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Israel refers to the country in the Middle East. The current state of Israel was founded in 1948, but there are some arguments that trace the existence of the state back to BCE time periods.

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Why didn't China vote in UNSC Resolution 344?

According to this Wikipedia article, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 344 in 1973 with 10 votes from non-permanent members and 4 abstentions from the permanent members France, ...
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Were Israel-Iran relations better in the 80s? What changed?

If you look at the Iran-Contra affair (mostly around 1985), you'll see that the middleman in the arms for money/hostages deal were Israeli companies. Were Israeli-Iran relations better at that point? ...
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365 views

Did more Jews live in Poland than any other country, prior to the Holocaust, because of how Polish laws and people regarded Jews?

Poland in 1900 and just before the Holocaust ranks 1st in a list of nations by Jewish percentage of the population. [1] Now of course in such a ranking that country is Israel. Why did Jews migrate ...
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152 views

What were the potential consequences of Israel's strike on the Osirak reactor?

Was there any plutonium at the plant at the time?
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3answers
378 views

What attributes did Yahweh have before becoming a monotheistic deity?

Did it "belong" to another people before he was adopted by Hebrews? Is there any anthropological reconstruction about all this monotheistic thing?
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3answers
230 views

Why were Soviet attitudes towards Israel inconsistent in the late 40's and 50's?

What are the different theories explaining the inconsistent attitude Soviet Russia had towards the nascent State of Israel between the years 1947 and 1953? Communist Russia's hate of Zionism is well ...
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1answer
195 views

Were Moses & Abraham historical figures?

History is not my area of specialization. I am curious to know about the historicity of Moses and Abraham from the viewpoint of modern critical scholarship. It would be great if references are ...
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5answers
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When Israel won the Six Day War, did they consider expelling all Arabs from the annexed territories?

Did Israel consider doing this and if so, would that have been in violation of international law?
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1answer
283 views

US Israeli relations before and after the USS Liberty Attack? [closed]

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively. $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958 $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966 $ 1 billion dollars annually ...
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2answers
493 views

Were women in 1st century Israel not trusted as witnesses in court?

A common thing I've heard growing up is that women living in Israel in the 1st century couldn't be witnesses in a court of law because [reasons]. The times that I've heard this said it has also ...
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4answers
136 views

How multilingual would Canaanite citizens have been?

This question concerns the Land of Israel circa 1,500-1,000 BCE. Different sources mention different languages for this region: This land was part of the New Kingdom of Egypt, so presumably Middle ...
2
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2answers
178 views

Did the PLO coordinate with Arab armies during the Six Day War?

In general, the PLO did some raiding before and after the Six Day War but I noticed this facebook post (and also wikipedia) that listed the PLO among the contributors to the Arab's strength. It would ...
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1answer
100 views

Alternatives to a Two State Solution [closed]

In 1948 the UN voted on a two state solution for Palestine. 33 for the resolution, 13 against, and 10 abstains. It seems like the vote wasn't close. But what would have happened if the results were ...
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1answer
196 views

Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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0answers
72 views

First Century (or earlier) gesture signifying peace between two parties?

I am working on a painting set in the first century which shows a military group confronting another group in the Middle East. I am trying to find a gesture which the leader of one army would make ...
6
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1answer
136 views

Are there any secular accounts of the Sadduccees?

1. Question : Are there any accounts by Greek, or other historians, that detail what happened to the Sadducees, who were tied to Temple in Jerusalem? Was there a persecution of the Sadducees? I am ...
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1answer
72 views

Was David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula in December 1917 in New York?

I have been trying to find a document online to support the statement that David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula Munweis (spelling varies) was in December 1917. If the document is available, but the ...
2
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3answers
3k views

Did the Jews move from Palestine to Germany? [closed]

I have an essay to write and the question is simple. Did the Jews first live in Palestine and then move to Germany? If they did move to Germany, why did they and did they return? I just need to ...
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0answers
85 views

Who was the king of Moab to whom David entrusted his parents?

Is there any record that shows the name of the Moabite king that David left his parents with in 1 Sam 22:3-4? Verse 3 mentions Mizpah of Moab, but my understanding is that this is a location rather ...
4
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1answer
346 views

Where did the people of Northern kingdom of Israel go? [duplicate]

In the 8th century BC Assyrians conquered the Northern kingdom of Israel and exiled its people. This led to the creation of the story of 10 lost tribes that later couldn't find any supporting evidence ...
3
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1answer
210 views

Why couldn't the Arabs invade Palestine before the end of the British Mandate?

Primarily, did the mandate provide some sort of de facto protection against invasion from the Arabs? But considering that the British had a mandate over Palestine, why did they not intervene in the ...
3
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2answers
266 views

Why was Oslo I Accord so harsh or controversial?

The Oslo I Accord was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict. It was the first face-to-face agreement between the ...
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1answer
332 views

Land Ownership in Palestine - Big Landlords or Small Peasants?

I have seen pro Arab sources cite surveys like these (see image) that demonstrate that most of the privately owned in Palestine land belonged to Arabs. I have seen Israeli sources assert that much of ...
2
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1answer
329 views

How much did Israel pay the Libyan Flight 114 shootdown victims?

In 1973, Israeli jets shot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114, which strayed into Sinai peninsula, then under Israeli occupation. This caused the death of 108 of 113 people on board. According to ...
6
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1answer
125 views

What were the sources of Jewish immigration to Israel between 1939-1951?

Which countries did Israeli Jews emigrate from in 1939-1951 ? This table is incomplete (for example, it only shows the origin of ~3000 in 1948). Is better data available (preferably online) ?
6
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1answer
533 views

In the Palestine Partition Plan, why was Jaffa allocated to the Arab state?

I'm reading through the document, "The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, Part II" by the United Nations. Under the provisions of the Palestine Resolution, they note that Palestine was ...
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8answers
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Why did the Phoenicians let the Hebrews (Jews) settle in Canaan?

I know the Hebrews (Jews) started traveling from shumor and Mesopotamia before entering Canaan (Today it is Israel). The Phoenicians were located at the time in Lebanon and Israel area. The ...
6
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1answer
382 views

Is there any record of ancient Israelite contact with Indo-Europeans?

It is well-documented that the ancient Israelite tribes came into contact with Indo-European groups in Canaan such as the Philistines (P'lishtim) (most likely migrants from Crete), and later the ...
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3answers
305 views

Is there any support within the scholarly community for Cyrus Gordon's “Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations”?

In "The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations" (1965), scholar Cyrus Gordon argued for a common cultural origin for the Greek and Hebrew peoples. Specifically, he argued that both pre-...
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1answer
274 views

Was the wall of the Second Temple part of the fortification of Jerusalem?

In the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, there is a 1:50 model of Jerusalem from the Roman period (Holyland Model of Jerusalem). There it shows that the Temple was at the edge of the city and seemingly one ...
6
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3answers
897 views

Why did Syria intervene in favour of the Maronites during the Lebanese Civil War?

From pg. 382, A History of the Modern Middle East by Martin Bunton and William Cleveland "The [Lebanese Civil War] was expanded and then brought temporarily to an end by Syrian intervention. In ...
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1answer
4k views

Why did the jews leave Israel and spread out through the world? [closed]

When and what lead jews to leave Israel after the Roman conquest and spread out through out the world?
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1answer
350 views

Is there documented evidence of Israel concentration/death camps used against the Arabs? [closed]

According to some articles I've been reading, there is testimony that as Israel began its conquest and subsequent occupation of Palestine, they sent Arab men to concentration, labor and even death ...
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3answers
912 views

What would've been the outcome of the Yom Kippur War had the UN not intervened? [closed]

As a kid growing up in Egypt, we obviously had things in our official history textbooks that said that we "totally won that war", and I'm very sure that it's the exact opposite in Israel. So please, I ...
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2answers
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What is the historical basis for the Exodus?

As a sideline to the question How Long Did the Belief in the Egyptian Sun God Ra Last?, the comments have become a long discussion on the historicity of the Exodus. Rather than have pages of comments ...
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1answer
528 views

How tall were the Jerusalem temples?

There were two temples in Jerusalem. I've seen conflicting statements about their heights. So this is a few questions in one: What was the average height (from the foundation) of each of the two ...
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1answer
597 views

What responsibility did Golda Meir have for the Yom Kippur war?

I read in the book "The Iron Wall" by Avi Shlaim, there was a description of the Yom Kippur war that happened due to Golda Meir's insistence on keeping parts of Sinai and not trading them to Egypt ...
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1answer
186 views

Kingdom of Judah under Babylonian rule

I'm writing some work about the kingdom of Judah under the Babylonian rule (604-539 BC). I am looking for the reasons that led to the instability of Judah under the Babylonian rule. I would ...
5
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1answer
142 views

When did it become openly known that Wilson supported the Balfour Declaration?

According to this source he agreed with the declaration about one month before it was published. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1878450?uid=3738984&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&...
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1answer
509 views

why Israel has not used its nuclear arsenal against hamas? [closed]

If Israel has a nuclear arsenal, why has not used its against Hamas? If the Palestinian had nuclear weapons would have surely used to erase Israel from the map.
2
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1answer
169 views

What were the plans for governance of the Jerusalem International Zone?

Had the 1947 partition plan of Palestine been accepted, there would have been an international zone centered around Jerusalem and Bethlehem until a referendum to be held at a later date. A UN body ...
22
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5answers
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Did Arab policymakers have plans for the Jewish population, in case of victory in 1948 War?

Presumably the Arab goal in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war was to defeat Israel. Total victory would probably mean the total control of the whole Mandatory Palestine, which at this point already contained ...
2
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2answers
123 views

Josephus' writings about Kafr Yasif

I was reading the Wikipedia page on Kafr Yasif where it is stated that: Kafr Yasif appears in the writings of the Roman Jewish historian Josephus Flavius. without providing a reference. I googled ...
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2answers
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Who are the ancestors of Israelites?

Who were the historical ancestors of the Israelites? Do they have no ancestors? Please, try to avoid Biblical references to Genesis if there are there any scientific/archeological/historical ...
8
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1answer
632 views

At which times did a mainly Jewish sovereign state control Jerusalem?

At which times in history have there been a sovereign mainly Jewish state controlling Jerusalem? The only time in history after the Babylonian exile that I can recall is during the Hasmonean dynasty. ...
7
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2answers
795 views

Strange jeep-hold cable used during Operation Horev

The National Library of Israel has just released 100 images about Operation Horev. Two images show a jeep that holds a sort of cable attached to a balloon or something, or maybe it is just a very ...
10
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1answer
644 views

Where was the U.S. president when Captain McGonagle was awarded?

The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, ...
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2answers
2k views

Why did Herzl's attempt to come to a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine fail?

Theodor Herzl, who founded Zionism as a modern political movement in 1897, attempted to come to a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine. When was this, what was his proposal and why ...
6
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2answers
536 views

What evidence is Chomsky alluding to when he states the US is preventing a settlement between Israel & Palestine?

Chomsky in his book Neccesary Illusions, published in 1989 says: U.S. ... efforts to prevent a political settlement of the Arab–Israeli conflict over many years, readily documented, but unwelcome ...
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1answer
561 views

Why did post-colonial Arabs fail to advance in science and technology? [closed]

Why did post-colonial Arabs fail to advance in science and technology? For example, Israel was much younger than Egypt, but, it become a world leader in science and technology. What factors ...