Questions tagged [israel]

Israel refers to the country in the Middle East. The current state of Israel was founded in 1948, but there are some arguments that trace the existence of the state back to BCE time periods.

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Why does the Balfour declaration refer to Palestine, as opposed to the Land of Israel or the Holy Land? [closed]

The Balfour Declaration states that His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to ...
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Reference request - Books on Israel-Palestine conflict [closed]

I am searching for a good even-handed account of the Israel-Palestine conflict. I read James Gelvin's book which was ok but I found lacking in detail when it came to the situation in more recent times....
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Is / was there ever any co-existence solution to peace with Israel that the Arab Palestinian side proposed or said would accept?

Is / was there ever any co-existence solution to peace with Israel that the Arab Palestinian side proposed or said would accept? This was my original phrasing (using 2 state & co existence): ...
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Why did the Arab League re-admit Egypt in 1989?

During the years 1979-1989, Egypt was suspended from the Arab League in the wake of President Anwar Sadat's visit to Jerusalem and 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel. (See also:...
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Did the Jews move from Palestine to Germany? [closed]

I have an essay to write and the question is simple. Did the Jews first live in Palestine and then move to Germany? If they did move to Germany, why did they and did they return? I just need to ...
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Who are the ancestors of Israelites?

Who were the historical ancestors of the Israelites? Do they have no ancestors? Please, try to avoid Biblical references to Genesis if there are there any scientific/archeological/historical ...
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Israel/Palestine: Who really attacked first in 1948?

That is when Israel declared independence? Were the Jews hungry for land and started kicking Arabs out, or did the Arabs attack first, or is it sort of a mixed bag?
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Did Arab policymakers have plans for the Jewish population, in case of victory in 1948 War?

Presumably the Arab goal in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war was to defeat Israel. Total victory would probably mean the total control of the whole Mandatory Palestine, which at this point already contained ...
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What specifically did Einstein have in mind when he called the Israeli Freedom Party fascistic?

In a blog published in the TLS, May 2016, Toby Lustig points out that Einstein in a letter to the New York Times, a few months after the declaration of Israeli idependence: wrote to complain of '...
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Was the option of setting up a Jewish state in defeated Nazi Germany ever considered?

Since there were a lot of Jews pre WW2 in Germany, and Germany was responsible for the many deaths of Jews during the Holocaust, it seems logical to suggest, that a new Jewish state should maybe be ...
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Haredi (Orthodox Jewish) view on Zionism pre-1948

Prior to the establishment of the State of Israel, what was the general Haredi (Hasidic, orthodox non-Mizrachi) stance on political Zionism? Did it change with the establishment of the state? If so, ...
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Did more Jews live in Poland than any other country, prior to the Holocaust, because of how Polish laws and people regarded Jews?

Poland in 1900 and just before the Holocaust ranks 1st in a list of nations by Jewish percentage of the population. [1] Now of course in such a ranking that country is Israel. Why did Jews migrate ...
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At which times did a mainly Jewish sovereign state control Jerusalem?

At which times in history have there been a sovereign mainly Jewish state controlling Jerusalem? The only time in history after the Babylonian exile that I can recall is during the Hasmonean dynasty. ...
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What is the historical basis for the Exodus?

As a sideline to the question How Long Did the Belief in the Egyptian Sun God Ra Last?, the comments have become a long discussion on the historicity of the Exodus. Rather than have pages of comments ...
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Land Ownership in Palestine - Big Landlords or Small Peasants?

I have seen pro Arab sources cite surveys like these (see image) that demonstrate that most of the privately owned in Palestine land belonged to Arabs. I have seen Israeli sources assert that much of ...
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When Israel won the Six Day War, did they consider expelling all Arabs from the annexed territories?

Did Israel consider doing this and if so, would that have been in violation of international law?
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Were Israel-Iran relations better in the 80s? What changed?

If you look at the Iran-Contra affair (mostly around 1985), you'll see that the middleman in the arms for money/hostages deal were Israeli companies. Were Israeli-Iran relations better at that point? ...
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Why didn't China vote in UNSC Resolution 344?

According to this Wikipedia article, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 344 in 1973 with 10 votes from non-permanent members and 4 abstentions from the permanent members France, ...
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Is there any record of ancient Israelite contact with Indo-Europeans?

It is well-documented that the ancient Israelite tribes came into contact with Indo-European groups in Canaan such as the Philistines (P'lishtim) (most likely migrants from Crete), and later the ...
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What did the Romans do for Judea?

I watched The Life of Brian and I heard this quotation: And from our fathers' fathers' fathers. Reg: Yes. Stan: And from our fathers' fathers' fathers' fathers. Reg: All right, ...
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What were the potential consequences of Israel's strike on the Osirak reactor?

Was there any plutonium at the plant at the time?
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What attributes did Yahweh have before becoming a monotheistic deity?

Did it "belong" to another people before he was adopted by Hebrews? Is there any anthropological reconstruction about all this monotheistic thing?
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US Israeli relations before and after the USS Liberty Attack? [closed]

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively. $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958 $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966 $ 1 billion dollars annually ...
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Why were Soviet attitudes towards Israel inconsistent in the late 40's and 50's?

What are the different theories explaining the inconsistent attitude Soviet Russia had towards the nascent State of Israel between the years 1947 and 1953? Communist Russia's hate of Zionism is well ...
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Were Moses & Abraham historical figures?

History is not my area of specialization. I am curious to know about the historicity of Moses and Abraham from the viewpoint of modern critical scholarship. It would be great if references are ...
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How did Israel win the Six-Day War?

Considering Israel fought several Arab countries, which had troops largely outnumbering the Israeli, how did they manage to win the war decisively, with much fewer casualties than the Arab countries? ...
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Were women in 1st century Israel not trusted as witnesses in court?

A common thing I've heard growing up is that women living in Israel in the 1st century couldn't be witnesses in a court of law because [reasons]. The times that I've heard this said it has also ...
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How multilingual would Canaanite citizens have been?

This question concerns the Land of Israel circa 1,500-1,000 BCE. Different sources mention different languages for this region: This land was part of the New Kingdom of Egypt, so presumably Middle ...
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Did Stalin believe Israel would go communist?

In Anne Applebaum's recent book Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944-1956 she claims the USSR supported the new state of Israel and states "Stalin believed Israel would quickly join the ...
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Did the PLO coordinate with Arab armies during the Six Day War?

In general, the PLO did some raiding before and after the Six Day War but I noticed this facebook post (and also wikipedia) that listed the PLO among the contributors to the Arab's strength. It would ...
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Alternatives to a Two State Solution [closed]

In 1948 the UN voted on a two state solution for Palestine. 33 for the resolution, 13 against, and 10 abstains. It seems like the vote wasn't close. But what would have happened if the results were ...
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Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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First Century (or earlier) gesture signifying peace between two parties?

I am working on a painting set in the first century which shows a military group confronting another group in the Middle East. I am trying to find a gesture which the leader of one army would make ...
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Why did Syria intervene in favour of the Maronites during the Lebanese Civil War?

From pg. 382, A History of the Modern Middle East by Martin Bunton and William Cleveland "The [Lebanese Civil War] was expanded and then brought temporarily to an end by Syrian intervention. In ...
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Are there any secular accounts of the Sadduccees?

1. Question : Are there any accounts by Greek, or other historians, that detail what happened to the Sadducees, who were tied to Temple in Jerusalem? Was there a persecution of the Sadducees? I am ...
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Was David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula in December 1917 in New York?

I have been trying to find a document online to support the statement that David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula Munweis (spelling varies) was in December 1917. If the document is available, but the ...
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Why were the British so reluctant to allow Jewish migration to Palestine?

Not sure if this is the correct forum to ask this, but I'm currently reading 'Exodus' by Leon Uris, and I'm curious as to why the British were so reluctant in letting Jewish people in Palestine. ...
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What really happened to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel?

The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel is a well-documented semi-historical legend in Jewish history, and appears in sources from a number of ancient cultures. The factual history however, seems to be shrouded ...
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Why did the Phoenicians let the Hebrews (Jews) settle in Canaan?

I know the Hebrews (Jews) started traveling from shumor and Mesopotamia before entering Canaan (Today it is Israel). The Phoenicians were located at the time in Lebanon and Israel area. The ...
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Did Napoleon ever visit Modern Israel?

Did Napoleon Bonaparte ever try capturing what is today considered modern day Israel? Did he ever visit the land independently of capturing it?
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Where did the people of Northern kingdom of Israel go? [duplicate]

In the 8th century BC Assyrians conquered the Northern kingdom of Israel and exiled its people. This led to the creation of the story of 10 lost tribes that later couldn't find any supporting evidence ...
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Why couldn't the Arabs invade Palestine before the end of the British Mandate?

Primarily, did the mandate provide some sort of de facto protection against invasion from the Arabs? But considering that the British had a mandate over Palestine, why did they not intervene in the ...
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In what language was the first zionist congress in basel in 1897 held?

In what language was the first zionist congress in Basel held? Was it Yiddish, Hebrew, German, English? Where there translators?
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Why was Oslo I Accord so harsh or controversial?

The Oslo I Accord was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict. It was the first face-to-face agreement between the ...
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How much did Israel pay the Libyan Flight 114 shootdown victims?

In 1973, Israeli jets shot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114, which strayed into Sinai peninsula, then under Israeli occupation. This caused the death of 108 of 113 people on board. According to ...
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What were the sources of Jewish immigration to Israel between 1939-1951?

Which countries did Israeli Jews emigrate from in 1939-1951 ? This table is incomplete (for example, it only shows the origin of ~3000 in 1948). Is better data available (preferably online) ?
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Did Ben-Gurion attend a lecture by Trotsky in New York in 1917?

I came across this statement: 1917 B-G (at 30) meets Russian-born Paula Munweis at Trotsky lecture, who works with B-G on political articles. In Dec. they marry in City Hall. The author of the ...
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What was the world population around 970 BC? Does it fit the biblical narrative?

What was the world population around 970 BC? What was Palestine's population around 970 BC? Does the following bible verse fits in the current historical world population estimatives? In Israel ...
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Languages spoken by Josephus?

What languages did Josephus speak? He lived in the land of Israel during the first century CE. He wrote in Greek (so he obviously knew that), but did he know Hebrew, Aramaic, or Latin?
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In the Palestine Partition Plan, why was Jaffa allocated to the Arab state?

I'm reading through the document, "The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, Part II" by the United Nations. Under the provisions of the Palestine Resolution, they note that Palestine was ...