Questions tagged [israel]

Israel refers to the country in the Middle East. The current state of Israel was founded in 1948, but there are some arguments that trace the existence of the state back to BCE time periods.

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Were there any long-term political effects on Argentina after Eichmann's kidnapping?

On the 11th May 1960 a group of Mossad agents kidnapped Adolf Eichmann, who was at this time living in Argentina under false name of "Ricardo Klement". After this kidnapping (and subsequent trial) ...
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What did Joe Slovo mean by 'collusion' in The War Against Aparthied?

Nadine Gordimer, in the foreword of the book, Ruth First & Joe Slovo in The War Against Aparthied by the oral historian, Alan Weider, quotes Joe Slovo when he visited Palestine in the early 1940s:...
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When and how was the cairn structure in the “Sea of Galilee” covered in water?

In 2013 Israeli researchers from Tel Aviv university discovered a large cairn, buried under the water of the freshwater lake "Sea of Galilee" in northern part of state of Israel: Researchers find ...
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Is there a reconstruction for whom and when were the peoples of the ancient Levant just before Israel, Judea and Edom?

Primarily from viewing lectures and interviews about the ancient history of the Levant, I understand that before Israel, Judea and perhaps also Edom states were created, their area included groups ...
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Have historians attempted to reconstruct the polytheistic Semitic pantheon, dividing it into sub pantheons?

Historians reconstruct pantheons to better understand their role in society (see below for examples of reconstruction as a historical method). Has there been any attempt to apply this historical ...
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Were Israeli-Arab conflicts in the Cold war testing grounds for NATO and Warsaw Pact equipment?

During the Cold War, Israel and it's Arab neighbors often came into conflict with each other and fought a number of wars during which Israel often used weaponry from the West (USA, UK and France) ...
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What would one call a skilled metal worker in Jerusalem, circa 600 BC?

I'm doing research for a book of fiction in which the main character is a skilled metalworker in ancient Jerusalem, circa 600 BC. I want to be authentic and historically accurate. This person is ...
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What did Moshe Dayan say about fighting Arabs?

I am looking for the details of a quote that goes something along the lines of "It is easy to look like a great general when you fight Arabs" by Moshe Dayan (or maybe Golda Meier). I believe the ...
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Why did the U.S. place an arms embargo on all belligerents in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war?

Why did the U.S. place an arms embargo on all belligerents in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war? My understanding is that it hindered Israel more and forced them to buy weapons from Czechoslovakia. Most ...
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What did the Jews during the First Jewish-Roman War know about other anti-Roman revolts?

The first Jewish-Roman War started in 66 CE. When I read about it, it sounds so futile: you have a group of zealots (literally and figuratively) revolting against a professional army from the period's ...
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What is the diplomatic record on President Sadat's 1971 peace offer to Israel?

I have seen a lot of talk in the Israel-Palestine debate about the 1971 peace offer, but I can't find any original sources on it. Even Wikipedia's brief paragraph about it says "citation needed." ...
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Why does the Balfour declaration refer to Palestine, as opposed to the Land of Israel or the Holy Land? [closed]

The Balfour Declaration states that His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to ...
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Reference request - Books on Israel-Palestine conflict [closed]

I am searching for a good even-handed account of the Israel-Palestine conflict. I read James Gelvin's book which was ok but I found lacking in detail when it came to the situation in more recent times....
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Is / was there ever any co-existence solution to peace with Israel that the Arab Palestinian side proposed or said would accept?

Is / was there ever any co-existence solution to peace with Israel that the Arab Palestinian side proposed or said would accept? This was my original phrasing (using 2 state & co existence): ...
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What specifically did Einstein have in mind when he called the Israeli Freedom Party fascistic?

In a blog published in the TLS, May 2016, Toby Lustig points out that Einstein in a letter to the New York Times, a few months after the declaration of Israeli idependence: wrote to complain of '...
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Haredi (Orthodox Jewish) view on Zionism pre-1948

Prior to the establishment of the State of Israel, what was the general Haredi (Hasidic, orthodox non-Mizrachi) stance on political Zionism? Did it change with the establishment of the state? If so, ...
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Was the option of setting up a Jewish state in defeated Nazi Germany ever considered?

Since there were a lot of Jews pre WW2 in Germany, and Germany was responsible for the many deaths of Jews during the Holocaust, it seems logical to suggest, that a new Jewish state should maybe be ...
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Why didn't China vote in UNSC Resolution 344?

According to this Wikipedia article, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 344 in 1973 with 10 votes from non-permanent members and 4 abstentions from the permanent members France, ...
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Were Israel-Iran relations better in the 80s? What changed?

If you look at the Iran-Contra affair (mostly around 1985), you'll see that the middleman in the arms for money/hostages deal were Israeli companies. Were Israeli-Iran relations better at that point? ...
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Did more Jews live in Poland than any other country, prior to the Holocaust, because of how Polish laws and people regarded Jews?

Poland in 1900 and just before the Holocaust ranks 1st in a list of nations by Jewish percentage of the population. [1] Now of course in such a ranking that country is Israel. Why did Jews migrate ...
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What were the potential consequences of Israel's strike on the Osirak reactor?

Was there any plutonium at the plant at the time?
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What attributes did Yahweh have before becoming a monotheistic deity?

Did it "belong" to another people before he was adopted by Hebrews? Is there any anthropological reconstruction about all this monotheistic thing?
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Why were Soviet attitudes towards Israel inconsistent in the late 40's and 50's?

What are the different theories explaining the inconsistent attitude Soviet Russia had towards the nascent State of Israel between the years 1947 and 1953? Communist Russia's hate of Zionism is well ...
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Were Moses & Abraham historical figures?

History is not my area of specialization. I am curious to know about the historicity of Moses and Abraham from the viewpoint of modern critical scholarship. It would be great if references are ...
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When Israel won the Six Day War, did they consider expelling all Arabs from the annexed territories?

Did Israel consider doing this and if so, would that have been in violation of international law?
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US Israeli relations before and after the USS Liberty Attack? [closed]

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively. $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958 $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966 $ 1 billion dollars annually ...
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Were women in 1st century Israel not trusted as witnesses in court?

A common thing I've heard growing up is that women living in Israel in the 1st century couldn't be witnesses in a court of law because [reasons]. The times that I've heard this said it has also ...
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How multilingual would Canaanite citizens have been?

This question concerns the Land of Israel circa 1,500-1,000 BCE. Different sources mention different languages for this region: This land was part of the New Kingdom of Egypt, so presumably Middle ...
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Did the PLO coordinate with Arab armies during the Six Day War?

In general, the PLO did some raiding before and after the Six Day War but I noticed this facebook post (and also wikipedia) that listed the PLO among the contributors to the Arab's strength. It would ...
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Alternatives to a Two State Solution [closed]

In 1948 the UN voted on a two state solution for Palestine. 33 for the resolution, 13 against, and 10 abstains. It seems like the vote wasn't close. But what would have happened if the results were ...
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Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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First Century (or earlier) gesture signifying peace between two parties?

I am working on a painting set in the first century which shows a military group confronting another group in the Middle East. I am trying to find a gesture which the leader of one army would make ...
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Are there any secular accounts of the Sadduccees?

1. Question : Are there any accounts by Greek, or other historians, that detail what happened to the Sadducees, who were tied to Temple in Jerusalem? Was there a persecution of the Sadducees? I am ...
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Was David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula in December 1917 in New York?

I have been trying to find a document online to support the statement that David Ben-Gurion's marriage to Paula Munweis (spelling varies) was in December 1917. If the document is available, but the ...
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Did the Jews move from Palestine to Germany? [closed]

I have an essay to write and the question is simple. Did the Jews first live in Palestine and then move to Germany? If they did move to Germany, why did they and did they return? I just need to ...
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Where did the people of Northern kingdom of Israel go? [duplicate]

In the 8th century BC Assyrians conquered the Northern kingdom of Israel and exiled its people. This led to the creation of the story of 10 lost tribes that later couldn't find any supporting evidence ...
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Why couldn't the Arabs invade Palestine before the end of the British Mandate?

Primarily, did the mandate provide some sort of de facto protection against invasion from the Arabs? But considering that the British had a mandate over Palestine, why did they not intervene in the ...
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Why was Oslo I Accord so harsh or controversial?

The Oslo I Accord was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeliā€“Palestinian conflict. It was the first face-to-face agreement between the ...
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Land Ownership in Palestine - Big Landlords or Small Peasants?

I have seen pro Arab sources cite surveys like these (see image) that demonstrate that most of the privately owned in Palestine land belonged to Arabs. I have seen Israeli sources assert that much of ...
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How much did Israel pay the Libyan Flight 114 shootdown victims?

In 1973, Israeli jets shot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114, which strayed into Sinai peninsula, then under Israeli occupation. This caused the death of 108 of 113 people on board. According to ...
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What were the sources of Jewish immigration to Israel between 1939-1951?

Which countries did Israeli Jews emigrate from in 1939-1951 ? This table is incomplete (for example, it only shows the origin of ~3000 in 1948). Is better data available (preferably online) ?
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In the Palestine Partition Plan, why was Jaffa allocated to the Arab state?

I'm reading through the document, "The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, Part II" by the United Nations. Under the provisions of the Palestine Resolution, they note that ...
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Why did the Phoenicians let the Hebrews (Jews) settle in Canaan?

I know the Hebrews (Jews) started traveling from shumor and Mesopotamia before entering Canaan (Today it is Israel). The Phoenicians were located at the time in Lebanon and Israel area. The ...
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Is there any record of ancient Israelite contact with Indo-Europeans?

It is well-documented that the ancient Israelite tribes came into contact with Indo-European groups in Canaan such as the Philistines (P'lishtim) (most likely migrants from Crete), and later the ...
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Is there any support within the scholarly community for Cyrus Gordon's “Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations”?

In "The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations" (1965), scholar Cyrus Gordon argued for a common cultural origin for the Greek and Hebrew peoples. Specifically, he argued that both pre-...
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Was the wall of the Second Temple part of the fortification of Jerusalem?

In the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, there is a 1:50 model of Jerusalem from the Roman period (Holyland Model of Jerusalem). There it shows that the Temple was at the edge of the city and seemingly one ...
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Why did Syria intervene in favour of the Maronites during the Lebanese Civil War?

From pg. 382, A History of the Modern Middle East by Martin Bunton and William Cleveland "The [Lebanese Civil War] was expanded and then brought temporarily to an end by Syrian intervention. In ...
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Why did the jews leave Israel and spread out through the world? [closed]

When and what lead jews to leave Israel after the Roman conquest and spread out through out the world?
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Is there documented evidence of Israel concentration/death camps used against the Arabs? [closed]

According to some articles I've been reading, there is testimony that as Israel began its conquest and subsequent occupation of Palestine, they sent Arab men to concentration, labor and even death ...
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What would've been the outcome of the Yom Kippur War had the UN not intervened? [closed]

As a kid growing up in Egypt, we obviously had things in our official history textbooks that said that we "totally won that war", and I'm very sure that it's the exact opposite in Israel. So please, I ...