Questions tagged [india]

A country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east.

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Why did some prominent Muslims stay with Congress and didn't join Jinnah's movement for a separate Muslim homeland?

Apparently, because of a policy dispute with Gandhi Jinnah left Congress and went into self-isolation in London, UK. During this time he observed the unfolding political and communal reality in India ...
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Why did Muhammad Ali Jinnah leave Congress?

According to Wikipedia: He was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favoring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, and following such leaders as Mehta, Naoroji, and Gopal ...
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What made India pull out troops and return the captured territory at the end of 1971 Indo-Pak war?

Indian forces during 1971 had decimated the Pakistani troops in Eastern theater resulting in one of the largest post WWII surrender including 90,000 soldiers. While Pakistan was in a non-negotiable ...
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In Mughal India, which factors determined which countries were allowed forts?

I'm roughly halfway through this excellent extensive book: Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company. One of the more memorable sections to me was the account of how the first gestures ...
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Where was gunpowder invented/ discovered?

There are many people on the internet claiming that India discovered/ invented gunpowder for eg, many of these claims quote Dr. Gustav Oppart (acs.org, and see below). Wikipedia says that gunpowder ...
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Did British army commander Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote (1726–1783) get rhinoplasty in India?

This question might seem absurd but I have a good reason. There are many videos of Indian activist Rajiv Dixit (1967–2010) on YouTube where he speaks about 'the glory, science, prosperity of ancient ...
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Did mother Teresa ask to allow to Christianise Arunachal Pradesh to receive Bharat Ratna?

Mother Teresa is a popular person, generally known for her humanitarian work. But from my childhood, I repeatedly used to hear that she promoted and converted many Indians to Christianity either ...
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Why didn't Aurangzeb destroy shivalinga during demolition of Vishweshwar Temple?

Gyanvapi Mosque was constructed by Aurangzeb in 1669 upon demolition of Vishweshwar Temple So why didn't Aurangzeb destroy Shivalinga during demolition of Vishweshwar Temple?
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Are there any references to entombed animals in ancient India?

The 13th century Hindu philosopher Arulnandi Shivacharya wrote a work called the Shiva Jnana Siddhiyar, which among other things contains a refutation of Buddhist philosophy. In this excerpt, various ...
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Who was the PAF aviator nicknamed as "8-Pass Charlie" by IAF in Indo-Pakistan 1965 War?

Indian Airforce veterans who were posted at Adampur IAF airbase make special note of the aviator nicknamed '8-pass Charlie'. He was supposedly given the epithet by the Indians who were apparently ...
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Did France send ships to the Indian Ocean in 1971 in support of Pakistan?

During the Bangladesh Liberation War and related Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 which lead to the independence of Bangladesh, the US executive branch is known to have sent Task Force 74 in the Bay of ...
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When did the Hindu-Muslim split start in India? [closed]

I know that Emperor Akbar did a lot of hard work to make Hindus and Muslims closer e.g. marrying Hindu women, manufacturing a new religion named "Din-e-ilahi", etc. He also had Hindu ...
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Why did Lord Mountbatten shrink the timeline for the withdrawal of British troops from India?

Britain's exit from India and a peaceful transition of power was supposed to take place gradually over a period of 5 years but it was shrunk to 4 months by Lord Mountbatten. It was his negotiations ...
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Why did the status of women in India decline?

If one looks at the present dynamic structure of Indian society one can see that though constantly changing, it still has in its heart many socio-cultural elements that can be traced by or said to ...
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How can we explain the decline of Buddhism in India around the 12th century?

How can we explain the fall of Buddhism in India, which is the geographic origin of Buddhism? Were there ever any direct conflicts between Hinduism and Buddhism? From what I understand, the rise of ...
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Why is there such a dramatic shift in Tamil script during the 3rd to 5th centuries AD?

I have already asked this question in Linguistics.SE but I didn't get any answers and the comments there spoke of historical reasons rather than Linguistics shifts so I'm asking here. Recently, I was ...
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Why did the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and Statute of Westminster (1931) only deal with Dominions?

I have been reading about the abdication of Edward VIII. I understand that due to recent changes brought about by the Statute of Westminster, changes to crown succession - including abdication - ...
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How was wealth accumulated in higher castes of India?

This study found that upper caste Indians own vast majority of wealth and assets in India though they make up lesser amount of population (refer). Even with all the reservation schemes in India, how ...
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Why has the shape of the depiction of Sikh Guru's beard changed?

I was looking at the old pictures of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. I found out that something is odd if we compare them with the modern depictions of both Gurus. I looked for other old ...
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Why did so large places of vastly different cultures and histories unite as India?

I sometimes don't exactly understand how it happened that in India, so many places with so many different cultures got united under one flag. If you see each state in India has its own languages, ...
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What effect did the Bronze Age collapse have on India?

There was direct trade between Mesopotamia and India from the 3rd millennium BCE, and indirect trade as far back as the 9th millennium BCE. I'm wondering what effect the Bronze Age collapse (c. 1200 ...
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Why did the Portuguese permit an Italian commercial agent to accompany Vasco da Gama on the 4th Portuguese India Armada?

From Conquerors by Roger Crowley, A second detachment of five ships under Estevao de Gama followed on April 1. The amplified expedition included a number of observers who would write eyewitness ...
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What was president Ayub Khan's plan on the eastern front during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965?

Surprisingly, the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 was concentrated on the western front only. That is because the war lasted only 17 days and ended up in a ceasefire. After the 1965 war, one of the ...
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Why didn't Alexander invade India?

Alexander conquered most parts of the Western World, but there is a great deal of controversy over his invasion of India. In BC 327 Alexander came to India, and tried to cross the Jhelum river for the ...
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Was religion in India a matter of choice for people during Mauryan empire?

The three most important kings of the Mauryan empire were followers of different religions, though there are disputes since there is not enough evidence to support the claims about Chandragupta & ...
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Who was the prime leader of the Maratha Confederation?

I spend lot of time figure out how the ruling-system of the Maratha Confederation works in the period 1750-1800 but it's difficult for me to figure out. I can't even find a list of the prime rulers of ...
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Why do many Indian Languages have different alphabets?

I see that German, English and French mostly share the same basic set of alphabet and these are languages are spoken by whole countries but if you go to India, there is a state with a new alphabet set ...
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Which is the first Hindu scripture that mentions zodiac signs by name?

The following are the names of zodiac signs Mesha (Aries), Vrushabha (Taurus), Mithuna (Gemini), Karkat (Cancer), Simha (Leo), Kanya (Virgo), Tula (Libra), Vrushchika (Scorpio), Dhanu (Sagittarius), ...
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What was the cause of death of Male Rao Holkar?

As per Wiki article on Male Rao Holkar, son of Ahilyabai Holkar: Shrimant Subhedar Male Rao Holkar II Bahadur (1745 – 5 April 1767), belonging to the Holkar dynasty of the Marathas was the Maharaja ...
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What is the flower-like motif appearing right on top of the arches of structures built by Qutb Shahi dynasty?

This floral motif could be found on almost every structure built by the Qutub Shahi dynasty/ the Deccan Sultanate. Below image is from Charminar, Hyderabad. Similar motifs on Qutb Shahi Tombs: One ...
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How has the mechanism of caste inheritance evolved with time in India?

Recent rulings have been that the child chooses from which side of the parent the caste he wants to take (1). Authoritatively, according to Hindu holy books, you can choose what caste you want to be ...
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Were the societies envisioned in the Dharmasastras ever reflective of reality?

Were the Dharmasastras like Manusmriti and Yajnavalkya Smriti ever implemented in ancient Indian society ? Or did they only represent the ideal or utopia Hinduism imagines could be achieved?
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Who first outlawed homosexuality in the Indian sub-continent?

I have learnt somewhere that in India the British made homosexuality illegal in 1861 through Article 377 of the Indian Penal Code, terming it as "an act against the order of the nature". Was this the ...
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Can you identify this dress uniform (Lucknow, India, around 1911)?

My husband’s grandmother, born illegitimate, did not know her father. She was told that this is him. She was conceived in India in November 1911. I would like to identify the dress uniform. I know it’...
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What was the Indian nobility's reaction to the construction of Veeranam Eri (வீராணம் ஏரி)?

Background Information In the South of Medieval India, there was a wealthy and powerful empire called the Chola Empire. In between the years 907-955 AD, the king (or Raja) Parantaka the First (...
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What led to the alternate definition of secularism in India?

I was reading this post explaining how secularism is understood in India, it turns out that it is quite different from how it is understood in a dictionary/ in the west. In the West, the word secular ...
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Were there religious wars between two sects in Hinduism?

Shaivism and Vaishnavism, are two major sects within the umbrella of Hinduism, each with a different deity as their Supreme God. This difference, is thought to have, in the ancient and even recent ...
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Why did the British leave Kohima and Imphal "lightly" defended in 1944?

In 1942, the answer would have been, "because Britain didn't have enough troops." They were then weak "everywhere" along the line. But by early 1944, after two years of the Burma Campaign, Britain ...
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Was the British Empire financially capable of maintaining India as a colony after WW2?

In India, it is generally accepted that Indian Independence from the British was the culmination of the 190 year long freedom struggle; from the armed conflicts of the mid-1800s to the more peaceful ...
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Is the photograph "England’s Revenge in India" real, staged, or fake?

Might have an interesting puzzle for you here… This picture, titled "England's Revenge in India", appeared in a Nazi propaganda book against Britain published in 1941: The propaganda book claims ...
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How significant was the Fall of Constantinople as an event leading to the Age of Exploration?

I have been hearing that the Fall of Constantinople was the most important event that ultimately led to the Age of Exploration, mainly the discovery of the New World by Columbus and of the sea route ...
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What wiped the Buddhism traces from Kerala History?

I have been told and taught that,Keralam like all the South Indian states, was a destination of Buddhism. But I see literally no traces of Buddhism here now.I would like to know what actually happened ...
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Is there a source for this anecdote about Chandragupta Maurya, battle strategies and hot rice? [closed]

An anecdote (1) about Chandragupta Maurya indicates he learnt that attacking margins is a better battle strategy than attacking the center, and that this insight came from a hot dish (possibly hot ...
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Is there any evidence of the miracles of Tulsidas?

Several miracles are attributed to the great medieval poet and philosopher Tulsidas, among them reviving the dead, and one of the ones that most caught my attention was his arrest by Emperor Akbar. ...
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Were the borders of British India deliberately poorly demarcated?

In India (at least), the British authorities demarcated its borders in a very poor way. For example: Siachen was neither given to Pakistan nor to India. Aksai Chin was not demarcated; they considered ...
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Why was the Tea Horse Route through Tibet less prevalent than the Silk Road route through Tarim Basin, for contact between China and India?

The two major travellers to India, Faxian and Xuanzang visited India from the circuitous western route, while the third one Yijing travelled by sea. Xuanzang described hardships in his journey, and ...
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Did the Indus Valley Civilization use cotton as a writing material?

Cross-posted from Skeptics SE In his book, Science and Secrets of Early Medicine, Jürgen Thorwald writes about the script of the Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa civilizations: (in rough translation) Seals, ...
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Why did the British Empire try to criminalize cannabis in India three times when they had good experience with its taxation?

The British Empire passed a taxation act on cannabis in India in 1798, apparently for the well-being of the natives. What the most likely motivation behind the taxation act is, I don't know. In 1838, ...
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Why could no one reach the southernmost tip of India?

The southernmost tip of India was almost always occupied by the regional kingdoms of the region like Chola Chera Pandya and so on. However, no Indian empire was able to conquer it from the north. May ...
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What was the population of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent in 1800 AD?

This article states: To put it in broader perspective, Muslim population has steadily grown from 13% in 1800 to 16% in 1850 to 20% in 1900 to 25% in 1947 and anywhere between 30 to 33% today ...

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