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Questions tagged [industrial-revolution]

Questions about the transition to new manufacturing processes and technologies that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

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What do historians mean when they talk about “supply side” and “demand side” explanations of the industrial revolution?

Joel Mokyr writes in Demand vs. Supply in the Industrial Revolution that The determination of 'when,' 'where,' and 'how fast' are to be sought first and foremost in supply, not demand-related ...
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What was horse population & growth in Northern UK 1500 to 1850?

I would like any statistics or estimates of horse population growth in Europe after 1500. I am especially interested in the northern UK and areas that industrialized first. I have a hypothesis that ...
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Are we now living in an Automation Age? [closed]

Background Historians have grouped epochs of human technological advancement into various "Technology Ages" (characterized by the predominant types of tools and weapons used by humans) including the ...
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For steam trains, what kind of deaerator was used, if any?

Deaerators are things that remove dissolved gasses in water. Dissolved O2 and CO2 in water will result in boiler corrosion. So I'm wondering how this was done back in the old days of steam trains, ...
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How the average female body used to be before the industrial revolution? [closed]

I have this curiosity for several reasons.History articles says that before the isdustrial revolution most people used to be quite poor and most of the population were peasants. In other words, most ...
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Did quantum theory originate as pure research? [closed]

Recently I've read a debate over the futility of demanding "usefulness" from research endeavors, since the potential outcome is unpredictable. As evidence for this statement, a list of random papers ...
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1answer
287 views

What was the biggest shipbuilding centre in Europe during the Second Industrial Revolution?

I'm specifically interested in the United Kingdom, though I'd love to get a comparison between countries. I would like any answer to cite records of number or tonnage of ships built. I'm interested ...
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1answer
288 views

High wages as root cause that triggered the industrial revolution

I was listening to a (German-language) podcast where this argument was made (tranlation into English courtesy of Google translate): The decisive change came in [...] 1760 in England. And that is ...
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Was it widespread during the 17th and 18th Century for British country people to be evicted and replaced with more profitable agriculture?

We can read about the Scottish Highland clearances. It does appear that the driving motivation was that sheep pastures were more profitable. This was the time of the Industrial Revolution, when many ...
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Is the concern about automation costing jobs a recent one only, or are there other examples from the past?

Jobs always have been replaced. Were people in the past concerned about how technology might deprive them of their jobs? To make the question less broad: Were people at the time of the industrial ...
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What percentage of the British Empire's economy was profits from the opium trade?

Between 1820 and 1840 the British sold a lot of Opium in China. Compared with the total size of the British Empire's economy, how big was the Opium trade? I have an old friend who maintains that even ...
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Did the ancients or other pre-industrial civilisations engage in unsustainable practices?

A popular rhetoric we hear regarding sustainability is that modern life after industrialization and arrival of plastics and hydrocarbon fuels have led to environmental degradation on Earth and our ...
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How did people apply for university in the 18th century?

Universities have been around for a while. I am reading a book called Frankenstein. One of the main characters, Victor Frankenstein, attends the University of Ingolstadt in Germany. Now, it makes ...
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Why did it take so long for humans to utilise fossil fuels? [closed]

While our ancestors have been around for about six million years, the modern form of humans only evolved about 200,000 years ago. Civilization as we know it is only about 6,000 years old, and ...
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What role did 17th c. luxury manufacturing play in the industrialization?

The luxury industry boomed with Louis XIV and his heirs. He made it mandatory for the nobles to invest their fortunes in the French luxury industry by following the latest fashion that the king ...
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1answer
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How to find the image of a 17th century music instruments manufacture?

How to find on Goolge Images search an image of 17th or 18th century manufacture? The drawing (or lithography) was showing a hall with people sitting around and building music instruments. I have seen ...
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Why was the Aeolipile not put to practical use in Ancient Greece?

The Aeolipile was a simple mechanical device that generated kinetic energy from steam. Its invention is attributed to the Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD. Source: Aeolipile With the ...
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1answer
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Worker's submission in the Industrial Revolution

I've read that during the Industrial Revolution many workers abandoned their jobs as farmers or artisans to sell their labor to the new middle class. The jobs were exhausting and the quality of life ...
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2answers
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Index of importance / economic value various minerals during the Industrial Revolution

I am looking for an indication, possibly an Index, as to the value or importance of common minerals for the Industrial Revolution. So, for example how important was Manganese (or Lead, or Zinc..) ...
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Was there a president that wanted to “Make America Farm Again”?

There seems to be a lot of push back as the US employment markets move toward knowledge work and away from more traditional industrial roles. I'm sure there was a similar time in history when moving ...
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1answer
633 views

What percentage of British people during the industrial revolution were rich?

I am doing some research for school and I was wondering what was the percentage of British people during the industrial revolution (The 1760 to 1840 period) were rich? By 'rich' I mean a person that ...
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2answers
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What name was given to Victorian era of confidence?

When considering the Victorian era there is a typical reference to the zeitgeist that thought that human society and technology were inevitably progressing for the better, a sort of manifest destiny ...
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175 views

Early Telegraph Systems

My understanding of telegraphs is that you can only send one message at a time over one cable, if that is not accurate then this question is pointless. I am curious how telegraph communication was ...
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1answer
156 views

Was knowledge derived from the scientific method required to build commercial steam engines? [closed]

Historically steam engines got developed in England after the introduction of the hypothetico-deductive scientific method. Was the hypothetico-deductive method or knowledge about thermodynamics or ...
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2answers
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Japan allying with Germany in WWII [duplicate]

So I've been studying imperialism. Focusing on Japan, Japan's imperialism is a result of its modernization which is a result of Matthew Perry's siege (not a good word). After the treaty of Kanagawa, ...
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1answer
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Book about Glorious Revolution

I am currently reading Acemoglu, Daron & Robinson, James: Why Nations Fail, which made me want to read more about the Glorious Revolution of 1688. I am particularly interested in an economic ...
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How much resemblance did the industrialization of the Soviet Union bear to those of the rest of the world?

I was thinking about the industrialization of the Soviet Union, most notably the death toll involved. The policies (such as forced-labour, prison camps for those who under performed, extremely poor ...
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Did Watt or another inventor have a dream about ball bearings?

I have put in a fair amount of searching for this but have come up empty. I specifically remember the story printed from my childhood like 30-40 years ago, but I wanted to see if there's any source ...
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River transportation before steam- did it always require beasts of burden?

Today, it takes gasoline or diesel fuel. Prior to that and thanks to Mr. Fulton, there was steam. I want to learn more about even earlier river transportation systems, focusing on the Ohio and ...
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Where did the demand for textiles during the industrial revolution come from?

A lot of the technological developments in the early-ish industrial revolution in Britain were about increasing the rate and efficiency of textile manufacture. It's easy to find material about what ...
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0answers
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How effective was child labor legislation in Victorian Europe? [closed]

How effective was child labor legislation in Victorian Europe? Effectiveness being counted in 'percent of working environments that actually complied', with 'Effective' being... 50% compliance? Or ...
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1answer
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What did farmers/laborers use for boots before modern rubber existed?

The need or usefulness to protect one's feet while doing certain duties in farming, heavy labor, and the like (such as construction with pointy things and hard edges everywhere), I am assuming has ...
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1answer
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Why did textile mill owners during the industrial revolution keep their factory windows closed?

This is an excerpt from Harbinger, published in 1846 on the working conditions of mills in Lowell, MA and Manchester, NH: The atmosphere of such a room cannot of course be pure; on the contrary it ...
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Why didn't the Greeks or Romans have an Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the 18th century. The precursor to the Industrial Revolution was the Enlightenment. This occurred when European scholars rediscovered Greek and ...
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What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? [duplicate]

What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? I know there were at least a few other European countries with some of the same advantages that Great Britain had (...
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How did the human capacity to manipulate the physical and social world change in Europe between 1400 to 1700? [closed]

How did the human capacity to manipulate the physical and social world change in Europe between 1400 to 1700? In particular I am looking for significant change, as agreed by historians, in terms of ...
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What is the meaning of “£10 per cent” in the early 19th century in relation to a wage (30/- fortnight)

Reading Hammond and Hammond (1919) The Skilled labourer I came across the expression of £10% in the quoted primary sources, ie, at 34: The Duke of Northumberland wrote to the H.O. on May 26 that work ...
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Could Great Britain have built the British Empire if it was not the pioneer of the Industrial Revolution?

Could Great Britain have built the British Empire if it was not the pioneer of the Industrial Revolution? Put another way: Was the Industrial Revolution the single key over-riding factor to its ...
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Was the enclosure responsible for the supply of factory workers in 18th and 19th Century England?

Were the enclosures of rural land responsible for the supply of workers to factories in the 18th and 19th century in England?
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1answer
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What devices used computer-like programs in industrial era?

As possibly some of you remember early computers had very small human-machine interface and coding programs was done by cards like this one: or a tape like these: This invention of controlling ...
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Did America ignore British patents during Industrialization

I remember reading a Noam Chomsky book where he stated that America simply stole British patented ideas, claiming that British laws did not apply to her. Chomsky's argument was that America is ...
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Why didn't the Arab states industrialize?

Why didn't the states of the Arabian peninsula industrialize around the time that Europe and East Asia did? Was it simply a lack of accessible natural resources? Why not import coal?
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Why the military revolution is a cause of the industrial revolution?

I've heard that the military revolution in Europe helps its to reach the industrial revolution. It's an answer to the question "Why the industrial revolution starts in Europe and not in China", while ...
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Why did the United Kingdom industrialize first?

What factors made the United Kingdom the first to industrialize? Was it simply the importance and benefit of its position in the global community for trade?
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Books on the history of modern China for pleasure reading? [closed]

I'm interested in learning about this history of modern China, which to me means roughly the 19th-20th centuries. I'm kind of interested in the industrial development of China, and its role during the ...
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What technological/economic factors triggered the Industrial Revolution?

In the 19th century, many things started to change. The world of 1800 would not be a shock to a person from the 15th century. But for some reason, the world of today would be an incredible shock to ...