Questions tagged [islam]

Islam is one of the monotheistic Abrahamic religions along with Christianity, and Judaism. Islam first gained prominence during the 7th century C.E. and is the second largest religious group in the world behind Christianity. A follower of Islam is known as a Muslim.

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16
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8answers
8k views

Was Islam really responsible for the Italian Renaissance?

I recently heard a big claim from a Muslim, that the Italian Renaissance was largely caused by the positive Islamic influence on Europe via Spain or Al Andalus. I have my doubts about this claim, ...
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5answers
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Is there a possibility that the Islamic civilization visited America before Columbus?

Islamic sources claim that there is historical evidence that an Islamic explorer visited America before Columbus and the Age of Discovery. An example. Columbus Was Not The First To Cross The Atlantic. ...
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2answers
924 views

What historical evidence do we have for the existence of Mohammed?

I have been listening to a podcast, called "The History of Byzantium" and in one of the episodes there was a discussion about the lack of reference to Mohammad or Qur'an in the century after ...
4
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0answers
139 views

Were Medieval Islamic peoples in Northern Eurasia given religious dispensations due to the long diurnal cycles?

Christian troops in Northern Europe were given Papal dispensation to allow them to follow religious practices properly during the long(er) diurnal cycle at those latitudes. Were Medieval Islamic ...
12
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1answer
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Did Napoleon write an elegy to Imam Hussain?

In this YouTube video, noted Pakistani scholar, Allama Zamir Akhtar Naqvi claims (in Urdu) that Napoleon wrote a letter or poem in honour of the historical figure Imam Hussain, during a war between ...
3
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1answer
106 views

What was the population of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750 CE?

What was the population of the Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent (750 CE)? According to Wikipedia it was 22 million. According to other various sources / websites it was 62 million (wikipedia ...
11
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1answer
291 views

When did Abu Bakr agree to lower taxes for the Arabs living under the rule of Byzantine and Sassanid Empire?

The Wikipedia entry about the Muslim conquest of Persia says: First invasion of Mesopotamia (633) After the Ridda Wars, a tribal chief of north eastern Arabia, Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha, raided the ...
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1answer
67 views

Why did Indonesia convert to Islam? Why did Bali remain Hindu-Buddhist? [duplicate]

Indonesia is an Islamic State today, but before, it was Hindu-Buddhist. Bali is the only island with a majority-Hindu population. Why?
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3answers
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Why is Indonesia a Muslim country?

As the title implies I am wondering as to the reasons why Indonesia is a Muslim country? When visiting Indonesia a few years back, I surprisingly learnt that the country had the largest Muslim ...
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3answers
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Why did the island of Bali remain Hindu when most of the rest of Indonesia converted to Islam?

The Wiki page on the spread of Islam in Indonesia stresses that our knowledge of this macro-historical process is fragmentary, for instance often we don’t how the religion diffused out into the ...
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How popular was Arabic in Syria before Islamic conquest?

Before the Islamic conquest of Syria and the whole Levant, how popular was the Arabic language there? Are there any resources show what the percentage of Arabic in that region is as well?
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Did Aurangzeb issue a farman promising 4 Rs for all males that convert and 2 Rs for females?

I found a reference to this farman here (first link) But I can't find the source of the author (or if its authentic). Is it from an akhbar or from a biography of Aurangzeb? Its mentioned as a farman ...
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226 views

What was the area of the Mamluk Sultanate?

Both in the Baḥrī period and the Burjī period. I've been trying to find an answer for about 30 minutes and I've found nothing, so if you know, a source would be good too.
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1answer
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Are there thirteenth century sources linking the Fifth Crusade to the Book Of Daniel?

Are there any thirteenth century sources (Christian, Islamic, or Jewish) linking (the timing of) the fifth crusade to a possibly self-fulfilling prophecy1 from (the eighth chapter2 of) the Book of ...
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3answers
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What was the world's largest religion in 1500?

Prior to the colonization of the Americas and Africa by the West, it appears somewhat unlikely that Christianity was the largest religion in the world. If I am not mistaken, the majority of the world'...
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1answer
47 views

Why did the first Safavid Shia become Shia?

I'm currently reading the history of Safavid Iran (by Roger Savory) which was a Shia ruling. The eponym of Safavid is Safi-ad-din Ardabili that was a Sunni. We can be sure that his grandson Khvajeh ...
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Is there any known pre-twentieth century history of the tomb of Sidi Rezegh?

Is there any known pre-twentieth century history of the tomb of Sidi Rezegh? A variant spelling is Sidi Rizq from سيدي رزق at 31.8287°N, 24.1345°E in Al Butnan province, Libya near Tobruk and Al Adm. ...
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2answers
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How were Muslim Turks treated in Byzantine Empire?

While reading about the Palaiologan Renaissance on Wikipedia, I was intrigued to find that a mosque was rebuilt in Constantinople, which was destroyed during the fourth crusade(read about it here). I ...
13
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1answer
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What was the reason for the Ottoman empire to adopt the crescent moon as its flag/coat of arms?

The Ottoman empire used the crescent moon as its symbol extensively. Any reasons for the symbolism? I have read references to polythesim of Turks contributing to the crescent and star (which predates ...
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1answer
186 views

Did Ali say that only Muhammad's descendants can rule?

Islam stackexchange wasn't able to answer this question. It quotes Wikipedia:Ali. This is a politically charged question I think. Sunnis and Shias see Ali positively. So if there are Sunni records ...
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2answers
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Did Muslim states hire Western European knights as mercenaries before the Crusades?

In the book Hattin by John France the following claim is made: The fighting qualities of western knights were widely recognized in the Mediterranean lands, and they were often employed even by ...
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1answer
229 views

How were wars financed under Islamic empires?

A related question is this thread, where the subject in question were banks, and how they operated and profited under Islamic rule. In Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), charging interest on loans is ...
7
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1answer
264 views

Were Jews cut off from the Babylonian Geonim?

This is the view that I'm familiar with about the decline of the Geonim: The Mesopotamian Gaon reached the height of its prestige in the 10th century- with Saadia Gaon (d. 945), but the ...
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2answers
803 views

How did various Islamic polities incentivise conversion?

I have read the Wikipedia article spread of Islam. The claim is made that conversion at swordpoint was rare It is now apparent that conversion by force, while not unknown in Muslim countries, was, ...
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Why did Shi'ite Islam split in the 9th century?

UPDATE: There is a low hanging piece of fruit on the Wikipedia page for the Qarmations. I might give the bounty to someone who finds that. ORIGINAL QUESTION: I'm asking about the reasons for the ...
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3answers
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How did Islamic finance under the early Caliphates profit or take loans if charging interest wasn't legal?

Under Islamic Law, any type of interest is considered usury and therefore illegal (in the religious context). How did lenders make money under this restriction? I am asking in the time frame from ...
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2answers
223 views

Why are the borders of the Islamic world where they are? [closed]

I think I can answer a lot of this question myself. Geography, of course, played a major role: In the south, the Sahara put a powerful brake on the religion's expansion further into Africa. (...
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12answers
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Why weren't Indians converted en masse to Islam or Christianity?

India was ruled by Muslims from around the 12th century until 1857, and then by the British till 1947. However, India still has a large number of Hindus. Countries like Indonesia, Afghanistan, ...
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1answer
174 views

What do we know about the location of Islamic schools in pre-colonial Africa?

There is much research in history and social science on how Christian missionary schools changed the formation of human capital in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, I find very little ...
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2answers
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How kind were the Muslim occupations of North Africa?

I grew up in Egypt and although I was raised in Muslim-majority country, I am atheist now. In history classes we were told a doubtful story: The Muslims would have been kind and merciful invaders ...
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3answers
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Were there Muslims in 12th century England?

Ever since the 1984 ITV adaptation of Robin Hood, the addition of a Muslim warrior to the band of Merry Men has been a staple of the mythology. From a storytelling perspective, the benefits are clear: ...
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1answer
110 views

What is the origin of the word “Allah” and in which context was it originally used? [closed]

On a discussion I am dealing with someone who believes that (1) "Allah" was not a generic name for God before the birth of Muhammad (2) "Allah" was derived from a deity in pre-Islamic Kaabah Which ...
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2answers
381 views

Did Western “New Imperialism” actually free slaves in Muslim lands?

Slavery is fair game in mainstream/traditional Islam. I have heard various commentaries that abolishing of slavery in various Muslim-dominated countries actually coincided with the 2nd wave of Western ...
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1answer
87 views

Did the Buyids emerge as allies of the Abbasid Caliphate?

The Buyid dynasty were Shia sympathizers. However, I might have read somewhere that the Buyids came to power as allies of the Abbasids. This would have been as an anti Tabaristan or anti Ziyarid ...
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1answer
296 views

Why didn't Delhi became part of Pakistan?

I have read about Pakistan Movement (PM), about the Partition of India between the two and I want to know why Delhi didn't became part of Pakistan (in contrast to Edirne of the Ottoman Empire which ...
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1answer
5k views

Did the Ottoman empire suppress the printing press?

I overheard this conversation a while back that the Ottoman Empire which flourished in all fields during the Golden Age of Islam were left behind after the introduction of the printing press in Europe ...
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4answers
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What caused Iranians to convert to Shiite Islam?

Many old Iranians were Sunni Muslims. Even many of top Sunni scholars like Bukhari were Iranians. Also, most Arabs are Sunni Muslims. What was the historical effects(s) that caused Iranians to ...
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2answers
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Did the Safavid rulers require all subjects to convert to Shi'a Islam?

On one hand I've read that Shi'a Islam was the only religion allowed in the Safavid empire. On the other hand, the empire contained parts of Armenia and Georgia, but Armenians and Georgians are ...
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1answer
592 views

Were early mosques originally oriented on Petra instead of Mecca according to archaeological record?

I have come across a claim that in early Islam, the focal point of orientation for prayers was not Mecca but was originally supposed to be Petra, and that originally Qiblas used to point in that ...
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6answers
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What disruptions were brought about by Islam that the Arabians saw so many victories?

The Rashidun Caliphate had its inception with the advent of Islam. It was situated amidst two of the most formidable empires of the known world: The Byzantine Empire and The Sassanid Empire. But ...
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2answers
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Why did the pre-Islamic Arabs identify themselves as descendents of Ishmael?

There's a tradition that the Arabs are descended from Ishmael, son of Abraham. Before Islam, the Arabs did not believe in Yahweh but had their own, polytheistic religions. So why did they have a ...
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2answers
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How did Muslim traders raise investments given Islam's prohibition of usury?

During early caliphate era (7th-13th century), Muslim traders dominated trade in Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean (see here and here for example). I think Islam's prohibition of interest or usury ...
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2answers
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How was Abd al-Rahman I recognized when he arrived in Islamic Hispania?

Abd al-Rahman I was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Hispania, and he was one of the last Umayyad survivors when the Abbasid overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in Damascus. According to what I read, ...
13
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1answer
434 views

Was there a rule against non-Muslims wearing the colour green in the Ottoman empire?

On the wikipedia page titled Green in Islam, it is stated that: In the Ottoman Empire, the wearing of a green turban was a privilege afforded to the descendants of Muhammad Also, in the book ...
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1answer
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Are there records of US slaves who practiced Islam following their import from Africa?

Islam has historically been prevalent in many regions of Africa, such as in the Songhai Empire, which was based around Sharia law. It seems plausible to me that some Africans were practitioners of ...
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1answer
253 views

What conditions have led to Abrahmism splitting into different religions sometimes, but not always? [closed]

What conditions cause the teachings and claimed revelations of certain religious figures in the Abrahamic tradition—e.g. Jesus, Muhammad—to lead to the formation of entire new religions, whilst others—...
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3answers
31k views

What is the origin of Khans? Is there any link between South Asian Khans and the Mongols?

I live in India where lots of Muslims are Khans. I know about Genghis Khan who was not a Muslim but a Khan. So is their any relation between Khans like Genghis Khan (or Mongols) and current Khans?
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2answers
943 views

Why does some Califate money feature crosses?

Why does some Muslim money feature crosses? Like the following ones: Was the cross an early Muslim symbol?
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2answers
3k views

Why did families in 6th century Mecca send their babies to be raised in the desert?

Biographies of Muhammad mentions that in his early childhood he was looked after by a wet-nurse Halimah, from a few days after his birth until he was 4. It seems customary for Meccan families to do so:...
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3answers
4k views

What was the status of Arab Christians during the crusades?

Did Arab Christians take an active role in the crusades in the Holy Land or at any point on their trip to the Holy Land. Or were they victims of the crusaders? Did the crusaders typically ...