Questions tagged [international-relations]

For questions about interactions between sovereign states.

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24
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4answers
5k views

Why was the US so pro-China and so anti-Japan before WW2?

There is little doubt that the US embargoes on Japan pushed an already aggressive Japan towards Pearl Harbor. Japanese Navy doctrine had already been contemplating a conflict with the US and this ...
1
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4answers
577 views

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement?

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany when they knew the nature of Nazi regime? What did they want to obtain by signing this agreement? In 1938/1939, two pacts/...
21
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8answers
5k views

Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt pro-intervention?

In the lead-up to WW2, most Americans were in favor of neutrality and isolation. President Roosevelt, however, was privately in favor of intervention. One paragraph from Wikipedia summarizes it ...
2
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3answers
860 views

Did foreign countries respond to the Munich Putsch?

Did the Munich Putsch put Hitler in the spotlight on an international level? If so why didn't the league of nations act – or any other country for that matter? On the surface the Beer-Hall Putsch ...
-1
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2answers
177 views

Has there ever arisen a nation-state without violence/war/extreme subordination? [closed]

Has there ever arisen a nation-state (building/birth/creation of a new nation state) without violence/war/extreme subordination? But rather peacefully, organically, with all parties and neighbours ...
2
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0answers
113 views

Which country has been credited with the most regime changes, by historians, since 1900? [closed]

I recently discussed with an acquaintance of mine about the Russian interference in the USA presidential elections of 2016. Our discussion was more focus on the IT aspects of the saga but at one point ...
63
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18answers
13k views

When has a sovereign state last given territory to another as a gift?

There is a very popular ongoing Norwegian petition to give Finland a mountaintop for the 100th anniversary of its independence (6 December 2017), by moving the border a short distance. The barren ...
8
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1answer
406 views

Was Queen Elizabeth II ever the head of state of Namibia?

Let's set the scene, WW1 is over and part of the negotiations, and the only thing we're really focusing on here, is that Deutsch-Südwestafrika becomes administered by the Union of South Africa, the ...
48
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9answers
14k views

Has there ever been a cold war other than between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.?

At any time in world history, has there ever been two nations involved in a "cold war" similar to the one between the U.S. and U.S.S.R., and notably including proxy wars? My thanks to Lars Bosteen, ...
15
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3answers
1k views

Did the Muslims of Granada expect their Christian conquerors to keep their promised terms?

The Treaty of Granada which surrendered Granada, the last Muslim-controlled area in medieval Spain, to King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile seemed to be quite generous, magnanimous ...
1
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4answers
430 views

When was the concept of Europe as a singular political unit conceived?

When was the concept of Europe as a singular political unit conceived? When did people start to think of themselves as sharing a similar European culture and calling themselves European? For this ...
3
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2answers
601 views

Why didn't America "rent" parts of China? [closed]

After the Opium War, Britain and France signed treaties with China that said they could establish "spheres of influence" over parts of China. Britain and France went this way, but why didn't America?
13
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6answers
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Why did Nepal and Bhutan not become a part of India like other princely states when colonial rule ended?

During the period around Independence, India, under Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel's program to unite the subcontinent, was getting Princely states to accede to Union of India. There were around 570 ...
4
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1answer
766 views

Did Mete Khan and Hsiung-nu serve the Chinese Emperor?

I was reading Nicolae Jorga's "History of Ottoman Empire vol. 1" and he gave information that Mete Khan, who freed Hsiung-nu people from the rule of Yue-chi, was a servant of the Chinese Emperor. But ...
11
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2answers
536 views

Chiang's allies were "a kidnapper, a hooligan and a bully" but which was which?

Chiang Kai-shek complained bitterly about his allies Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union (the latter admittedly not at war with Japan till the very end). But when he stated that China's ...
5
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2answers
576 views

When and why China started to make a difference in the superpower arena?

China is starting to be more and more remarked on as a superpower, but this surely didn't happen overnight, so what would be that decade that was very auspicious for China and why?
12
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2answers
550 views

Why did countries declare exclusive economic zones of up to 200 nautical miles?

Today coastal countries own the surrounding marine waters stretching 200 nautical miles from their shoreline in terms of exclusive rights of exploiting its resources (their exclusive economic zone (...
17
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2answers
3k views

Why did the original Carthage never become a Roman city?

Carthage fell to the might of Rome, I think it was, three times in total. They were completely defeated and accepted some pretty horrible terms of surrender. And yet they maintained their self ...
16
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4answers
1k views

Was it not clear to the WWI allies that they were over-reaching with the treaty of Sevres?

In the treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was made to cede not only all (?) territories outside modern-day Turkey, but also: Control of the Bosphorus straight and the Dardanelles Significant ...
21
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3answers
1k views

In the early 1900s, how did US politicians treat black dignitaries from other countries?

Are there any historical records of US politicians (especially southern politicians) treating black dignitaries (especially royalty) with great pomp and ceremony, while simultaneously and ...
13
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2answers
860 views

How did France worsen its relationship with Turkey?

Several years back Turkey barred some French companies to participate in one of its arms procurement tender. Turkey doesn't allow French military air-crafts or ships to pass its territorial space. ...
7
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1answer
415 views

What happens to interned military personnel if war is declared post-internment?

Here is a real-world example during World War I. The German ship SMS Geier sails to neutral port in Hawaii in 1914, territory of the United States. Since the USA and Germany are not at war, the ship ...
29
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4answers
15k views

Why did the Soviet Union close its borders and restrict travel abroad?

It was virtually impossible for citizens of Soviet Union to move or travel abroad. Only some ethnic minorities (e.g. Jewish) with family members abroad could move out, yet with great difficulty. Why ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What's the earliest example of a permanent embassy?

In all the accounts I've read, when the great empires of the ancient Mediterranean needed to talk to each other, they sent an ambassador or a messenger. As in, someone from Country A brought a ...
5
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1answer
283 views

Why might one think that Australia gained independence from the UK in December 1920?

I'm looking at a dataset claims that Australia gained independence from the UK in December 1920.† I found this puzzling and this could very well just be a mistake. But I'm wondering if there's any ...
0
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1answer
116 views

Did any UK declaration of war extend automatically to Australia?

On 1939-09-03, the UK declared war on Germany and Australia did the same. A New Zealand government website claims: In contrast to its entry into the First World War, New Zealand acted in its own ...
5
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1answer
857 views

Why don't the Americas use ISO paper sizes?

In the mid-sixties, most countries standardized on ISO paper sizes (A-series, B-series, etc.). The Americas didn't. Why not? (Around the same time there was a failed push in the US to switch to ...
9
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2answers
638 views

What are the earliest examples in history where one state/people stepped in to rescue another?

I started wondering about this after watching yet another World War II movie where the European people are freed by Mother Russia and Uncle Sam and also helped in their recovery. What are the ...
5
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1answer
467 views

Why was the duration of territorial contracts often 99 years?

This is based on this Reddit question, but I rectified its mistakes. For example, some European colonies in China were leased for 99 years, like German Kiautschou and the New Territories (but not ...
16
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8answers
4k views

Has any country won a war, but lost a non-trivial portion of its territory?

Has any country won a war, but lost a non-trivial amount of its territory? For example, 10% or 20%. It doesn't matter whether this country still exists or not.
6
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2answers
294 views

Was there trade among African empires?

I've been searching, without success so far on mainstream history media (mainly references given by teachers, references on Wikipedia and stuff like this) and have not found any evidences (or proofs ...
6
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4answers
10k views

Why was the Jay Treaty so hated by the American public?

Why was the Jay Treaty so hated by the American public? I've read that many people hated it, but I don't understand why. It ensured the United States would get back forts that had been taken by ...
2
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2answers
348 views

Articles 3 & 5 of the Tripartite Pact are unclearly formulated. Was this standard for the period?

Tripartite Pact: ARTICLE 3 and ARTICLE 5 ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all ...
17
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2answers
2k views

Besides Mexico, who was considered as a potential ally of the Central Powers?

The Zimmermann telegram to the embassy in Mexico outright suggests that German Empire is trying to court Mexico as an ally in the Great War: We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted ...
12
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6answers
10k views

Before entering WW II, why was the US so against Japanese aggression in China but did nothing about Germany in Europe?

The US was very vocal against Japanese aggression in China in the 1930's and early 1940's but said nothing against German aggression in Europe. The US finally placed an embargo on sending oil and ...
8
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2answers
423 views

Did the Central Powers during World War 1 try to sue for peace before the Armistice?

Given their limited offensive actions during the trench warfare, the Austro-Hungarians were surely considering this was as far as they could actually advance. Didn't they put up negotiation positions ...
2
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3answers
3k views

What is the difference between annexing, occupying and taking over a country? [closed]

Hitler in WW2 annexed or took over Austria, but occupied France and Belgium. What is the difference? When Hitler took a sliver of Poland, and Czechoslovakia, did he take over or did he occupy it?
3
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2answers
275 views

Besides the US in 1958, has there been a post-WWII show of force by any military in the Taiwan Strait (excluding Taiwan and China)?

CNN's article US Vice President Pence set to inflame China tensions: 'We will not be intimidated' describes an upcoming speech by US VP Pence and the existence of a proposed military exercise in ...
30
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2answers
4k views

Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
2
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0answers
640 views

What is the correct timeline of events for the boycott of the Olympic Games 1980 in Moscow

Coming from the recent question of How did the US government manage to enforce the 1980 boycott of the Olympic Games in Russia? and a comment in that thread I kept wondering. Who was the first and ...
1
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0answers
86 views

Why don't the Americas use ISO paper sizes? [duplicate]

In the mid-sixties, most countries standardized on ISO paper sizes (A-series, B-series, etc.). The Americas didn't. Why not? (Around the same time there was a failed push in the US to switch to ...
9
votes
2answers
5k views

Why didn't Russia and Japan sign a peace treaty after WW2?

I have read that Russia and Japan, which had been fighting long before World War I, are still at war, at least technically, since they did not sign a peace treaty at the conclusion of World War II. ...
8
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1answer
710 views

Who thought there might be a war between the British Empire and the United States of America in the 1920s?

A naval arms race in the 1920s grew ugly enough that commentators on both sides of the Atlantic were claiming war “not unthinkable.” This quote is from a lecture by an academic called John Moser; ...
2
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1answer
603 views

How was the Washington Naval Treaty enforced?

In view of Pearl Harbor, I would be interested to know how the Washington Naval Treaty was enforced - if at all? - given that this was before the establishment of the UN. Would the the signatories ...
31
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5answers
13k views

Why didn't China assist in the Vietnam War like they did in Korea?

In the Korean War (1950 - 1953), China sent in about 1 million troops fairly quickly and actually fought the American and UN forces. In the Vietnam War (1950's - 1975), the only Chinese assistance I ...
18
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4answers
9k views

Have Germany and Poland ever signed a peace treaty after WWII?

I met a shocking (for me) information, that Germany and Poland have not signed a peace treaty after the World War II. Because I could not believe this, I performed some research. In the Potsdam ...
1
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2answers
400 views

Was any war started by a country (both of its people and leadership) knowing defeat was inevitable? [closed]

Most Japanese people today wonder why Japan started a war against USA because it seems to them that it had no chance of winning. Susumu Nishibe, who died suddenly last month, often said in his TV ...
7
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2answers
273 views

What did the smaller values from the "Percentages Agreement" actually mean?

I am currently living in Romania and I have heard on several occasions about the Percentages agreement. The article mentions that it was a secret agreement, so most of the information about it was ...
8
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2answers
1k views

What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
34
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2answers
13k views

Did the Pope's crossbow and archery bans have any effect?

One of the more famous and certainly curious decisions at the Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 was a ban on using missile troops against Christians. Specifically, Canon 29 states that: We ...