is it that India celebrates the nation's Independence Day on August 15th while Pakistan celebrates it ...
8 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why did Russian Federation declare independence from Soviet Union? [closed]

In June 12th 1990, the Russian Federation declared its independence from the Soviet Union, effectively ending the Soviet Union. While I understand that other parts of the former Soviet Union like ...
6 votes
5 answers
598 views

Was anyone a notable participant in both the American Revolution and the Latin American Wars of Independence (as a liberator)?

As the American Revolution and the Latin American Wars of Independence occurred within about 30 years of each other, presumably some people with an appetite for liberating colonies participated in ...
3 votes
2 answers
287 views

Plot to create a Northern Confederation of States in America about 1804

I read in "Asimov's book of facts" that there was a (failed) plot to create such Confederation, that should include New York city, but I couldn't find any other reference. Asimov's book doesn't give ...
2 votes
1 answer
76 views

Where do I find treaties/acts granting French colonies independence?

I am a History student researching on the history of Indo-China and African countries that were under French colonial rule. I did not find certain treaties like Franco-Lao treaty and others on the ...
14 votes
6 answers
1k views

Is there any country(former colony) in the world that obtained independence and then again tried to join its colonist ruler?

Is there any country(former colony) in the world that fought for/obtained independence and then again tried to join its colonist ruler? I guess an African country did so. Can anyone tell me?
-2 votes
4 answers
3k views

What does 'a long train' mean in the Declaration of Independence [closed]

As a child I always imagined a bunch railroad cars, yet from my understanding the railway system didn't really appear until the 1800's. And, if there was no steam engine to pull the cars, the only ...
8 votes
3 answers
2k views

To what extent is the independence of India a result of Indian Independence Movement?

India received independence from the British Empire in 1947. It had a long history of independence movement, stretching from 19th century, but it had gained a massive support only from 1910-1920. The ...
18 votes
5 answers
7k views

Why M.K. Gandhi preferred Nehru for Prime Minister candidate and not Sardar Patel?

I've heard different stories on why Sardar Patel was not selected for PM post. Some says it was Gandhi who opted Nehru over Patel, whereas some suggests it was Sardar Patel who stepped back from PM ...
3 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why did the Indian National Congress fail to convince Indian minorities to support united India

While much has been discussed about the British policy of divide-and-rule while governing India (and other colonies), another fact that has not received the same attention is the enormous support ...
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

What were the major strategies/ideas Britain exerted against Indian Independence movement?

The first flames of freedom were lighted in the 1857 revolt in India. After that in 1900s, the movements became stronger and spread over the country. There was diverse political, economic, military, ...
12 votes
3 answers
2k views

Did WWII Delay Indian Independence?

During WWII, Gandhi said that Indians should adopt a compromising attitude towards the British due to the stresses of war. Did this prolong the (near) inactivity of the Indian National Movement? Or ...
1 vote
1 answer
382 views

What was the official policy of British administration about the integration of Indian Princely States in 1947?

What direction was given in Indian Independence Act, 1947 about the political integration of Princely States during the partition of India? What policy was introduced by the British authority about ...
23 votes
7 answers
6k views

Who was responsible for the partition of India?

Who was responsible for the partition of India? Did it happen due to Mohammed Ali Jinnah or Mahatma Gandhi? Or were the British of the view that the country needed to be divided?
-2 votes
1 answer
130 views

Is the Scot referendum the biggest one of its type in modern history? And other questions [closed]

Also I know a lot of regions that are fighting/claiming independence. What convinced the union to come to this decision. What are the Scots woes that drove them to ask for it?
6 votes
1 answer
802 views

Did Thomas Paine really give up book royalties?

I heard on a podcast the claim that Thomas Paine apparently gave up on his book rights so that his writings would circulate more widely. However, I tried to find sources for this claim but was unable ...
4 votes
1 answer
760 views

Would Korea have divided, without the influence of external powers? [closed]

The question came to me in a roundabout manner, while reading a translation of the Korean Declaration of Independence. I've reproduced some excerpts below (emphasis added): Though Japan has ...
2 votes
2 answers
130 views

What process have countries followed when creating constitutions?

Countries that have been led by an individual (through a declaration, revolution, war, ...) have constitutions heavily influenced by that leader, for better or worse. History has shown that simply ...
-6 votes
3 answers
686 views

Is there actual debate over which country (Brazil or Portugal) is the successor state to the original Portugal? [closed]

I heard that "Portugal is so lame, it had to declare independece from it's colony (Brasil)", which was elaborated to saying that it's not actually obvious which state (Brazil or Portugal) are the ...