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Questions tagged [law]

A written and accessible code of behavior which is enforced by a powerful entity (almost always a state actor). Part of this code includes the entities responsible for maintaining and interpreting the written statutes, the punishments that can be applied in the case of the violation of the stated rules, and the means for determining guilt and innocence of parties suspected of violating any aspect of the aforementioned laws.

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24
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5answers
6k views

Nuremberg Laws - Did they affect existing marriages between Jews and Non-Jews?

The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor states: Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or related blood are forbidden. Sexual relations between Jews and citizens of ...
8
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3answers
2k views

What do Marxists mean by “class basis of law”? As seen in linked article

R. Judson Mitchell's article The Brezhnev Doctrine and Communist Ideology uses the term "class basis of law". I'm not sure but I think: Because this concept almost always appears hand in hand with "...
2
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1answer
177 views

How did wills work in times of Oscar Wilde?

Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest contains the following lines (shortened as marked for this purpose) in its third act: JACK. I beg your pardon for interrupting you, Lady ...
6
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1answer
219 views

Line houses and laws?

What were the circumstances of the construction of the various buildings through which the boundary between Vermont and Quebec passes? In particular, what were the laws affecting construction on the ...
4
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0answers
143 views

Death sentences in Spanish California

Ynocente Garcia, in his recollections (the "Garcia Hechos"), described Ignacio Rochin, a man executed for murder in 1795 in Santa Barbara. Garcia continues: "a young orphan ... was also executed with ...
3
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0answers
307 views

Was there any restriction on private citizens owning cannons and other large weaponry in 17th, 18th and 19th century Europe? [closed]

Were there laws limiting what kind of guns a private citizen in Europe could own? Could John Doe go to a shop and commission a cannon to be made for his own personal use?
3
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1answer
193 views

What education path had to be followed to study law in 17th century Europe?

How was the path in terms of education for a small kid to follow in years so that he can become a LAWYER in 17th Century in Europe? (Mainly in The Holy Roman Empire). Thanks!
3
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1answer
303 views

In ancient Rome what could 'childhood innocence' save a child from being punished for?

The "Innocence of a child", you know, that thing that lets curious little kids sneak onto the white house lawn and not immediately get shot or whatever. In ancient Rome (lets say during the republic ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of the words “Wanted Dead Or Alive”

What is the meaning of the famous words "Wanted Dead Or Alive"? Did they mean that it was for some reason legal for ordinary people to kill the fugitive described on the poster? Is there still this ...
2
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1answer
117 views

When could California mission priests perform confirmation?

The Franciscan priests at California missions were empowered with the faculties to perform sacraments like baptism and marriage. A stricter standard applied in the case of the faculty of confirmation -...
8
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1answer
389 views

Was there ever a case where *physically* exporting fiat money caused severe damage to an economy?

For those people who did not experience it: During the Cold War most countries of the Warsaw Pact had ridiculously high sentences for exporting their own money. That means that if you have some coins/...
10
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1answer
315 views

How did the Supreme Court case Lochner vs. New York influence the U.S. economy?

In 1905, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that laws limiting the number of hours bakers could work was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. After this, there was a time when a series of labor laws ...
14
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2answers
911 views

Under what legal theory was Mary Surratt hanged as an assassin of President Lincoln in 1865?

According to every source that I found so far, the only reason Mary Surratt was convicted of taking part in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln was that the murder conspiracy was plotted in her ...
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3answers
407 views

When did divorce become legal in California?

California has been administered under Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. law. Divorce is presently legal, which it assuredly was not in the Spanish Empire. At which point in history did the process of ...
10
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4answers
584 views

When and where was rape first criminalised independently from adultery?

The ancient legislation I know about do not have any concept of rape, but of adultery / married, and virgin / not virgin. The monotheist religious texts condemn rape as adultery outside the wedding, ...
5
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2answers
395 views

Were any Californios able to hold on to their ranchos?

Despite the clarity of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on this topic, Mexican land grants in Alta California were subject to drawn-out legal battles in the American period. Most Californios lost their ...
6
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2answers
888 views

Codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century

The wikipedia entry about Rashidun Caliphate says: According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by ...
1
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1answer
112 views

When were capital punishments suspended during the Rashidun caliphate?

The wikipedia entry about Rashidun Caliphate says: Various Islamic lawyers do however place multiple conditions, and stipulations e.g. the poor cannot be penalised for stealing out of poverty, ...
5
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3answers
196 views

Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen in Alta California?

The earliest example I have is Jose Antonio Bolcof of Russia, who became a Mexican about 1833. Who beat him? cf. Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen?: several Texans ...
5
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2answers
218 views

Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen?

The earliest example I have is Jose Antonio Bolcof of Russia, who became a Mexican about 1833. Who beat him? cf. Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen in Alta California? ...
-4
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1answer
357 views

What is the largest secret kept in history? [closed]

What is the largest successfully or semi-successfully kept secret in human history? Some definitions: Successfully - If a secret was kept entirely secret successfully, we wouldn't know about it. ...
4
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1answer
153 views

Could prisoners be pardoned in 1832 France under the July Monarchy?

For instance, could inspector Javert in "Les Miserables" have avoided his dilemma by asking for Jean Valjean to be pardoned by the French king and/or government? Would the king and/or government have ...
5
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0answers
267 views

What was the process by which the modern border control system developed? [duplicate]

I know that today, if I take a cruise of the Mediterranean, then each time the boat stops in a new country, and I wish to go ashore and see the sites, that I will need to have appropriate ...
2
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1answer
385 views

Changes to the school leaving dates in Scotland and Northern Ireland

I am looking for sources that tell me about when and how the school leaving dates were changed in Scotland and Northern Ireland after World War 2. I define school leaving date as the date you do not ...
9
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2answers
509 views

Before his arrival at St Helena, was Napoleon legally a prisoner of war?

I would like to know whether in law Napoleon was a prisoner of war when he surrendered himself to the British after the Battle of Waterloo, did he retain that status up to the point when he was landed ...
2
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4answers
853 views

Are there any specific events which grants a soldier permission to execute a prisoner on sight? (Like in the movie: Fury)

I recently watched the movie Fury. Although the movie is full of historical inaccuracies as usual, there are some events looked very questionable to me. In a scene, the U.S. soldiers capture a German ...
4
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2answers
428 views

Why the laws re the burial of slaves in the Twelve Tables?

In the Roman Twelve Tables, Table X states:- Law X. The body of no dead slave shall be anointed; nor shall any drinking take place at his funeral, nor a banquet of any kind be instituted in ...
36
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5answers
5k views

U.S. weapon restrictions during 19th century

Prior to the 20th century, I'm curious as to how the 2nd amendment was understood: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and ...
4
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1answer
586 views

When did the trademark symbol come into use?

Trademarks existed and were recognized before the Trademark symbol was used. When did we start using the ™ and ® symbols?
6
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2answers
630 views

Did Soviet cars have seatbelts or laws enforcing them?

I know in America, the seatbelt has a history involving legislation and Ralph Nader, and didn't really exist before the 1960's. What about in the Soviet Union? Did they go through a similar process? ...
3
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1answer
205 views

When was the first time lower-class people had a reasonable chance of having a fair trial? [closed]

When was the first time in recorded history where the juridical system provided for protecting the rights of the general population, including the lower classes, so that a person of lower class could ...
5
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3answers
3k views

What was the earliest known written constitution?

I was reading Wikipedia today, specifically the Constitution of Medina article and it states: This was the first written constitution in the history of the world. With two book references (that I'...
4
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1answer
226 views

What influenced the Supreme Court to overrule precedent in Afroyim v. Rusk?

In Afroyim v. Rusk the Supreme Court ruled that US citizens may not be deprived of their citizenship voluntarily. A previous precedent (Perez v. Brownell) had made the possibility of possessing dual ...
19
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2answers
904 views

What East German laws and regulations were extended to the West after unification?

Legally speaking, the reunification of Germany in 1990 was not a merger of two equal states resulting in a new country. Rather, it is better characterized as the absorption of the German Democratic ...
3
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1answer
593 views

What political events led to the Separate Car Act that was upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson?

One often reads that in 1896 in the case of Plessy versus Ferguson, the United States Supreme Court let stand a Louisiana law, the Separate Car Act, that required white and non-white passengers to ...
3
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4answers
557 views

Did Roman statutory law in the 1st century allow for crucifixion of non slaves?

Did Roman statutory law in the 1st century allow for crucifixion of non slaves? I knew a Roman law scholar who claimed it did not, ergo Christ could not have been crucified but must have been ...
22
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2answers
4k views

What did an ancient Roman certificate of land ownership look like; or, what did it consist of?

Suppose you're a landowner in Germania, just west of the Rhine. It is the 2nd Century A.D. You own a number of farms, a couple of good houses, maybe some slaves, some of whom are on the verge of ...
5
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1answer
1k views

The Roman Law of the Twelve Tables on slavery

I have just been reading the Roman Twelve Tables, and am deeply confused. In Table VI, it states: Law VII. Where anyone demands freedom for another against the claim of servitude, the Prætor shall ...
2
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2answers
2k views

Were life imprisonment and mental insanity the only reasons a divorce couldn't be granted in early 20th century England?

I was watching a Poirot TV movie which was set to England somewhere around 1930s, and one plot point was that the only reasons a divorce couldn't be granted were that either the husband or the wife ...
5
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1answer
633 views

Penalty for patricide in Ancient Rome

This question is prompted by an earlier question on Roman law, which seemed to suggest that only treason was punishable by death for citizens. I did ask this as comment, but have got intrigued. I am ...
5
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2answers
534 views

Mesopotamia laws 196, 197 and 198

While doing some research I stumbled upon some old Mesopotamian laws. Reading through them I found a series of conflicting laws. They state 196: If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye ...
4
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1answer
382 views

Bail bonds in UK Victorian period

If you were arrested in Victorian England, and the offense was 'bailable' (i.e. too severe) you could get bail and not be stuck behind bars until your trial. In the period, did you have to hand over ...
6
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2answers
681 views

Did Hirohito offer to stand trial for war crimes, but was turned down by the US?

At the end of WW2, did Emperor Hirohito volunteer to stand trial for war crimes? Was he planning to plead guilty? Did the US refuse all this? Please make a citation because I would like to read more ...
33
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4answers
2k views

Was slavery in the United States legally limited to blacks?

Was slavery legally exclusive to race? That is, could blacks and only blacks in the United States be considered slaves under the law? As an example, if an owner were to import into the United States ...
2
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1answer
105 views

How does citizenship work during revolutions and similar upheavals?

For example, on October 1st 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) was proclaimed. Would hundreds of millions of people then suddenly have switched from being citizens of the Republic of China (...
5
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2answers
3k views

How were blacks excluded from juries in the US southern states in the 1930s?

As I am in the process of re-reading Harper Lee's To Kill a Mocking Bird, I did a bit of elementary research on the subject of jury selection in Alabama. I discovered that in the Scottsboro boys case (...
16
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2answers
4k views

What documentary evidence is there that Roman crucifixion victims were completely nude?

(A few days ago, a user posted a couple good questions about the historic practice of crucifixion in Ancient Rome on the Christianity SE. Unfortunately, they posted the questions as an answer to this ...
45
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1answer
30k views

Could women be crucified under Roman law?

(A few days ago, a user posted a couple of good questions about the historic practice of crucifixion in Ancient Rome on the Christianity SE. Unfortunately, they posted the questions as an answer to ...
3
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2answers
1k views

How did criminal law work in the Roman Empire?

I have old memory from when I was in little school: During the Roman empire, criminal law was very "flexible". You could kill nearly anyone in the Empire, as long as you were able to pay a fee to the ...
10
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1answer
375 views

Where does the concept of traffic keeping to the “right” side of the street originate?

In any nation that has cars, there are well-understood rules about how to operate them. If a road is shared by traffic going both ways, everyone will, by law and convention, stick to either the right ...