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Questions tagged [law]

A written and accessible code of behavior which is enforced by a powerful entity (almost always a state actor). Part of this code includes the entities responsible for maintaining and interpreting the written statutes, the punishments that can be applied in the case of the violation of the stated ...

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171 views

What is the year of Ethelred the Unready's Laws of London?

I refer to De Institutis Lundonie (Laws of London) by Ethelred the Unready (or Æthelred II) (Google Books). According to Britannia and Jerome Arkenberg, it is of the year 978. According to this book,...
2
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1answer
51 views

Which Imperial Russian officials created and verified passports?

In Imperial Russia (as in other states) passports were required for interior travel. They were issued to individuals and had a finite duration. I'm guessing that being found away from home without a ...
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1answer
169 views

Did indentured servants in British North America have job security?

Most people know about the practice of Indentured Servitude in the British North American colonies - that workers would receive "free" passage to the Colonies in exchange for working for the ...
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0answers
109 views

How many instances of the Writs of Assistance were there? Are there any documented instances?

I have been in general frustrated by the lack of easily available documentation surrounding the 1760 Writs of Assistance, and the Writs of Assistance as they appear today in UK legislation, as pointed ...
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0answers
106 views

What is the earliest recorded example of an extradition treaty or law?

While reading a news article on someone being extradited from overseas to face justice in the U.S. it started me thinking about the history of the extradition process. Wikipedia and The History Vault ...
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0answers
264 views

What were common outcomes for white 17 year olds charged with attempted rape around 1982? [closed]

When United States Supreme Court nominee Kavanaugh was publicly accused of a 1982 attempted rape at age 17, his defenders noted that the accuser Dr. Blasey Ford had not obtained redress by pressing ...
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0answers
91 views

Was slaughtering cows in Kamchatka prohibited in the 1820s?

In To the Pacific and Arctic with Beechey: The Journal of Lieutenant George Peard of HMS Blossom, 1825–1828, Peard claims that in Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka, "nearly every family possesses a Cow (...
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3answers
630 views

From 1936-45 what was the prescribed punishment in Nazi Germany for failing to join or participate in the Hitler Youth?

Hitler reviewing members of the Hitlerjugend Question I know all other youth programs were abolished in the early or mid 30's, and then membership in the Hitler Youth was mandatory for "aryans" by ...
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1answer
239 views

When was Nazi paramilitary organisation Waffen-SS liquidated in the legal sense?

Armed forces of Third Reich consisted of two groups: proper public/national army "Wehrmacht" and private paramilitary organization "Waffen-SS" which was an armed branch of SS (Schutzstaffel, "...
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1answer
4k views

What were sandbags used for in medieval duels?

I was hesitant whether to ask this question in history or Shakespeare stack exchange, but I eventually decided it is more of a historical question. In the play "King Henry The Sixth" there is a ...
37
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3answers
5k views

How and when was the modern company ownership structure invented?

More specifically I mean the very common structure with the following roles: Shareholders Board members CEO When was this structure invented, and how? It would also be very interesting to get any ...
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0answers
150 views

Was it legal for colonists in colonial America to sell their daughters into marriage? [closed]

Was it legal for colonists to sell their daughters to other men for the purposes of marriage? If legal, to what degree did the consent of the girl matter? From this post by the Atlantic Marriage ...
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2answers
3k views

How did the US government manage to enforce the 1980 boycott of the Olympic Games in Russia?

The 1980 Olympics was famously boycotted by the US and a sixty five other countries. However it's not clear to me how the US government was able to prevent their athletes from participating, given ...
11
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2answers
332 views

What was the legal process of raising a legion in late Republican Rome?

I've read some about both the Roman army and the Late Republican period, but realized that, while I understand well enough how legions worked in the field, I have only a very incomplete idea of who ...
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2answers
4k views

Were secret treaties ratified? How did they become official while remaining secret?

Up to early 20th century, secret treaties or secret protocols seemed to be common. For example: The Russian-French alliance before WW I was partly based on a "a secret treaty in 1894" The secret ...
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1answer
135 views

How do they prove adultery before video/digital evidence was available? [closed]

These days, husbands can install CC-Camera, Whatapp, SMS etc and catch their wive's adultery act red-handed. Using this evidence, they can file a case in the court for divorce. How did they prove ...
11
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1answer
259 views

Was every Roman citizen part of a curia?

In a book by German historian Klaus Bringmann, I read that during the regal period, the whole population was divided into three tribes. He furthermore states that each tribe was divided into 10 curiae ...
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0answers
89 views

Who issued the passports for travel to Russian America?

Employees of the Russian-American Company were supposed to have seven-year passports to travel from Russia to the Company's colonies. The passports come up frequently in the Communications of the ...
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1answer
161 views

Has the United States paid US dollars as reparations to children other than a “child” of Japanese American internees during World War II?

Has the United States officially paid reparations in the form of US dollars to any parties that were a "child" "Civil Liberties Act of 1988" (PUBLIC LAW 100-383—AUG. 10,1988; Public Law 100-383, ...
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1answer
8k views

In ancient Rome, could free-born Romans become slaves?

In the article Roman Slavery, Kenneth Tuite of the Classics Department at the University of Maryland states quite categorically that Romans could not be slaves: Although a class system existed, ...
8
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1answer
225 views

Were travelling judges paid in medieval England?

During the reign of Henry II, some key changes in the English judicial system took place. One of these was the introduction of travelling judges: In 1166, Henry issued a Declaration at the Assize ...
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2answers
442 views

During feudalism in Europe, was one's allegiance to the lord more or less important than the allegiance to the king?

So, let's say your feudal overlord is rebelling against the king. Who do you owe your allegiance to, the lord, or the king? It's best to fight for the one who's going to win, obviously, but what would ...
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3answers
208 views

Earlier U.S. law enforcement raids on lawyers' communications

The office of the personal lawyer of the U.S. President has been raided by the FBI. Clients' communications with their attorneys are protected by the doctrine of attorney-client privilege, or legal ...
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0answers
107 views

Earlier law enforcement raids on lawyers' communications [closed]

The office of the personal lawyer of the U.S. President has been raided by the FBI. Clients' communications with their attorneys are protected by the doctrine of attorney-client privilege, or legal ...
1
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1answer
146 views

What periods and locations in early European history had evidence based criminal trials?

What periods and locations in European history had evidence based criminal trials? I'm interested in creating a medieval role playing setting and some fictional narratives involving crime ...
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0answers
163 views

Were single-sex house parties illegal in mid-20th century Canada?

At around the 47 minute mark of Forbidden Love: The Unashamed Stories of Lesbian Lives, one of the women interviewed, Carol Ritchie-MacKintosh, talks about the persecution of gay men in the mid-20th ...
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5answers
376 views

Has banning controversial ideas ever not lead to much violence in enforcement or resistance?

In the past year or two I've noticed the public discourse to increasingly contain arguments about "hate speech" and that this shouldn't be covered by free speech laws. I won't be interested in any ...
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1answer
92 views

What happened to all the undivided shares of California ranchos?

The Mexican province of Alta California granted cattle ranches to many prominent citizens. The properties were huge, so surveying was very expensive and often vague. These ranches dissipated into ...
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2answers
243 views

Were there any ancient civilisation that functioned without currency or bartering? [closed]

As required here is how I define the terms used in this question: • money/currency: is something that has little use to the individuals (such as metal coins) but has a commonly recognized value the ...
6
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1answer
498 views

Were there cases of bride kidnapping in the medieval period?

In the Medieval period in Europe was there ever been any occurrence of a royal/nobleman capturing a fellow high-born woman (potentially from another country) for the sake of marrying her (and thus ...
16
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1answer
3k views

Kissing in early Icelandic law

I'm reading the Grágás laws of early Iceland and have come across a passage I don't understand: K155, Ib p.47 "If a man kisses a woman in private, with no one else present and with her consent, then ...
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0answers
93 views

Is there a list of bills in the reign of George III & onwards?

I am researching the history of trackways, canals mines and railways from the reign of George 3rd through to the end of Queen Victoria’s reign. Is there a list of all bills presented to Parliament ...
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2answers
481 views

Did more Jews live in Poland than any other country, prior to the Holocaust, because of how Polish laws and people regarded Jews?

Poland in 1900 and just before the Holocaust ranks 1st in a list of nations by Jewish percentage of the population. [1] Now of course in such a ranking that country is Israel. Why did Jews migrate ...
7
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4answers
375 views

How were laws promulgated in the Middle Ages?

These days, new laws are usually announced to the public through the publication of government gazettes and/or on official government websites. How did the public find out about new laws before ...
13
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1answer
3k views

Do we know any Roman debtor being cut to pieces in line with the 12 Tables?

The Twelve Tables state: ... Meanwhile they shall have the right to compromise, and unless they make a compromise the debtors shall be held in bonds for sixty days. During these days they shall ...
2
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2answers
143 views

Was Canónigo Fernández a traitor to Mexico?

Agustín Fernández de San Vicente was the canon priest of the Cathedral of Durango and the Vicar-General of New Mexico. In between these church posts, at the time of Mexican Independence, he traveled ...
3
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1answer
215 views

Did international laws on wars of conquest change in 1945?

From a comment on what victors can do to losers in a war: Since this is a history site, we should also note that wars of conquest are no longer legal after 1945, so "most of history" no longer ...
3
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1answer
308 views

In England in 1700, would defending property with lethal force be illegal at all?

My limited understanding is that without an extensive police force and good communications, much of what modern people would leave to police was handled directly. If so, were any questions asked of a ...
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1answer
2k views

How did the Mughals view homosexuality?

What was the attitude toward homosexuality of the Mughals? Was it different between the ruling class and the common people? Was homosexuality, officially or unofficially, permissible during the reign ...
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0answers
140 views

Was homosexuality illegal during the early Muslim rule of the Indian subcontinent?

Was homosexuality punished under the early Muslim rule in India, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Punjab and Sinh in 712? The early Muslims were Arabs and part of a universal caliphate. After ...
7
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1answer
420 views

Who first outlawed homosexuality in the Indian sub-continent?

I have learnt somewhere that in India the British made homosexuality illegal in 1861 through Article 377 of the Indian Penal Code, terming it as "an act against the order of the nature". Was this the ...
3
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1answer
134 views

Punishment for deserting lictors

Assume the following scenario: In the late days of the Roman Republic a consul is assaulted on the streets of the city by an angry mob, abetted by his political enemies. His lictors run away, leaving ...
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3answers
361 views

Was the king of England able to execute a high rank noble and his family between 1216 and 1688?

After signing the Magna Carta, was the king of England able to execute a noble and his family and escheat their property to the crown by his own will up to 1688? For example in the cases such as Lèse-...
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1answer
91 views

US legislative efforts to abolish tipping

Viviana Zelizer claims that In the early 1900s, as tipping became increasingly popular, it provoked great moral and social controversy. In fact, there were nationwide efforts, some successful, by ...
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2answers
492 views

How did Tenures Abolition Act of 1660 change feudalism in England?

The Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, according to Wikipedia, "changed the nature of feudal land tenure in England". It: .. replaced various types of military and religious service tenants owed to the ...
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2answers
142 views

What was the sentiment regarding government control of railroads in Gilded-Age America?

I know this is a bit of a broad question, but what did leading thinkers and the American public think about government control of railroads as they were coming into widespread use post-Reconstruction? ...
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2answers
210 views

What unknown laws were mentioned in earlier Coronation Oaths of England?

In 1688, the English Parliament passed the Coronation Oath Act, establishing a new Coronation Oath for monarchs of England. This Coronation Oath, with some modifications, is still used in the United ...
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1answer
84 views

Imposition of property taxes in California

After California became a U.S. state in 1850, land taxation was one of the factors that bankrupted the Californio ranchers. Apparently, it had not existed in the native, Spanish, nor Mexican periods. ...
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1answer
473 views

What caused medieval England to be freer than other countries at the time?

I have read that medieval England was an outlier in terms of personal freedoms in the middle ages. Can this be reliably traced to the cultural influence of the Saxons, or the Normans, or anyone else? ...
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3answers
986 views

What were medieval, Viking-Era, Scandinavian laws regarding rape?

Since the vikings have a reputation for their "rape and pillage" tactics, I thought it interesting to look in depth at their legal system and learn a bit more for myself. However, viking-era legal ...