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Questions tagged [international-relations]

For questions about interactions between sovereign states.

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Besides Mexico, who was considered as a potential ally of the Central Powers?

The Zimmermann telegram to the embassy in Mexico outright suggests that German Empire is trying to court Mexico as an ally in the Great War: We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted ...
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2answers
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Articles 3 & 5 of the Tripartite Pact are unclearly formulated. Was this standard for the period?

Tripartite Pact: ARTICLE 3 and ARTICLE 5 ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all ...
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3answers
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What is the difference between annexing, occupying and taking over a country? [closed]

Hitler in WW2 annexed or took over Austria, but occupied France and Belgium. What is the difference? When Hitler took a sliver of Poland, and Czechoslovakia, did he take over or did he occupy it?
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3answers
377 views

Did foreign countries respond to the Munich Putsch?

Did the Munich Putsch put Hitler in the spotlight on an international level? If so why didn't the league of nations act – or any other country for that matter? On the surface the Beer-Hall Putsch ...
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2answers
171 views

Besides the US in 1958, has there been a post-WWII show of force by any military in the Taiwan Strait (excluding Taiwan and China)?

CNN's article US Vice President Pence set to inflame China tensions: 'We will not be intimidated' describes an upcoming speech by US VP Pence and the existence of a proposed military exercise in ...
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What is the correct timeline of events for the boycott of the Olympic Games 1980 in Moscow

Coming from the recent question of How did the US government manage to enforce the 1980 boycott of the Olympic Games in Russia? and a comment in that thread I kept wondering. Who was the first and ...
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Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
2
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1answer
286 views

How was the Washington Naval Treaty enforced?

In view of Pearl Harbor, I would be interested to know how the Washington Naval Treaty was enforced - if at all? - given that this was before the establishment of the UN. Would the the signatories ...
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2answers
376 views

Was any war started by a country (both of its people and leadership) knowing defeat was inevitable? [closed]

Most Japanese people today wonder why Japan started a war against USA because it seems to them that it had no chance of winning. Susumu Nishibe, who died suddenly last month, often said in his TV ...
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2answers
194 views

What did the smaller values from the “Percentages Agreement” actually mean?

I am currently living in Romania and I have heard on several occasions about the Percentages agreement. The article mentions that it was a secret agreement, so most of the information about it was ...
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2answers
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Did the Pope's crossbow and archery bans have any effect?

One of the more famous and certainly curious decisions at the Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 was a ban on using missile troops against Christians. Specifically, Canon 29 states that: We ...
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251 views

Why were Soviet attitudes towards Israel inconsistent in the late 40's and 50's?

What are the different theories explaining the inconsistent attitude Soviet Russia had towards the nascent State of Israel between the years 1947 and 1953? Communist Russia's hate of Zionism is well ...
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1answer
153 views

When the Chinese were driven out of modern Vietnam in AD 938, did an Vietnamese ethnic identity already exist?

With some periods of interruption, China dominated Vietnam for more than 10 centuries between 111 BC and 938 AD. This wikipedia article and its subsidiary links spoke of sinification and shifting of ...
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2answers
354 views

Did the Central Powers during World War 1 try to sue for peace before the Armistice?

Given their limited offensive actions during the trench warfare, the Austro-Hungarians were surely considering this was as far as they could actually advance. Didn't they put up negotiation positions ...
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1answer
221 views

Did international laws on wars of conquest change in 1945?

From a comment on what victors can do to losers in a war: Since this is a history site, we should also note that wars of conquest are no longer legal after 1945, so "most of history" no longer ...
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508 views

Who thought there might be a war between the British Empire and the United States of America in the 1920s?

A naval arms race in the 1920s grew ugly enough that commentators on both sides of the Atlantic were claiming war “not unthinkable.” This quote is from a lecture by an academic called John Moser; ...
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Was it not clear to the WWI allies that they were over-reaching with the treaty of Sevres?

In the treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was made to cede not only all (?) territories outside modern-day Turkey, but also: Control of the Bosphorus straight and the Dardanelles Significant ...
8
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2answers
558 views

What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
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1answer
410 views

Why don't the Americas use ISO paper sizes?

In the mid-sixties, most countries standardized on ISO paper sizes (A-series, B-series, etc.). The Americas didn't. Why not? (Around the same time there was a failed push in the US to switch to ...
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0answers
84 views

Why don't the Americas use ISO paper sizes? [duplicate]

In the mid-sixties, most countries standardized on ISO paper sizes (A-series, B-series, etc.). The Americas didn't. Why not? (Around the same time there was a failed push in the US to switch to ...
4
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4answers
5k views

Why was the Jay Treaty so hated by the American public?

Why was the Jay Treaty so hated by the American public? I've read that many people hated it, but I don't understand why. It ensured the United States would get back forts that had been taken by ...
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2answers
739 views

Why did the United States issue the Monroe Doctrine when it did?

The Monroe Doctrine – probably the most long-lasting declaration in American diplomatic history – was issued in 1824, when the U.S. were still not a very strong nation. Why did President Monroe issue ...
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1answer
340 views

What is the largest secret kept in history? [closed]

What is the largest successfully or semi-successfully kept secret in human history? Some definitions: Successfully - If a secret was kept entirely secret successfully, we wouldn't know about it. ...
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7answers
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Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt pro-intervention?

In the lead-up to WW2, most Americans were in favor of neutrality and isolation. President Roosevelt, however, was privately in favor of intervention. One paragraph from Wikipedia summarizes it ...
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Is the Loi Lamine Gueye- law n ° 46-940 of May 7, 1946 enacted by the French Parliament active even today?

How many countries(former French colonies) have annulled this? And, has this been annulled by France as well after the dissolution of French Union?
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When has a sovereign state last given territory to another as a gift?

There is a very popular ongoing Norwegian petition to give Finland a mountaintop for the 100th anniversary of its independence (6 December 2017), by moving the border a short distance. The barren ...
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244 views

What was the process by which the modern border control system developed? [duplicate]

I know that today, if I take a cruise of the Mediterranean, then each time the boat stops in a new country, and I wish to go ashore and see the sites, that I will need to have appropriate ...
3
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3answers
485 views

Is there a precedent for private companies maintaining a military force? [closed]

In general we think of Corporations as not acting on nations with force, simply with legal power. (Perhaps they maintain a fleet of security guards). We generally think of Corporations as leaving the ...
2
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1answer
155 views

What was said about Vermont in the Paris negotiations of 1782?

In November 1782 the Preliminary Articles of Peace between Britain and the United States were signed. They specified where the boundaries of the United States were. I have two questions: (1) Did ...
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2answers
517 views

Why didn't America “rent” parts of China? [closed]

After the Opium War, Britain and France signed treaties with China that said they could establish "spheres of influence" over parts of China. Britain and France went this way, but why didn't America?
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1answer
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What motivated revolutionary France to declare war on Britain in 1793?

France declared war on Britain in 1793 (War of First Coalition). What was its motivation for declaring war? It was already at war with many European powers at the moment, and it was not likely in a ...
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0answers
116 views

What, if anything, did Native Americans know about the rest of the world? [duplicate]

Did the indigenous tribes of North America know anything at all about civilization outside the continent before the fifteenth century? If so, how much did they know, and what international relations ...
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3answers
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Why didn't the participants of the Korean War also fight in the Vietnam War?

In the Korean war from 1950 to 1953, a lot of countries including the U.S., the U.K., France, Canada, Australia, and even Colombia, the Philippines and Ethiopia participated in the war under the U.N. ...
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3answers
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Why was the Aztec Empire known as an Empire?

Wikipedia defines an Empire as following: The term "empire" does not have a precise definition, but is generally applied to political entities that are considered to be especially large by the ...
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7answers
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Has any country won a war, but lost a non-trivial portion of its territory?

Has any country won a war, but lost a non-trivial amount of its territory? For example, 10% or 20%. It doesn't matter whether this country still exists or not.
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3answers
712 views

Did the Muslims of Granada expect their Christian conquerors to keep their promised terms?

The Treaty of Granada which surrendered Granada, the last Muslim-controlled area in medieval Spain, to King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile seemed to be quite generous, magnanimous ...
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1answer
578 views

In the Palestine Partition Plan, why was Jaffa allocated to the Arab state?

I'm reading through the document, "The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, Part II" by the United Nations. Under the provisions of the Palestine Resolution, they note that Palestine was ...
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3answers
3k views

How did Germany claim self-defense in WW1?

WW1 broke out after a series of ultimatums and warnings against each other. However, I understand that every power claimed that the other powers were acting against its interests, and it was ...
3
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1answer
271 views

Was there ever a situation where members of two warring militaries were on leave in the same neutral location? [closed]

Or not necessarily on leave, but in some capacity where they were present in numbers but not allowed to fight?
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5answers
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Why didn't China assist in the Vietnam War like they did in Korea?

In the Korean War (1950 - 1953), China sent in about 1 million troops fairly quickly and actually fought the American and UN forces. In the Vietnam War (1950's - 1975), the only Chinese assistance I ...
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2answers
308 views

Could Polish people who didn't live in Poland get Polish citizenship after Poland's revival in 1918?

Before and during WWI, people of Polish origin held either Russian, Austrian or German passports. I am pretty sure none of the official documents mentioned ethnicity at all, the system of separate ...
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2answers
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Why did the original Carthage never become a Roman city?

Carthage fell to the might of Rome, I think it was, three times in total. They were completely defeated and accepted some pretty horrible terms of surrender. And yet they maintained their self ...
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4answers
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Did Russia declare war on Germany before its invasion of that country on August 7, 1914?

I was looking through some lists of war declarations from the first World War and I did not see any declaration of war by Russia on Germany or Prussia. The Russian army did invade Prussia on August 7, ...
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3answers
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Why did the US not move to crush the Haitian Revolt after the 1804 massacre?

Understandably, the European nations were embroiled in the Napoleonic wars. But the American Revolutionary War had been over for almost 20 years by then. A large part of their population too, were ...
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3answers
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Does the world become more prosperous when divided? [closed]

Matt Ridley in Rational Optimist says that countries are prosperous when divided due to competition among government. Countries are backward when united. According to this theory, China advanced after ...
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2answers
1k views

What was the final result for France after the Napoleonic wars?

What I'd like to know is if the final outcome of the wars was ultimately beneficial for France. In territorial terms. Did it manage to keep some territorial gains? If the question isn't clear be ...
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5answers
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Why did the Soviet Union close its borders and restrict travel abroad?

It was virtually impossible for citizens of Soviet Union to move or travel abroad. Only some ethnic minorities (e.g. Jewish) with family members abroad could move out, yet with great difficulty. Why ...
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3answers
697 views

Why do more historians state Rome was a superpower, than Persia? [closed]

Persian Empire was older and larger (I am not sure about this) than the Roman Empire. However, when it comes to the title of Superpower, many historians say Rome was the world first true superpower. ...
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3answers
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Why was France given such a lenient peace after Napoleon was defeated?

For two decades revolutionary France had attacked and conquered many nations in Europe. Millions were killed. But when the allies finally defeated France, the peace was very lenient. France didn't ...
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0answers
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Why have some territorial annexations been rejected by the international community? [closed]

The annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the annexation of the Golan Heights by Israel, and the annexation of Crimea by Russia are examples of recent territorial annexations that have been rejected by the ...